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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2871
Mounika Katragadda, Kalyan Deepak Kolla, Venkata Suresh Yaparala
Fatigue that is induced due to vibration is known as vibration induced fatigue. There are two approaches to evaluate this, viz., time & frequency domain. A straight forward and widely used method is rainflow counting technique in time domain. This counting algorithm is readily available and apart from the time history, it needs only one variable input (number of stress ranges). In case of longer time histories, time domain approach may consume lot of time and resource, which shifts our interest towards frequency domain methods. In frequency domain, Dirlik's method is proven to be robust and gives closer results to time domain. Since Dirlik's approach is probabilistic, there are different variables (such as stress ranges, scaling factor for RMS value to predict maximum stress etc.) to be considered for cumulative fatigue damage evaluation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2673
Toshikazu Okamura
Brake judder is one of the most serious problems in automotive-brake systems and brake discs play a significant role in judder. There are two types of brake judder: cold and hot. Hot judder is caused by the thermo-mechanical deformation of a disc rotor due to high-speed brakings. There are several causes and shapes of disc’s thermo-mechanical deformation, e.g. coning and wave-like shapes. The circumferential wave-like shapes of brake discs are typically found as a butterfly shape in the second order of the rotational speed and corrugation (or heat spots) around tenth order of that. They are caused by thermo-mechanical buckling and are the significant cause of hot judder. The author focuses on the effects of material and dimensional homogeneity on the transient and permanent deformation of ventilated discs in the low orders of the rotational speed during repetitive high-speed brakings.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2682
Masaaki Nishiwaki, Ryutaro Misumi
High brake performance is required for vehicle safety. At the same time, mass reduction of brake system is also required for vehicle economic long run. Under these backgrounds, high friction coefficient pad materials come to be adopted for brake system. But it is well known that brake squeal is often caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Therefore, brake squeal research is one of very important technical issues for vehicles design. Disc brake squeal is caused by small disturbance in dynamic unstable systems. Today, disc brake squeal can be simulated by FE Analysis in actual disc brake, but it is remained a technical issue of small disturbance, brake squeal trigger of friction force variation. Low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz can be caused by forced vibration during brake application, which is shown by N.Ishihara and me in references (1). This research suggests the trigger of disc brake squeal generation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2687
Aditya Kant Choudhary, Yogesh Mense, Saurabh Singh, Mahesh Shridhare
Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to number of customer complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a commercial vehicle for addressing customer complaints regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2690
Joo Sang Park
This paper introduce several practical cases to cure the squeal noise by investigating pad unstable behaviour and self-excited vibration, and propose frequency guide lines for better noise performance. These guide lines are very useful for designers especially at the initial design stage. By using historical DOE, practical frequency guide lines will be proposed to achieve better noise performance at the initial design stage by using historical database analysis. This study has some limitations that the guide lines are available for disc. It will be further study for other brake components. In conclusion, the practical guide lines for robust disc design will be proposed after analyzing a pad unstable behaviour and disc self-excited vibration during squeal by theoretical , numerical and experimental approach. Finally the guide lines is validated by statistical approach by reviewing historical DOE for various brake systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2620
Philip Van Baren
Random vibration control systems produce a PSD plot through a method of averaging the FFT of individual frames of data. Modern controllers can set the DOF, or number of frames in the averaged PSD signal. The PSD is a way to present a random signal with high excursions from the mean in a format that makes it easy to determine the validity of the test. This process takes time as many frames of data are collected to generate the PSD and the test can appear to be out of tolerance until the controller has enough data. A random signal that achieves an in-tolerance condition immediately after starting or during level changes can create dangerous over or under test conditions within specific frequency bands and should be avoided. Take-Away 1: What is Random? Take-Away 2: Why is it represented as a PSD? Take-Away 3: How can you minimize out of tolerance events?
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2586
Bradley Michael, Rani Warsi Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
The vibration response from undamaged and damaged polymer matrix composite beams at four elevated temperatures is analyzed using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams. Using empirical mode decomposition to separate superposed modes of signals, several intrinsic mode functions can be determined which can reveal more information about complex nonlinear signals than traditional data analysis techniques such as the Fourier Transform. The composite beams of angle-ply construction are fabricated from an out-of-autoclave uniaxial carbon/epoxy prepreg (CYCOMTM-5320-1/T650). Delaminations in the composite layups are introduced by insertion of mold release wax films. A shaker-table fixture was used for the vibration testing of all beams in a vertical cantilever configuration. High temperature piezoelectric accelerometers were used to obtain the vibration data for a frequency range of 2-100 Hz.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger, John Michael Ster
Powered hand tools have become essential to a range of industrial operations since their introduction in the late 1800s. However, progress often comes with risk. A range of potential hazards associated with power tool use include noise, a range of ergonomic stresses and physical safety hazards. One of the less publicized risks is hand-arm vibration, previously called Raynaud’s Syndrome of occupational origin, a neurovascular disease associated with intense and prolonged exposures to vibration – most commonly from powered hand tools. Despite initial US reports in the early 1900s, the disease has remained under-recognized in the US. European Union regulations have created an increased awareness of hand-arm vibration disease and demand for low-vibration powered hand tools, while the US has lagged in this regard. (See additional resources)* The wide range of vibration (and noise) created by alternative products performing the same function makes initial product selection critical.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2501
Cosme de Castelbajac, Sylvain Laporte, Julian Lonfier, Emmanuel Puviland
Over the last few years, a number of aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools. In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (V.A.D.) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while controlling quality standards. This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2387
Emiliano Vitaliani, Daniele Di Rocco, Martin Sopouch
The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behaviour, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2531
Marco Leonetti, Michael Bargende, Martin Kreschel, Christoph Meier, Horst Schulze
Due to the demands for today’s passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2364
Xianpai Zeng, Jared Liette, Scott Noll, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The vibration isolation effectiveness of powertrain mount configurations is examined for electric vehicle application by considering the effect introduced by internal mount resonances. Unlike internal combustion engines where mounts are typically designed only for static support and low frequency dynamics, electric motors have higher excitation frequencies in a range where mount resonances often occur. The problem is first analytically formulated by considering a simple 3-dimensional powertrain system, and the vibration isolation effectiveness significantly deteriorates at the mount resonance(s). It is shown that by modifying the mount shape, the mount resonance(s) can be shifted while maintaining the same static rate, tuning the frequency away from any engine excitation or natural frequencies. Further, internal mount resonances are utilized to improve vibration isolation over a narrow frequency range, using non-identical mounts to split mount resonance peaks.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2361
Sajjad Beigmoradi
Abstract Nowadays, by the introduction of significant advances in automotive industries, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), in the position of the main comfort attribute, plays a crucial role in marketing and passenger satisfaction. In order to cope NVH problems, three main actions are taken by NVH engineers for reducing perceived level of noise in cabin: Noise reduction in sources, Noise path treatment and Noise control at receiver. Among these approaches, those pertain to modification of noise pass, through structure and air, to the cabin are more prevalent in automotive applications. Accordingly, identification of noise paths that dominantly contribute to sound and vibration transfer to cabin phenomenon should be dealt with importance. In practice, engine vibration transmitted through sub-frame attachments to body can induce high level of noise and vibration to the passenger cabin.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2334
David Bogema, Gary Newton, Mark Stickler, Chris Hocking, Frank Syred
Abstract Realistically experiencing the sound and vibration data through actually listening to and feeling the data in a full-vehicle NVH simulator remarkably aids the understanding of the NVH phenomena and speeds up the decision-making process. In the case of idle vibration, the sound and vibration of the idle condition are perceived simultaneously, and both need to be accurately reproduced simultaneously in a simulated environment in order to be properly evaluated and understood. In this work, a case is examined in which a perceived idle quality of a vehicle is addressed. In this case, two very similar vehicles, with the same powertrain but somewhat different body structures, are compared. One has a lower subjective idle quality rating than the other, despite the vehicles being so similar.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2345
Arnaud Duval, Valérie Marcel, Ludovic Dejaeger, Francis Lhuillier, Moussa Khalfallah
Abstract The Flaxpreg is a green and light very long flax fibers thermoset reinforced sandwich, which can be effectively used as multi-position trunk loadfloor or structural floor in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The prepreg FlaxTapes of about 120 g/m2 constituting the skins of the sandwich, are unidirectionally aligned flax fibers tapes, with acrylic resin here, easily manipulable without requiring any spinning or weaving step and thus without any negative out of plane crimping of the almost continuous flax fibers. Thanks to their very low 1.45 kg/dm3 density combined with an adaptive 0°/90°/0° orientation of the FlaxTapes (for each skin) depending on the loading boundary conditions, the resulting excellent mechanical properties allow a - 35% weight reduction compared to petro-sourced Glass mat/PUR sandwich solutions (like the Baypreg).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2346
Balakumar Swaminathan
Abstract From a facility perspective, engine test cells are rarely evaluated for their vibration levels in their functional configuration. When complicated dynamic systems such as an internal combustion engine and a dynamometer are coupled together using driveshafts and coupling components, the overall system behavior is significantly different from that of the individual sub-systems. This paper details an instance where system level experimental testing and finite element analysis methods were used to mitigate high vibration levels in an engine test cell. Modal and operational test data were taken to establish baseline vibration levels at a diesel engine test cell during commissioning. Measurements were taken on all major sub-systems such as the engine assembly, dynamometer assembly, intermediate driveshaft bearing pedestal and driveshaft components.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2368
Babitha Kalla, Sanjeevgouda Patil, Mansinh Kumbhar
Abstract Idle NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) is one of the major quality parameters that customer looks into while buying the vehicle. Idle shake is undesirable vibrations generated from Engine while it is in idling condition. These low frequency vibrations affects both driver and passenger comfort. Vibrations are perceived by customer through the interfaces such as the seats, floor, and steering wheel. The frequencies of vibration felt by customer ranges between 10-30 Hz and varies based on engine configurations. There are two factors that are critical to the vehicle idle NVH quality, 1. Engine excitation force and 2. Vehicle sensitivity to excitation forces (Transfer function). Even though the engine excitation forces are governed by cylinder combustion process inside the cylinder and engine mass, it is also largely affected by how well the engine and transmission are supported on vehicle through isolators.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2176
Rajkumar Bhagate, Ajinkya Badkas, Kiran Mohan
Abstract Gear rattle is an annoying noise phenomena of the automotive transmission, which is mainly induced by torsional fluctuation of engine. In this study, torsional vibration of 3 cylinder powertrain is analyzed and improved for reducing the gear rattle from transmission by using parametric optimization. One dimensional Multi-body mathematical model for the torsional vibrations of front wheel drive automotive drivetrain is developed and utilized for the optimization of sensitive parameters of the driveline. Second order differential equations of the mathematical model are solved by using MATLAB and the output response is validated with the test data. Parametric optimization is conducted by using design of experiment method. The updated model is further utilized for optimizing the flywheel inertia, driveshaft stiffness and clutch stiffness. Mathematical modelling and optimization process has helped to achieve NVH targets for driveline.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2177
MR Vikram, Mark Gehringer, Ramesh Patil
Abstract Powertrain and driveline systems interaction in rear wheel drive vehicle development has recently gained attention for the improvement of interior noise and vibration in emerging markets. The driveline is a significant path for engine-generated noise and vibration to reach the interior occupant interfaces, where it affects refinement perception. The interaction of powertrain excitation orders and driveline resonant responders covers a wide range of frequency and vehicle operating conditions. This interaction poses significant challenges during vehicle development. With recent increased demand for higher specific power from diesel engines, driveline refinement has become even more challenging, especially for rear wheel drive vehicles. Two driveline related refinement issues were observed during evaluation of a RWD vehicle. Root cause analysis determined that the first issue (lower rpm boom noise and vibration) was due to engine torsional excitation of the driveline.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2191
Peng Yu, Tong Zhang, Shiyang Chen, Jing Li, Rong Guo
Abstract In view of the problem of low-frequency (less than 10Hz, such as 0.5Hz, 1.15Hz, 8Hz in this paper) longitudinal vibration exists in a pure electric vehicle, modeling methods of drive-line torsion vibration system are conducted. Firstly, dynamometer test is performed, signals of motor speed and seat rail acceleration are obtained, the frequency characteristics of flutter is determined using the order analysis and time frequency analysis. Then four types of modeling and analysis are investigated facing the drive-line torsion vibration problem, including single model without electromagnetic stiffness, branch model without electromagnetic stiffness, single model considering electromagnetic stiffness and branch model considering electromagnetic stiffness.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2185
Simon Eicke, Steffen Zemke, Ahmed Trabelsi, Matthias Dagen, Tobias Ortmaier
Abstract In this paper the power hop phenomenon is analyzed and important influencing factors are investigated. The results of driving tests on various road surfaces with different types of cars with longitudinal and transversal mounted engines as well as with front and rear wheel drive are presented. In order to understand and quantify the power hop effect the rotational speed of the individual wheels and the engine are measured. Additionally, the drive shaft torque, the engine movement in its bearings and the vertical deflection of the wheel with respect to the chassis are determined to get detailed knowledge about physical dependencies. It is shown that the rotational speed of the driven wheels is not a sufficient indicator to assess the occurrence of power hop by measurements. Alternatively, the measured longitudinal acceleration at the seat rail provides a good quantification.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2213
John Van Baren
Abstract Random vibration control systems produce a PSD plot by averaging FFTs. Modern controllers can set the Degrees of Freedom (DOF), which is a measure of the amount of averaging to use to estimate the PSD. The PSD is a way to present a random signal-which by nature “bounces” about the mean, at times making high excursions from the mean-in a format that makes it easy to determine the validity of a test. This process takes time as many frames of data are collected in order to generate the PSD estimate, and a test can appear to be out of tolerance until the controller has enough data to estimate the PSD with a sufficient level of confidence. Something is awry with a PSD estimate that achieves total in-tolerance immediately after starting or during level changes, and this can create dangerous over or under test conditions within specific frequency bands and should be avoided.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2212
A. Elsawaf, H. Metered, T. Vampola, Z. Sika
Abstract Active vibration control is the most effective method used for suppressing vibrations from external sources. This paper presents the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to search about the optimum feedback controller gains for the active mount suspension, for the first time, to reduce the vibrations level of a structural system. It consists of vibrating mass and flexible beam subjected to an external disturbance. A mathematical model and the equations of motion of the structure system with an active mount suspension are simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. The active controller was designed to control the first three modes of the structure. The proposed PSO algorithm aims to minimize the acceleration of the suspended mass as the objective function with constraint of the actuator force. Vibrations level is examined theoretically in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2208
David Stotera, Scott Bombard
Abstract Both vehicle roof systems and vehicle door systems typically have viscoelastic material between the beams and the outer panel. These materials have the propensity to affect the vibration decay time and the vibration level of the panel with their damping and stiffening properties. Decay time relates to how pleasant a vehicle door sounds upon closing, and vibration level relates to how loud a roof boom noise may be perceived to be by vehicle occupants. If a surrogate panel could be used to evaluate decay time and vibration level, then a design of experiments (DOE) could be used to compare the effects of different factors on the system. The purpose of this paper is to show the effect of varying test factors on decay time and vibration level on a panel-beam system with viscoelastic material applied. The results were calculated using DOE software, and they were used to construct optimized systems for validation testing.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2204
Michael Funderburg
The ability of various plasticizers to impact the vibration damping properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols was investigated. A material must have good viscoelastic properties in order for it to be an effective vibration damper. However, it is evident that not all viscoelastic materials are good vibration dampers. Consider flexible (plasticized) PVC, for example. PVC formulations demonstrating the same glass transition temperature may have widely different damping capabilities. This presentation will show that the type of plasticizer substantially impacts the damping ability of the final PVC composite. Initially, flexible PVC formulations with varied plasticizers were screened via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) to determine which ones would likely have good damping properties. Formulations which exhibited promising results with DMTA were then tested via an Oberst bar damping test (SAE J1637).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2198
Masami Matsubara, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Akihito Ito, Kensuke Bito
Abstract Early studies on the tire vibration characteristics of road noise focused on radial modes of vibration because these modes are dominant in vertical spindle force. However, recent studies of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) prediction have suggested that tire modeling not only of radial modes, but also of lateral vibration, including lateral translational and lateral bending modes, affect interior noise. Thus, it is important to construct tire dynamic models with few degrees of freedom for whole-vehicle analysis of NVH performance. Existing tire dynamics model can't express tire lateral vibrations. This paper presents a new approach for tire vibration analysis below 200Hz, and a formula for tire natural frequencies. First, a tire dynamic model is developed based on the thin cylindrical shell theory. Kinetic and potential energies are derived. Mode shape function is also derived by the assumption of inextensility in the neutral of the tread ring.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2230
Thomas L. Lago
Abstract Chatter vibrations are causing large monetary losses daily in industry. New materials have increased the challenges with harmful vibration levels. Since the vibrations, when observed as a final result, are chaotic and the vibration process nonlinear, it is a challenging task to deal with it. It is also a common “understanding” in the cutting industry that chatter is RPM (the rotational speed) dependent, since the behavior changes with RPM. Many attempts have been done over many years to mitigate and understand the vibrations. In our vast research on these topics, we have found that it is rewarding to classify the vibrations into categories, enabling a better understanding of its underlying physics and “source of vibrations,” and thus also the formulation of a possible remedy. An analysis approach has been developed where vibrations are analyzed and categorized and a GO/NOGO indicator is telling if the machine has the “right type of vibrations.”
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2225
Peng Yu, Tong Zhang, Jing Li, Shiyang Chen, Rong Guo
Abstract Faced on transient vibration of EV, considering the characteristics of the electric drive system, active and passive integrated transient vibration control method of power train mounting system was proposed. Models of power train system and mounting system were established, modal characteristics were grasped by simulation and experiment. A feed-forward controller was constructed from the facet of active control, mounting system transient vibration and power train torsion vibration were reduced. Based on this, further optimization of mounting system was conducted from a passive control perspective. Results show that the active and passive integrated control method can effectively reduce the dynamic reaction force of mounting points, improve the vibration conditions of power train and vehicle body as well.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2081
Hossein Habibi, Graham Edwards, Liang Cheng, Haitao Zheng, Adam Marks, Vassilios Kappatos, Cem Selcuk, Tat-Hean Gan
Abstract Icing conditions in cold regions of the world may cause problems for wind turbine operations, since accreted ice can reduce the efficiency of power generation and create concerns regarding ice-shedding. This paper covers modelling studies and some experimental development for an ongoing ice protection system that provides both deicing and anti-icing actions for wind turbine blades. The modelling process contained two main sections. The first part involved simulation of vibrations with very short wavelength or ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) on the blade to determine optimal excitation frequency and transducer configuration. This excitation creates horizontal shear stress at the interface between ice and blade and focuses energy at the leading edge for de-bonding ice layers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2253
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Katsuhiko Yamamoto
Abstract It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance. This can be accomplished using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In this paper, I will show the power plant model with electric starter and battery that can predict fuel economy, combustion heat results and transient torque. The power plant is a 1.3L 4cyl designed for NA Spark Ignition. The power plant model was realized using an energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics in 1D simulation. The modeling language supports electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical, fluidic and compressive fluidic domains. The model was created in house using VHDL-AMS and validated on ANSYS SIMPLORER. The simulated results of fuel energy consumption agreed with driving energy and amount of energy losses, e.g. cooling loss, exhaust loss.
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