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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10869
2017-12-08
Paper
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
2017-11-13
Tech Insights
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0125
Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Lucas Ramos Carvalho, Marcio Calçada
Abstract In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0109
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Environmental damage and climate change, air pollution, energy efficiency, fuel consumption and emissions are subjects for studies and legislations worldwide. Brazil must therefore be prepared to follow global trends in energy optimization tests and developments, including Euro 6 equivalent emission legislation. Considering the worldwide tendency for Real Driving Condition Test for heavy vehicles, the authors, using the developed Towing Trailer Prototype provided with an electromagnetic brake, performed fuel consumption on-road tests. For measuring fuel consumption on-road or on testing tracks, the developed system allows initially measurements with an independent auxiliary tank for short distances and measurement with an auxiliary tank connected with the truck tank for long distances. The tests were performed on road in real conditions initially by maximum speeds of 75 km/h.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0089
Ana Carolina Rodrigues Teixeira, José Ricardo Sodré
Abstract In Brazil, since the purchase cost of an electric vehicle (EV) is still very high, the exchange of a conventional vehicle by an EV would only be worth if the vehicle was used as source income, such as the case of taxis. Short run distances and high daily mileage make conventional taxis ideal candidates to be replaced by battery EVs. Recently, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro received EVs as a test project, but other major cities, such as Belo Horizonte, have yet to be tested. The taxi fleet in this city has currently 7,152 vehicles, all powered by internal combustion engines, significantly contributing to equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2eq) emissions since the daily distance traveled is high. With the aim to characterize the fleet and evaluate taxi driver’s option to EVs, data was collected from a systematic sample of taxi stands, of a total of 375, through a structured interview with the drivers, considering a finite and homogeneous population.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0150
Marco Gabaldo, Otávio Rodrigues Barros, Jose Eduardo Mautone Barros
Abstract This study analyzes the design of a two-stage reusable satellite launch vehicle. This launcher was designed to orbit payloads of up to 500 kg to low orbits (LEO). Two RISCRAM™ jet engines (Rocket Ignited Supersonic Combustion Ramjet) power the first stage that is fully reusable. They aspirate atmospheric air and allows speeds of up to Mach 6, below 30 km, and Mach 15 above 40 km of altitude. The second stage is powered by a solid rocket motor that carries the payload at the orbital speed of Mach 24. In this work are presented details of the concept of the vehicle and an economic feasibility analysis of system operation. Launch cost estimative are made and compared to the values of the current satellite launchers that are not reusable. The conclusion of the article is that the proposed system would be able to reduce by an order of magnitude the cost of placing the kilogram of payload in low orbit.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0131
Leonardo Porto Carioni, Thiago Hoeltgebaum, Thiago Chierighini
Abstract Aiming to find the rotational inertias, the rolling resistance coefficient and the drag coefficient of an electric vehicle, a set of tests was developed based on the speed over time curves in two conditions: free acceleration on a ramp and free deceleration (coast-down) on a flat road. Since the main interest was in knowing the parameters and not only finding the resistance power for different speeds, as is usually the case for a coast-down test, an iterative analysis of both data sets was made. The methodology was validated by testing and analyzing road vehicles, because the values of the parameters were readily available, and by confronting the results of simulations for both types of tests. For the electric vehicle, redundancies and variations were used during testing for validation. The results for the road vehicles were within a margin of up to 10.4% from the reference values.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0080
Edinilson Alves Costa, Rogério Nalin
Abstract Although ignored by most people not directly involved with highway and off-road commercial trucks operation the accumulation of dust and mud on cabin side can become a rather annoying issue. Besides adhering to the passengers clothes dirt contamination may also compromise driver visibility constituting a safety concern. For a truck manufacturer it can revert into quality complaints and negatively influence customers’ future buying decisions. In this context, fascia air deflectors are common devices used in truck industry to control the airflow over the cabin panels and ultimately prevent contamination deposition. This paper presents a methodology to avoid dust and mud accumulation on commercial trucks cabin doors based on the predicted airflow field by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a reference flow metric defined through a simple bench test.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0386
Murilo Cesar Perin Briganti, Luiz Vicente Figueira de Mello Filho, Raquel Cardamoni, Yuzo Iano
Abstract The safety, reliability and efficiency in the progress of the autonomous vehicle have increased in recent years. In parallel, companies in the segment of people transportation, either individually or shared, took the world leadership using smartphone app into a new concept of urban mobility with conventional vehicles with drivers, starting consequently a change of habit of the population, and defying the laws of local transport. These services for urban mobility are related as tendencies of driving forces in the face of the relevance of the limitations of resources, population density, greater awareness toward the environment and traffic congestion. The acquisition of the “own vehicle” as currently, conceived and successful by Alfred Sloan in the 1920s, has become a question for future generations.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0413
César T. N. M. Branco, Jullyane M. S. Figueiredo, Mauro J. G. Veloso, Roberto T. Fujiyama
Abstract Due to the mass production process of the automobile industry, develop a product by reducing its cost has become an important aspect in its elaboration. This goal is to replace the higher cost material for an alternative that offers the same performance at a lower cost. The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has gradually evolved over the years. However, the use of composite materials in the structure of the automobile depends on a number of factors, such as large production scale, fast manufacturing process and economy, suiting the high demand of the automobile industry. Fiberglass composites are widely used in the market because of their good mechanical and physical properties combined with the comparatively low cost of production.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0285
Gabriel Dalmolin, Euler Cássio Tavares de Macedo, Marcelo Geisler de Brito Lira, Nady Rocha
This paper presents the simulation of an electrical traction system using an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) motor using the MATLAB® computational environment. It was developed the analytical model of the entire traction system which consists of a voltage inverter, a AFPM motor, a Field Oriented Control (FOC) control system with a torque reference and the dynamic system of the vehicle. For the simulation, it was considered two distinct scenarios,i.e. a horizontal plane with no inclination and an inclined plane in a way to allow the complete system dynamic comparison. The variables of interest are the electromagnetic torque, the currents in the machine’s terminals and the final vehicle speed, which proved the estimated dynamics.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0226
Rafaela Radünz Lazzari, Lara Justine da Silva, Tarcísio Gelaim, Dalmedson Gaúcho R. de Freitas Filho
Abstract In order to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a radio-controlled aircraft destined to the SAE BRASIL AeroDesign Competition, this paper's goal is to find an ideal position for a wingtip device known as endplate through computational simulation. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed on a wing, maintaining the same geometry and airfoil in all tests, with and without endplate, varying among four positions - up front, down front, up rear, and down rear. The simulations' results showed that positioning the endplate in the back generates the greatest drag force decrease among the tested configurations, being, therefore, the configuration chosen as more efficient.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0121
C.S. VIEIRA
Abstract This work describes a statistic analysis of the service life of tires applied in off-highway trucks used in open-pit mining. Understanding the process of occurrence of structural failures, correlated to the fatigue mechanism and often observed in mechanic components, is of vital importance for the current industry. Since these failures usually happen suddenly, understanding them in the most diverse components submitted to cyclic loads helps analyzing the material’s progressive deterioration along time; it acts as a return to potential improvements in the product, giving feedback of computing simulation data; and it potentially increases operational safety by mitigating the consequences it has on the productive process and on the people exposed to such failures. The tires, components that integrate great part of the on wheels vehicles fleet - amongst them: transportation equipment, industrial mobile equipment and mining equipment - are inserted in this context.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0436
Alisson Sarmento, Bianca Garcia, Leonardo Coriteac, Leonardo Navarenho
Abstract Technological advances in both hardware (Nano-electronics) and software (artificial intelligence) are increasingly influencing our lives on equipment and devices that surrounds us and more recently our means of locomotion. The autonomous vehicles, which previously appeared only in movie scenes, can already be found in our environment, such as ships, cars, trucks, tractors and aero engines. Considering the autonomous vehicles, its launching is much closer than we could imagine, since many companies signalize having the conditions to launch them in a large scale within 2018 year. The insertion of this type of technology opens a range of advances related to vehicles and the environment in which it is inserted. The communication between the vehicles, roads and people can be highlighted. These advances reveal a series of benefits to the customer such as free time during the route, higher safety, etc.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0441
Diego David Silva Diniz, Carlos Costa De Carvalho, Antônio Almeida da Silva
Abstract In the last decades, the improvement of the automotive industry and the raising market exigence have stimulated studies in vehicle dynamics. That studies force the companies to focus their efforts in producing new conceptions and optimizing the existing ones, being able to obtain faster, safer, and more comfortable vehicles. The evolution of computing has made the task of making numerical simulations for complex models of vehicles. This allow the engineers to reproduce the real dynamic behavior of the vehicle submitted to a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, this study aims to use the multibody method to model and simulate, through computers, the vertical dynamic behavior of an off-road vehicle (baja) with a Double Wishbone suspension in both front and rear.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0155
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Paulo Smith Schneider, Bárbara Pacheco da Rocha, Bernardo dos Santos Piccoli, Marcelo Risso Errera, Sérgio M. Corrêa
Abstract This paper reports and compares the performance of five motorcycles, four of them powered by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and one by an Electric Engine (EE). The power grade of those vehicles represents more than 80% of Brazilian motorcycle fleet. Motorcycles are submitted to standard routines, in accordance with regulations established by PROMOT (Control of Air Pollution for Motorcycles and Similar Vehicles). Main output parameters allowed for the assessment of their energy performance in respect to the energy source, followed by their greenhouse gases emission potential due to CO2, CH4 and N2O. The paper presents regulated emissions results for CO, THC and NOx, provided by EE and ICE engines. Different ICE motorcycles are tested, and fueled by a range of ethanol/gasoline contents from 22 to 100%, allowing to analyze the influence of the renewable biofuel on the motorcycle energetic efficiency and emissions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0070
Stephan Jandl, Patrick Pertl, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Leiber
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0071
Jürgen Tromayer, Michael Gaber, Roland Kirchberger, Fern Thomassy, Scott McBroom
Abstract Meeting upcoming emission limits such as EURO 5 with comparatively simple and low-cost vehicles will be very challenging. On the engine side, a big effort in terms of fuelling, combustion optimization as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment will be necessary without any doubt. Besides that, additional system optimization potential can be gained by a systematic adaptation of the drive train. One approach is to use a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) system to run engines in specific ranges with good fuel economy. However, existing belt driven CVTs show comparatively poor efficiencies. To overcome this drawback, the integration of a novel Continuously Variable Planetary Transmission (CVP), designed and developed by Fallbrook Technologies, was investigated in detail. For this purpose, a longitudinal dynamics simulation in Matlab-Simulink was carried out to compare a standard mass production vehicle drive train with several CVP setups.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0076
Adyati Yudison, Driejana, Iman K. Reksowardojo, Aminudin Sulaeman
Motorcycles account for almost 80% of private vehicles in Indonesia, with an annual growth rate of 12% per year. This paper aims to investigate the emission profiles of CO2, CO, HC and NOx based on typical fuel and motorcycle types in Indonesia. Questionnaire surveys were undertaken to gather fuel type, engine technology and capacity representing the motorcycle population in Bandung City, Indonesia. Emissions were measured based on six-speed variations on a chassis dynamometer. Questionnaire surveys from 290 respondent show that EURO II and EURO III technology with engine capacity less than 150cc is the most utilized type of motorcycle in Bandung. Most of the users’ chose RON 90 and RON 92 gasoline. Based on the results, four groups of 5 motorcycle of EUROII-RON90, EUROII-RON92, EUROIII-RON90, and EUROIII-RON92 were tested. Emission data showed that the higher the speed, the lower the emission, except for CO and NOx which have a different pattern.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0083
Makoto Hasegawa, Takanobu Kaneko
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. ISO/DIS 26262 second edition published in 2016 has Part 12 as a new part in order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle. Proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity in accordance with ISO/DIS 26262 Part 12, are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level. To estimate precise these factors, there would be a case that it might not be appropriate to apply studies done for passenger car to motorcycle, and it would be necessary to apply motorcycle specific knowledge and estimation methods. In our previous studies we clarified these motorcycle specific issues and studied the method for the adaptation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0074
P. Rieger, B. Schweighofer, H. Wegleiter, Ch. Zinner, St. Schmidt, R. Kirchberger, N. Foxhall, W. Hinterberger
Within the motorcycle- and powersport sector the hybridization and electrification of the powertrain is increasingly becoming an important topic. In the automotive sector the hybridization of the powertrain is already well established and shows improvements regarding fuel consumption and emission behavior. Also in the motorcycle sector the emission legislation limits are getting stricter and the requirement for a significant reduction of fuel consumption, especially under real drive condition, is being focused. Furthermore, the increasing environmental awareness of the customer requires measures regarding fuel consumption- and emission minimization. Due to the high system complexity and degrees of freedom of hybrid powertrains, the simulation of the complete vehicle is essential for the component dimensioning, concept selection and the development of operation strategies.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0082
Pierre Duret, Stéphane Venturi, Antonio Sciarretta, Nigel Foxhall, Walter Hinterberger
The main purpose of this paper will be to investigate if a small snowmobile gasoline Direct Injected (DI) two-stroke engine has the potential to be adapted for two other types of applications: as a range extender (REX) for electric vehicles and for a motorcycle application. For the REX application, the main requested specifications (NVH, lightweight, compactness, minimum production cost and easy maintenance), correspond well to the main features of DI 2-stroke engines. The potential of a modified production engine operating in part load ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) to meet the Euro 6 emissions standards on the NEDC cycle has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. In the first part of this new paper, we will investigate which solutions can be used to maintain this potential with even stricter legislations based on Euro 6d, WLTP cycle and Real Driving Emissions (RDE).
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0079
Tsukasa Shimizu, Jin Itou, Hideki Shirazawa, Yasuyuki Muramatsu
It is important to make small and light weight motor for small EV. It is necessary to select appropriate cooling system (liquid cool or air cool) according to motor output. We thought that there is a threshold output that makes the volume smaller and the weight lighter including the liquid cooling system. As a result of the rough calculation, it was found that the weight can be reduced by adopting the liquid cooling for at about 10kW or more. In this study we focused on motor and cooling system volume and weight and tried to clarify appropriate cooling system according to motor output.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0087
Sangriyadi Setio, Wiranto Arismunandar, Rudy Ong, Adefrid Dwithama, Stefanus Adrian, Angela Claudia, Nu’man Amri Maliky, Jery Octavianus, Muhammad Alif Mabbrur, Michell Tjhoi
Developing and designing fuel efficient vehicle for a one gallon of fuel marathon is a challenging task. Engines have to be optimized to achieve maximum fuel efficiency. In this study, we evaluate the optimal compression ratio (CR) and ignition timing that produce the best torque in a custom gasoline-based-motorcycle-engine that use ethanol E100 fuel. In the first experiment, CR was adjusted between 9 and 12 to evaluate its effect on the engine mileage’s record. The experiment was conducted on the test track. In the second experiment, Ignition timing was adjusted by a custom-made engine control unit (ECU) between 15° and 45° before top dead center (BTDC). The engine performance was investigated in terms of best torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), with variation of engine speed between 1500 and 8000. The test was conducted on dynamometer. The test was also performed in constant compression ratio and stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, 9.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0086
Shinji Takayanagi, Kiyotaka Sakai, Takashi Iwasa, Tomoyuki Matsumura, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kenji Tanaka
A low fuel consumption tire with an affordable price that is applicable for small motorcycles marketed mainly for India and Southeast Asian countries was developed. Two contradicting requirements, which are reduction of the rolling resistance and retention of the wet grip performance, were satisfied by applying a method based on viscoelastic properties of the tread rubber. Regarding the composition of compound of the tread rubber, the amounts of carbon black and oil were reduced instead of using silica. In addition, a polymer having a high glass transition temperature was employed. Moreover, response to the roll motion, which is unique in motorcycles, was made satisfactory to the requirement by modifying the dynamic modulus E* of the tread rubber. With those measures, the rolling resistance was reduced by more than 15% to conventional tires while maintaining the basic performances such as tire grip and stability in maneuvering.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0052
Katsunori Tasaki
Misfire is the condition where the engine does not fire correctly due to an ignition miss or poor combustion of the air fuel mixture, resulting in serious deterioration of tailpipe emissions due to the discharge of unburned gas. In order to prevent further exacerbating environmental problems, misfire detection is obligatory in On Board Diagnosis (OBD) II systems. OBD II technology for passenger cars cannot be easily adopted to motorcycles for several reasons. However, very little research has been reported on misfire detection for an unevenly firing engine in which the degree of contribution to engine output and the variation pattern of angular velocity show a large difference between cylinders, an aspect that is unique to motorcycles. This research focuses on uneven firing V-twin motorcycle engines, to explore misfire detection techniques using variation characters in crank angular velocity.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0053
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
In this study we focus on systematic disturbances caused by the motorcycle pitch dynamic when measuring longitudinal acceleration on motorcycles using low-cost acceleration sensors. Major systematic influences in the sensor measurement like gravitational acceleration, suspension dynamics and the road slope are addressed. During acceleration phases the motorcycle pitch angle changes according to the suspension setting. As a result the longitudinal sensing axis of the accelerometer includes parts of the gravitational acceleration and lags parts of the longitudinal acceleration. Gravitational acceleration has also significant influence on inclined roads. To obtain correct values of the effective longitudinal acceleration, the disturbances in the measured signal are analyzed and in further consequence compensated. For this purpose a linearized in-plane-dynamics model of the motorcycle is derived from a comprehensive multibody simulation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0056
Hirotoshi Inui, Toru Sakurai, Eiichi Sato, Tadashi Minoda, Yasuhiro Nakai
Tapered handlebars using high strength aluminum alloys have been applied mainly to motorcycle models requiring weight reduction and high texture appearance that aluminum handlebars can offer as their characteristics. This handle bar is manufactured through extrusion processing. Conventionally used alloys had low extrusion productivity, which led to increased cost of the handlebars. In view of this, we selected an alloy securing the strength by adding a large amount of zinc while reducing the amount of the copper, which deteriorates the extrusion productivity, to the minimum adding amount, in consideration of maintaining the stress corrosion cracking resistance. However, a large amount of zinc decreases the stress corrosion cracking resistance. Therefore, in order to obtain a metallic structure favorable to the prevention of stress corrosion cracking, the mandrel extrusion was applied for the pipe manufacturing method, and heat treatment condition and swaging condition were optimized.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0057
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
In applying the ISO 26262 controllability classification for motorcycles in actual riding tests, a subjective evaluation by expert riders is considered to be the appropriate approach from the viewpoint of safety. We studied the construction of an expert-rider-based C class evaluation method for motorcycles and developed some evaluation test cases reproducing various hazardous events. We determined that it was necessary to accumulate more evaluation cases for further representative scenarios and that, to avoid variations in such evaluations, a method in which different expert riders can carry out testing following a common understanding had to be devised. Considering these problems for practical application, this study aimed at establishing an actual riding test method for C class evaluation by expert riders and to develop a deeper understanding of test procedures and management.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10869