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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17936
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0082
Husain Kanchwala, Carlos Bordons PhD
Electric vehicles (EVs) have been gaining a lot of focus and attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. EVs use in-hub motors, which can be independently controlled, improving this way the maneuverability and allowing augmented control actions. This paper discusses the development of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to improve vehicle handling characteristics. Wheel torques are independently controlled using direct yaw moment and side slip control method to pro-actively improve vehicle handling. At high values of side slip the steering is no more capable of generating yaw moment and vehicle becomes laterally unstable. By unequal torque distribution a restoring yaw moment is generated and vehicle stability is ensured. The MPC computes the optimal couple traction/braking torque of the four in-wheel motors, from basic driving slogans, which are, steering angle and desired speed.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0101
Piyapong Premvaranon
Due to recent oil price crisis and an ever-increasing public awareness on environmental issues, an interest in electric vehicles (EV) has increased tremendously in Thailand and other Asian countries over the last few years. In this study, a prototype of 9-metre battery electric vehicle (BEV) bus was chosen as a vehicle of interest to undergo a series of field test by operating the lead acid battery powered electric bus in order to estimate a power demand of the bus as well as to evaluate a battery performance characteristic Two different types of battery were employed in this study i.e. a flooded-type deep cycle lead acid battery and a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. The effect of different driving modes available from the drive motor i.e. normal, max power, max range, as well as regenerative braking feature would be investigated while an influence of drivers were also taken into account to ensure the repeatability of the obtained results.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0100
Kowit Tuayharn
Abstract Despite the rapid growth of automotive industries at present, many car users tend to use vehicles that consume various energy forms. Using the automobiles, either for the sake of commuting or transporting, is always necessary to use the fuel as an energy source for the automobiles. Fuel consumption means the rate of using the fuel per a travelling distance that an automobile requires to use. It is a value associated with different specific conditions. This project research is to study the fuel consumption rates including the emission that impacts the environment and humans between internal combustion and electric motorcycle. The methodology is to run both types on chassis dynamometer by using the standard driving cycle of the Economic Commission of Europe (ECE) to compare the fuel consumption rates and emission under the same conditions.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0102
JENWIT SOPARAT
In order to cope with expected fossil energy shortage and to alleviate environmental issues, electric vehicles (EV) have been considered as one of the main alternative solutions in many countries including Thailand. To develop an electric vehicle, there were 4 important topics that should be considered i.e. motor, brake system, chassis structure, and battery. For battery, principally a group of battery cells would be packed together within a rigid structure, which was enclosed with electric insulator plates for a safety reason. However, with an ongoing trend of batteries being compact in size and high in current capacity, temperatures developed inside these batteries during charging/discharging could become a significant issue. Therefore, the present study focused on a design of a battery cooling system operating on an indoor air circulation.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0103
Siriorn Pitanuwat
This study attempts to investigate the effects of driving behavior on the fuel economy of hybrid and gasoline vehicles. According to the variation of vehicles’ fuel economy, driving behavior is one of the most dominant factor that contributes to excessive fuel consumption. In order to reach the vehicles’ fuel saving potential of each vehicle, the proper driving technics must be concerned. Therefore, the experiment will be conducted by testing Toyota Prius (generation 3) and Toyota Altis (generation 11) in real-world traffic. To cover the variations in traffic conditions, the experimental routes: inner city, suburban and highway traffic, are selected to represent the major commutations and functions. For driving behavior, the tests will be conducted by four experienced drivers driving in normal and aggressive styles. Acceleration noise will be applied to indicate drivers’ aggressive levels.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0109
Sontipee Aimmanee
For these recent years, piezoelectric energy harvesting has been a very popular research topic. Piezoelectric materials are used to harvest wasted mechanical energy from ambient environment and supply electrical energy via their electromechanical coupling properties. However, there has been no research, which explicitly studies the influence of environmental factors on the performance of energy harvesting from the piezoelectric materials in automotive applications, especially in the engine compartment where temperature is varied with engine operating conditions. The main purpose of this research was to investigate thermal effects on electrical energy harvested from a laminated piezoelectric device in engine compartment. In this research THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER (THUNDER), a type of laminated piezoelectric devices, was studied. Three configurations of THUNDER devices i.e. 6R, 7R, and 8R were tested.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0227
Saraf M R
Road roughness induces dynamic loads on vehicles, which cause fatigue damage as a result. Design of vehicle for durability is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Vehicle durability is verified on test tracks, on test rigs, or, increasingly, by computer simulations. Does the test represent real-life vehicle usage? How many times should a vehicle travel over the test tracks to verify the durability? For doing this kind of analysis, it is always required to measure the vehicle response parameters such as wheel forces, axle and chassis acceleration etc. These measurement based approaches have high cost and are time consuming. As these are vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle . Hence it is needed to accelerate this process using parameter which is vehicle independent i.e road profiles. This paper discuss about the methodology, process developed at ARAI for generation of 3d road profile database (in .CRG /.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0121
Maradona Rodrigues, Steve King, Dan Scott, Ducai Wang
Statistical studies have shown that electric vehicles existing in the market today can cater to 95% of daily driving in the UK, however problems arise when longer journeys are required or unexpected travel is needed at short notice. These problems necessitate either maintaining a second internal combustion engine powered car or use of public transport. An alternative to this is the use of a range extended electric vehicle (REEV). A REEV can operate as a pure electric vehicle on short journeys or as a series hybrid, with the aid of a small auxiliary power unit (APU), over longer distances. The addition of an APU eliminates the range anxiety prevalent in electric vehicle owners allowing the vehicles to travel further on the same charge. By optimizing the APU operation, significant fuel economy improvements and thus cost savings can be made. One drawback of a REEV however is the difference in vehicle noise output when operating as an electric vehicle and as a hybrid.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0198
Rushikesh Dakhore, Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar, Dattatray B. Hulwan
To meet stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, design of piston cavity geometry perform a defining role in air motion, fuel air mixing, combustion and emission formation. A study is performed with the objective to have a better tradeoff between NOx, PM and fuel consumption for a Medium duty, constant speed diesel engine operated with Mechanical fuel injection system. Through simulations in 3D CFD tool the effect of piston cavity geometry on performance and emission of diesel engine is investigated and then validated with actual experimentation. In this exercise efforts are made to reduce emissions in a direct injection diesel engine by changing the piston cavity geometry. The piston cavity geometry and dimensions like torus radius, pip region, cavity lip area, and impingement area have an effect on emission formation. The target was to deliberately split the fuel spray and have a better utilization of available air.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0185
Kartik Panchal
The front and rear wings are essential in race cars in order to increase the down-force and enhance the stability of vehicle at high speed. The present work focuses on the computational modelling of NACA 4412 airfoil for front and rear wing of the racing vehicle and assesses its performance characteristics. The effect on wing characteristics in vicinity of ground and tire for varying angle of attack in moving ground frame has been studied. The computation has been carried out using high fidelity computational fluid dynamics model to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The front wing has been split into two parts main wing and flap with chord length of 0.3 meters and 0.15 meters respectively. Similarly, the rear wing was modelled with the chord length 0.3meter and aspect ratio of 1.5. The pressure and velocity flow distribution over the body of the vehicle has been studied for varying angle of attack.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0219
Sahil Kakria, IVN SriHarsha, Milind Wagh
Suspension and chassis play a vital role in the structural performance of an off-road vehicle. The paper focuses on Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modeling and simulation study of an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) structure to analyze its static and dynamic behavior. An integrated MBD-FEA approach used for analysis purpose has been presented. In the study, a Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the ATV suspension system is built using ADAMS/Car. The effect of change in suspension hardpoints on suspension characteristics has been analyzed by carrying out Design of Experiment (DOE) study using ADAMS/Insight. This is done to minimize roll, camber and kingpin angle variation during vertical wheel travel, thus increasing stability of the vehicle under rough road conditions. This helps in optimizing the front and rear suspension geometry of ATV. The Finite Element (FE) model of ATV chassis is prepared to check its structural integrity.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Around one in four deaths that occurs on the road in India involves a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of road transport and highways, Government of India 2012. Nearly 26 % of the fatalities (~ 33 873 people) are from powered two wheelers which constitute the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India. European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver traveling the same route. An investigation conducted by Bosch based on the RASSI accident database (Road Accident Sampling System for India), revels interesting facts of Indian powered two wheeler (PTW) riders behaviour and their braking patterns during the precrash phase of the accident. This research is undertaken to evaluate the benefit of modern vehicle safety systems like a PTW Antilock-Braking System (ABS) which are essential to avoid accidents.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0148
Jagadeesh Selvaraj, Dayalan Purushothaman, P T Haridas
Fuel economy is an important parameter which determines the position of either On-road or Off-road vehicles in the market. Earth-movers are heavy duty Off-road vehicles that are used for construction works. Currently fuel consumption in earth-movers is quantified as fuel consumed per unit time (Liters per hour). Similarly, conventional measure of productivity of the earth-movers is in terms of volume of soil trenched per hour. Measurements using the above scales showed wide variations in measured fuel consumption and productivity, • for the same equipment between measurements • two equipment of same make at different trench locations and • against the competitor equipment The reason for this variation includes the difference in soil density at different places at different depths. Thus the earth-mover in trenching operation might consume less fuel/hour and gives more productivity for the soil density being less and vice versa for the soil density being high.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0229
Jibing Zhang, Sanbao Hu, Xuexun Guo, Quan Zhou
Blade Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have received more and more attention from both consumers and automotive enterprises because of their being safer, more energy-saving and environmental friendly. However, BEVs’ development and promotion have had the major challenges such as high use cost, short driving distance and safety issues since they came up initially. To overcome those difficulties, the technologies for driving cell,motor and controller have recently achieved some progresses. Besides, vehicle lightweight technology was also a valid solution for those issues above and it could be much simpler and more effective. According to previous research, in terms of reducing the body weight, the application of new materials (such as light metals and composite materials) was a well-known method whereas their high cost caused the overall increasing of BEVs’ price.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0207
Kamran Hashmi, D Radhakrishna
Abstract This paper deals with the application of 1-D simulation technique for prediction of engine performance at high altitudes. 1-Dimensional (1-D) engine simulation is an important tool for engine development activities. Engine design through simulation can substantially cut down time needed to execute experiments and prototyping, as todays softwares can simulate most of the experiments.This approach was applied for simulation of a spark-ignited engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).A detailed 1-D thermodynamic model was prepared for the engine configuration in Ricardo WAVE environment; different simulation runs were executed and then performance parameters like brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption, BMEP, in-cylinder pressure etc were predicted. A predicted performance shall always be co-related with test results for correct interpretation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0177
Mandip Goswami, Prashant SAXENA, Shashi Bhushan
Automotive OEMs, the world over, have always given high priority for the luggage area of the vehicle. This area primarily consists of the luggage board or luggage carpet for keeping luggage and various other items. Most OEMs also provide an additional structure known as the parcel shelf or parcel tray. This part has varied usage, depending upon the OEM, ranging from holding light weight items, providing support and even as a part for covering the luggage area which looks aesthetically pleasing. In a country like India, the parcel shelf generally attracts unwanted high load storage. A majority of the solutions to this problem have been in the form of part thickness increase leading to subsequent increase in weight and cost, the two major concern areas for all auto manufacturers. A strong, but light-weight and cost effective solution is, hence, desired through innovation in design, material and manufacturing process.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0181
Mukund Trikande, Sujithkumar Muralidharan, Vinit Jagirdar
Road disturbances introduce a combination of vertical and angular motions of pitch and roll that affect the stability and ride comfort of a military vehicle. This study focuses on the enhancement of stability and ride comfort. A half car model with 4 Degree of freedom (DOF), whose vehicle chassis can pitch and bounce, is modeled in Simulink with the objective of attitude control using Stability Augmentation System (SAS). Control is implemented at two levels, one at the suspension level which is an open loop control for improving the ride and the other is closed loop for controlling the body motion by sensing pitch and bounce displacement. The inner loop is utilised to reject the effect of road disturbances and outer loop is to stabilize heave and pitch response. In other words, inner loop provides ride control and the outer loop provides the attitude control. The control force is obtained by using an active damper.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0032
Raimund Ellinger, Edoardo Morra, Steffen Daum, Johannes Schauer, Gebhard Woentner
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Due to the high Diesel prices this requirement is beside reliability and durability very important for end customers when deciding for a new truck or bus. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the whole powertrain, hence match the engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The consequent high number of possible commercial powertrain combinations of engine, transmission and rear axle specifications requests for an efficient and effective development methodology based on system simulations. With this, the most suitable powertrain specifications, meeting all end customer requirements can be ensured.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0144
Pankaj Brijbihari Sharma, Prafulla Dahiwade
This paper discusses the off-road performance evaluation of military application mini UGVs using terramechanics. Military ground vehicle requirements are defined by the terrains they traverse and the performance specifications defined by the users. By using the analytical approach the primary purpose is to study the mobility of mini UGVs for cross country application. These vehicles are evaluated on conditions of tractive force, drawbar pull, sinkage and slippage. Military vehicles must have the capacity to operate under extreme terrain conditions from deserts to hard rocky and paved roads to hilly and soft soil to snowy terrain. This vehicle was equipped with two electric motor drive of 450W, track size 585mmx50mm and main track with flipper track. The overall dimension of the vehicle is 1000mm length, 750mm width, 500mm height, minimum ground clearance 40mm and total vehicle weight of 60Kg. The vehicle was designed for tractive force of 520N for gradient climb of 40°.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0111
Sri Charan Gunti, Sai Kiran Gunti, Amjad Shaik, Srinivasa Rao, Amarnath Reddy
Economy and Emissions are the main concerns for success of any commercial vehicle in the present day automotive market. Electric vehicles are attracting more attention due to their advantages in these two points of view as compared to Conventional fuel based vehicles. However, an important drawback for electric vehicles to be noticed is its range per a single charge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to overcome this drawback by upgrading an electric vehicle. The existing electric vehicle is converted into solar power assisted electric vehicle and the range of the vehicle has been increased further by adding additional power unit (IC engine + alternator). A control unit has been developed for energy management. This paper also discusses the performance characteristics of solar panels and IC engine. Results show that the range of converted electric vehicle has been increased by 1.8 times when compared with existing one.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission . In this case study, simulation model of a CNG LCV is used to analyse the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0062
Pankaj Kumar Verma, Shashi Bhushan Singh, Kalyan Vedula
The Armoured fighting vehicle designers are continuously fighting for ways to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency, improve reliability, and reduce cost. Customized engineering design, and materials are becoming more widespread on all fronts. Also, vehicle emission norms are getting stringent day by day and there is increasing pressure to reduce fuel consumption. One important method of achieving the fuel economy and improve vehicle performance is to reduce vehicle weight. In view of the above advanced materials like Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites are promising to be the material to look for when it comes to reduce weight of structural elements due to its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios and hence was used for the development of Bogie Wheel of a light tracked vehicle. This paper illustrates the developmental methodology of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Road wheel for 20 ton class of tracked vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0084
Ishwar Patil, Kiran P Wani
With the increasing competition in automotive sector, the customer is available with more options when it comes to buying a vehicle. So it has become necessary to improve the vehicle’s characteristics which affect its impression on the customer. Handling and ride comfort are very important characteristics that influence the quality of the vehicle. These characteristics depend on the suspension system of the vehicle. The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. Ride comfort is directly related to the vehicle acceleration experienced by the driver and the passengers. Higher vertical acceleration, lesser is the level of comfort. The aim of this paper is to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control method.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0145
Sankaranarayanan Arthanathan
The objective of this project is "Bringing Field to Lab". Normally in field, tractors are utilized for various applications like harvesting and threshing operation in a dusty environment which consists of paddy, sand, straw etc,. These dusts would affect the tractor performance and often cause problem like engine choking at severe condition. We had acquired field data on threshing from north Indian places like Jaitsar, Jalandhar where threshing done in summer at a temperature around 50°C. Also during threshing full tractor power is used through PTO (power take off) and this load fluctuates according to manual loading of paddy in thresher.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0210
Nilesh Daithankar, Kishor D Udawant, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
This paper presents a methodology for predicting thermal comfort inside midibus cabin with an objective to modify the HVAC duct design and parametric optimization in order to have improved thermal comfort of occupant. For this purpose the bus cavity is extracted from baseline CAD model including fully seated manikins with various seating positions. Solar Load has been considered in the computational model and passenger heat load is considered as per BSR/ASHRAE 55-1992R standard. CFD simulation predicted the air temperature and velocity distribution inside passenger cabin of the baseline model. The experimental measurements have been carried out as per the guidelines set in APTA-BT-RP-003-07 standard. The results obtained from CFD and Experimental test were analysed as per EVS EN ISO7730 standard and calculated occupant comfort in terms of thermal comfort parameters like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0221
Jitesh Agrawal
In commercial Vehicles, the purpose of suspension is not only passenger's ride comfort and load carrying, but also accompanying vehicle's handling. Road profile, vehicle design and driver input contribute a lot to the vehicle behavior specially when vehicle is turning, braking and bouncing. One of the vehicle behaviors is brake steering where vehicle itself steers on braking and can be a major cause for life threatening accidents on highways and express ways. In this paper, leaf spring wind-up and vehicle behavior on braking is studied analytically, observed experimentally and characteristics were analyzed. Also, the effect of the same on design parameters is studied and thereby recommendation is derived. In analytical part of paper, various spring's wind off parameters such as Dynamic load on spring, perpendicular distance of projected twisted surface, Angle of spring wind-up, and Induced stress during braking are calculated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0224
Ramsai Ramachandran, Nilesh Kumar Dehariya, Gaurav Kumar, Himanshu Agarwal, Sukhchain Singh
BIW (Body-in White) is a type of vehicle structure formed by spot welding of different sheet metal components. The BIW structure should be designed to support the maximum load potential under various performance conditions. Thus the structure should have good strength as well as stiffness. Torsion Stiffness of BIW is the amount of torque required to cause a unit degree of twist. It is often considered as a benchmark of its structural competence due to its effect on various parameters like ride, handling, lateral load distribution and NVH performance of vehicle. This paper presents a case study in which physical testing was carried out for obtaining the global torsional stiffness, simulation was carried out replicating the physical test conditions. The simulation result was found to be 94% correlated with the test results.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0235
Raju P Soudatti, Ragunathan Amarnath, Ramesh Harish
This paper deals the verification & Validation of passenger seat of buses for life cycle requirement. Through various methodologies adopted from Data collection, CAE verification and physical validation to verify the seat in virtual environment. Generally it is observed that in City Buses most of the time Passenger seat leg mounting area failures occurs in buses used for typically more than 3years. This fatigue failure doesn't get captured in either Anchorage test or limited vibration test. Passenger seats durability should be equal to vehicle life which is 10L or 12 Years of life span. Testing on Physical vibration (Rig) machine is time consuming and costly most of the time Machine availability for testing will be an issue to validate alternate seat proposals. There is need to establish a correlation between Physical testing and CAE simulation so that alternate proposals can be easily and quickly verified using CAE alone.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0117
Deepak Sharma, Sreenath K Reghunath, Ashwini Athreya
In the era of increasing the emission standards, hybrid technology is emerging to be the future mobility due to its reduced emissions and also for its fuel economy benefits. In Hybrid Vehicles, IC Engine sometimes operates in inferior efficiency points due to non-availability of secondary power unit support during low torque requirement. This happens due to lack of sufficient energy in the secondary energy storage system. The paper presents the concept of intelligent Stored Energy Control in Hybrid vehicles, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the future energy consumption pattern of the secondary unit. Based on the secondary power unit characteristics, a dynamic equivalent energy reserve calculation is done. The activation and deactivation of the secondary power unit is decided based on continuous monitoring of the level of stored energy and the reserve calculation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms are based on US-EPA Tier 4 final, major technology up gradations is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. These solutions are varying from advanced in-cylinder combustion strategies to sophisticated exhaust after-treatment technologies. Generally, the proven technology concepts such as Common Rail System (CRS), efficient Turbocharged-Intercooled (TCI), controlled cooled EGR along with DOC-DPF in after treatment are used for emission controls. However, this approach will increase engine cost in addition to the Packaging challenges for the existing vehicle layouts.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17936