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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17697
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
The International Standard ISO26262 “Road vehicles - Functional safety” was published in 2011. Safety is one of the key issues of future automobile development. System safety is achieved through a number of safety measures, which are implemented in a variety of technologies. ISO26262 provides an automotive-specific risk-based approach and uses ASILs to specify applicable requirements so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk. The International Standard ISO26262 divides the Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL) into four stages (from level A to D). In this paper we consider the suitable determination of the Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSIL) when the ISO26262 is applied to motorcycles. We will show that an unreasonable risk area for motorcycles becomes smaller when compared with that of an automobile for the following two reasons. (1) The seating capacity of a motorcycle is less than that of an automobile, and thus the damage from a motorcycle accident is also smaller than those of automobile accidents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Motorcycle accidents are a serious road safety issue in the European Union (EU). Several projects to increase motorcycle safety were funded by the EU within the FP7 (Seventh Frame Program). Many others are likely to be funded within H2020 (Horizon 2020) as well as by national projects of each member state. In this context, numerical simulations play a strategic role since they can be a powerful tool to simplify, assist and speed up the work of the engineers. During the last years, the authors have presented the development and validation of FE models for complete crash test scenarios (i.e. motorcycle with an anthropometric test dummy that impacts against a car) and their use to evaluate head and neck injuries. During the validation phase the authors observed some variability in the results. While variability of the input parameters is a fact in real world crash test, the extent of the variability in the results has to be estimated and assessed in order to improve the design process of safety devices.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Gokul Meenakshi Sundaram, Shankapal S R PhD, Nagarjun Reddy M.
A well rated vehicle should have good handling (maneuvering) and stability characteristics. In India, three wheeled vehicle (Auto –rickshaws) play a major role in low cost transportation and thus there is a huge population of them, particularly in urban areas. Auto -rickshaws are low speed vehicles and can easily be maneuvered in city narrow lanes. Hence these vehicles should exhibit stability as well as handling well at low speeds. Stability of vehicle is affected while maneuvering, and maneuvering (handling) gets affected due to wobbling of front wheel. The present work focuses on improving wobbling of a three wheeled vehicle. The problem was approached by carrying out a literature review and identifying the wobbling control equation. Parametric studies were done through simulation to understand their effect on wobbling. The wobbling frequency of front structure of three wheeled vehicle found to be 4 Hz corresponding to a vehicle speed of 20km/h. It was essential to reduce the wobbling frequency corresponding to a speed lower than 10 km/h.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Patrick Falk, Christian Hubmann
KEYWORDS – Driveability, Motorcycle, Measurement, Powertrain, Quality ABSTRACT - Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also know as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kenichi Morimoto
This study describes methods to explain the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. Statistical approaches were used presuming the analysis being based on the multibody dynamics simulation having a high degree of freedom to precisely simulate actual motorcycle. There are a number of past attempts to clarify the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. One of such efforts is based on the equation of motion. Although such a method is suitable when simply analyzing motions in a fundamental structure, when the number of degrees of freedom is large, generally a practical method cannot be found because it is extremely difficult to deriver an equation of motion. In the meantime, although the author et al. have analyzed shimmy using such multibody dynamics simulation models, the findings are useful only for simulation of performance difference among a number of motorcycles. In this study, we conducted researches taking three steps; (1) extract factors significantly affecting shimmy from motorcycle specifications, (2) explain how a change of motorcycle specifications affects shimmy, and (3) measure performance of a number of motorcycles having various specification.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). On application to motorcycles of ISO26262 that was intended only for passenger cars, it is considered that it is desirable to estimate the C class by subjective evaluation of expert riders. Expert riders are professional test riders, and they differ from ordinary riders. They can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is at the limit of vehicle performance. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of expert riders and of ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
R Varunprabhu, Himadri Bushan Das, S Jabez Dhinagar
The steering system of a 3-wheeler vehicle comprises a single column steering tube. The steering inclination at handle bar end is converted to wheel slip or inclination by the steering column. A compromise in either ride or handling is considered in the functional requirement of the 3-wheeler vehicle. The three wheeled vehicle under study is designed for ride comfort and the handling levels are compromised. Variants of the vehicle under study are meant for public passenger transport requirements. Drivers’ ride comfort is considered as the primary functional requirement during design and driver’s steering fatigue is not given importance. For the comfort of driver, steering effort has to be less without compromise in handling characteristics. The driver of this type of vehicle drives the vehicle for 15-18 hours a day. Driver’s feedback suggests high steering effort as a human fatigue failure mode and also a cause of shoulder pain. In this project, a DC motor assisted steering mechanism with an electronic control module has been designed.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Giovannini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
The Powered Two-Wheelers (PTWs) control is more complex than any other road vehicle control, due to the implicit instability of those vehicles. Maneuvers such as braking or swerving, require additional driving abilities to prevent the vehicle from falling, in particular during emergency events, such as panic braking or last second swerving. Focusing on emergency braking maneuvers, in those situations the PTW control is very demanding due to the necessity to adjust the braking intensity in the best way. For standard PTWs, a common cause of accident is the loss of adherence and the consequent loss of stability due to emergency braking manoeuvers. It is worth noting that, for a PTW, the loss of stability means a high probability of fall, especially while cornering. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to propose and evaluate a fall detection algorithm for PTWs performing braking manoeuvers, developed to alert an advanced riding assistance system in order to produce proper counteractions against the imminent fall.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Manikandan T, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Samaraj Dhinagar
The proposed paper is on electrical energy conservation in a two wheeler. Electrical energy generation adds a maximum of 10% excess load torque on an engine and hence saving electrical energy would ultimately reduce the consumption of fuel. Load Control Module is a single intelligent device which is placed in between electrical energy generation and consumption. The Module controls and distributes energy to the corresponding loads depending on parameters like battery voltage, engine RPM, overhead light illumination levels and load usage time. The Module prioritizes battery charging for maintaining the life of the battery. The Module has a microcontroller and it is programmed with algorithm for prioritization and energy distribution with respect to input conditions. A vehicle fitted with the Load Control Module was tested in city driving cycle (CDC) condition as per ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) standard and it was found that the electrical loading decreased to about 30% when compared to vehicle with uncontrolled loading.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Manikandan T, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Davinder Kumar, R Venkatesan, VenkataKalyana kumar
The proposed paper is on advanced vehicle information panel which shall display instant mileage zone in which the user is operating with inputs from engine crank sensor and vehicle speed sensor alone. And moreover, gear assistance and throttle assistance through visuals is provided. Mileage data for different engine loading at different Speeds is pre-calculated at standard conditions and fed into a micro-controller. In real time, the engine loading, by means of intelligent software, is sensed by engine crank sensor and based on the pre-fed value, the mileage zone of the vehicle at that particular instant is to be displayed using an information panel. Based on the relation between speed sensor and engine crank sensor when the vehicle is running, the gear in which the vehicle is running is to be calculated. For a vehicle running in a certain gear and in certain speed, the ideal engine loading and mileage zone is predefined. So when the user is riding in a certain gear with certain engine load, the micro controller compares that with the programmed data which is the ideal condition data, and assists the user, in case the rider is not riding the vehicle as per the ideal data, by gear up/down prompt or throttle up/down prompt by means of the said information panel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kazuhiro Ito
The frame body of a motorcycle is a core part that receives force from the road via the front and rear suspensions as well as holding heavy objects such as the engine. It is therefore important to finish fundamental design in the early stage of product development. Regarding the strength of frame body, if the load input to the frame body under the hardest condition like on rough roads can be estimated by simulation, an appropriate frame body design in the early stage of development would be possible. Some techniques have been recently introduced to estimate input loads and/or fatigue strength by the full vehicle simulation to analyze the automobile running on rough roads. In motorcycles, meanwhile, there are some cases with making on the test bench of strength and/or durability tests, and conversion of such tests to CAE simulation. However, there are only a few cases with estimating input loads when running on rough roads. One of the reasons is that it is difficult to accurately estimate suspension motions, especially the motions of telescopic front suspension taking into account the motion in the bending direction.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Gerhard Kokalj, Patrick Schatz, Christoph Zach
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required. The functional variability of hybrid technology, however, permits a range of possible implementations and the control calibration tasks themselves need to be well structured concerning hand-over, traceability and robustness.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Hyunsup Yang, Kyung Seok Cho, Chi Yong Park, Dae Bok Keon, Chang Ha Lee, Yong Sun Park
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) is zero emission vehicles because it produces only water as a byproduct. The other advantages are a long driving range and a quick refueling time compared with the pure electric vehicle. The air compressor supply compressed air to the cathode of fuel cell stack to chemically react with the hydrogen from the compressed hydrogen tank to generate electric power. The majority of the companies have used displacement type screw compressor for their current and next generation air supply systems. The screw type air compressor was used for the supercharged internal combustion engines. Screw type air compressor has some advantage in increasing pressure ratio but it has disadvantage in NVH (Noise, Vibration and harshness), efficiency and productivity. Among them NVH is the greatest factor that inhibits the marketability of FCEV because it has no noise source such as internal combustion engine. Because of that, the screw type air compressor should have very expensive noise cover and muffler for the reducing of the pressure fluctuation to improve NVH level.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Boru Jia, Zhengxing Zuo, Huihua Feng, Guohong Tian, A. P. Roskilly
Free-piston engine generator (FPEG) is a novel type of energy conversion device, which integrates a linear combustion engine and a linear electrical machine into a single unit. As an alternative to conventional engines, FPEG is a promising power generation system due to its simplicity and high thermal efficiency and has attracted considerable research interests recently. This paper presents the development for a spark-ignited free-piston engine generator prototype which was rated to 3kW power output, and the designation of major sub-systems is introduced. The electrical linear machine is operated as a linear motor to start the engine and switched to a generator after successful ignition. Closed-loop control strategy was investigated and implemented for the starting process with a constant force provide by the linear machine. Ignition is one of the most crucial problems for the generating process, thus a unique control sub-system to generate ignition signals at the correct ignition timing based on the piston position was completed.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fuyuan Yang, Lei Du, Changsheng Yao, Jiaen Du, Ping Yu
The efficiency of traction motor affects the overall efficiency of city buses which most of time creep among jammed city traffic. The low speed and torque operating condition deviate from the high-efficiency region of electric motor. This paper discusses whether it is possible to improve the motor efficiency by a two-speed transmission and if so, to what extent. In this paper, based on the China Bus Urban Cycle, an 8-meter electric bus is studied, and the comparison of motor efficiency between two different configurations is made: direct drive and drive through a two-speed transmission. In the ‘direct drive’ configuration, the traction motor drives the main reducer directly, while in the other configuration installed a two-speed transmission between. Apart from that, all other specifications are the same. The study is conducted via modeling and simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. In the simulation of both configurations, models of driver, traction motor, two-speed transmission, the I-curve of braking forces distribution and vehicle controller are built.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abdelmajid Ait Taleb, Ali Chaaba, Mohamed Sallaou
In the field of machinery, epicyclic gear trains play a fundamental role in power transmission lines. Their use is very wide and varied and they can realize the function of a mechanism as a “differential" or as a mechanism to reduce or increase speeds. For example, the epicyclic gear trains equip a large number of vehicles transmission such as electric and hybrid cars and heavy vehicles, these epicyclic gear trains are integrated especially in continuously variable power split transmissions. The mechanical efficiency assessment of transmissions integrating one or more epicyclic gear trains requires the knowledge of the efficiencies of components setting up the transmission, in particular that of the epicyclic gear trains. The efficiency of these mechanisms is commonly defined as the ratio of the output power by the input one. For a planetary gear train with three active shafts, which operates as a differential system, the definition of the efficiency will not change, but, it is necessary first to identify the powers flow running between its links.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jonathan Hall, Hannes Marlok, Michael Bassett, Marco Warth
In 2012 MAHLE Powertrain unveiled a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) demonstrator, which is based on a series hybrid configuration, and uses a battery to store electrical energy from the grid. Once the battery state of charge (SOC) is depleted a gasoline engine (range extender) is activated to provide the energy required to propel the vehicle. As part of the continuing development of this vehicle, MAHLE Powertrain has logged vehicle data in real world driving situations with the aim of understanding the actual usage a REEV under non-laboratory test conditions. The vehicle is instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure physical parameters, for example coolant temperatures, as well as CAN-based data from the engine and vehicle management systems. The logged data has been analysed, using in-house tools, to establish the effect of environmental factors such as ambient temperature, human behavioural characteristics and variation in usage patterns on the efficiency and operational behaviour of the REEV system as a whole.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stefan Geng, Thomas Schulte
Hybrid electric powertrains are developed for reducing the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. In order to achieve a reduction in comparison to conventional vehicles, an improved efficiency of the overall system is required. It depends on the powertrain topology, its components and the applied control strategy. For testing and improving the control strategy in terms of the overall system efficiency, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation can be applied. Thereby, a real-time simulation of the powertrain is used to emulate the behavior of the actuator and sensor signals in order to operate the corresponding electronic control units in a virtual test environment [1], [2]. The development of real-time capable powertrain models is a time-consuming task, due to high dynamics and switching frequencies of the electrical subsystem, comprising the electric drive, inverter and battery and due to the immense diversity of powertrain configurations, comprising the transmission, the combustion engine, the electric drives, etc.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Haoting Wang, Tieping Lin, Xiayi Yuan, Qi Zhang
Three dimensional, steady state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of flow around a generic pickup truck are performed to optimize the aerodynamic performance of a pickup truck model. Detailed comparison between the data of the CFD model and the experiment are made. By using deformation techniques, surrogate models and optimization methods, the drag is reduced. Four design variables are used for deformation: the cabin height, bed height, ground clearance and bed length. The optimization is single objective: minimizing the drag coefficient. A response surface model is built to reduce the sampling points for optimization, and the simulation time is reduced accordingly. Results show that the design variables are not fully independent with each other, and by proper combinations of the variable change, the drag coefficient of the pickup truck model can be reduced effectively. In this study, the drag coefficient reduced about 9.7% through optimization algorithm. The results also show that the single tailgate itself is not always profitable for drag reduction.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ashok Patidar, Shivdayal Prasad, Umashanker Gupta, Mohan Subbarao
In today's competitive world, vehicle with light weighting is the most focused area. Vehicle light weighting can be done either by using light weight materials or by reducing the size of the existing components. In present paper later approach of vehicle light weighting is followed. It will help in packaging and reduce weight will add benefit to FE too. Scope for light weighting is identified in exhaust system where muffler volume is optimized using CFD commercial tool FLUENT. The back pressure, exhaust gas temperature, sound noise level & sound quality are chosen as design verification targets. The muffler volume is reduced by 15% resultant system become 15% compact with 2% lighter weight. CFD results are well correlated with physical test results on both the existing and optimized design results. Detailed design guideline and simulation process of exhaust system is explained in this paper.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Michael S. Barton, David Corson, John Quigley, Babak Emami, Tanuj Kush
In this work, the multi-physics problem arising from fluid sloshing within a tanker truck undergoing acceleration is investigated through the use of bi-directional coupling between AcuSolve and MotionSolve. This application represents a challenging test case for simulation technology within the design of commercial vehicles. Computer aided engineering is playing a more predominant role in the design process for commercial and passenger vehicles. Better understanding the real time loading and responses on a vehicle during intended (or unintended) use can result in improved design and reduced cost over traditional assumptions. Sloshing of liquid within the cargo tank of a commercial tanker truck results in increased loading on the vehicle's suspension when undergoing different types of acceleration maneuvers. The change in loading can have a significant effect on the design of the vehicles suspension components and braking components. The ability to investigate the fully coupled behavior of the mechanical and fluid systems is a key technology to enable improved designs for these types of applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Colin Britcher, Wael Mokhtar, Stephen Way
Commercial vehicle design, as well as associated aerodynamic test procedures, acknowledge the fact that many of these vehicles will operate in strong crosswind conditions for a significant fraction of their operational life. For example, the SAE "wind averaged" drag coefficient develops a weighted average CD based on operation at representative speeds in representative winds from arbitrary directions. Wind tunnel testing at a representative road speed over a range of yaw angles of +-15° is sufficient to populate the SAE equation. However, wind tunnel tests of commercial vehicles are often compromised due to the physical size of the model or other factors, leading to various concerns. An on-road crosswind develops a deep atmospheric boundary layer profile. The vehicle's road speed results in the relative velocity field at the vehicle being strongly curved. A curved flow field is practically impossible to generate in a wind tunnel with a substantial mean velocity, although some yacht sail testing is carried out at in curved flow facilities at much lower velocities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marc Ratzel, Warren Dias
Multiple engineering disciplines are considered in the development process of modern vehicles. This includes disciplines such as aerodynamics and structural dynamics. Often, these disciplines are applied in isolation, that is, without the consideration of interactions between disciplines. But in order to accurately represent the physical environment in which these designs and vehicles operate, it becomes important to consider the interaction effects. Interaction effects can be considered by including the effects of the different disciplines in a sequential manner, such as, determining the aerodynamic loads with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and then using the computed forces as boundary conditions in a structural analysis solver to determine displacements and stresses. However, for certain applications where this sequential modeling approach is not representative, the multiple disciplines can be analyzed in a co-simulation environment. An example of this would be the fluttering of an automotive hood under driving conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Shaoyun Sun, Yin-ping Chang, Xinyu Wang, Qiang Fu, Kelong Lu, Zuofeng Pan, Bo Li, Heinz Friz
A big challenge for the aerodynamic optimization of trucks is the limited availability of wind tunnels for testing full scale trucks. FAW wants to introduce a development process which is mainly based on CFD simulation in combination with some limited amount of wind tunnel testing. While accuracy and maturity of CFD simulation for truck aerodynamics has been demonstrated in recent years, a complete validation is still required before committing to a particular process. The CFD tools involved in this validation are Star CCM+ and PowerFLOW. Since there is currently no wind tunnel available in China for the testing of full scale trucks, a 70% scale model is built for testing in the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center. Drag and surface pressures are measured for providing a good basis for comparison to the simulation results. The simulations are performed for the scale model geometry as well as for the full scale geometry of the fully detailed truck. As a completion of this validation study a test of the full scale truck with a shortened trailer in a suitable wind tunnel in Europe is planned as future work.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
William Bradford Bartow, Andres C. Moreyra, Trevor Hirst, Gregory H. Woyczynski, Alexis lefebvre, Gecheng Zha
This paper experimentally investigates the detailed flow field of base drag reduction method using passive jet boat-tail (JBT) with 3D PIV measurement in wind tunnel testing. JBT is a new method recently developed by Zha et al to reduce vehicle base drag using passive jet instead of a solid botatail. It has the advantage of no blockage in the base area, which is important for vehicle loading/unloading and is necessary for vehicle rear view mirrors that can not permit any visibility blockage. The wind tunnel experiment indicates that the JBT significantly reduces the wake width and depth(Fig. 1), and thus the base drag. The unsteady wake flaps up and down and left and right. The hypothesis is that the wake flapping transfers the energy to the coherent structures caused by the jet, and then further energizes the base flow region with base pressure increased. The wake profile area at 1.5 length downstream is reduced by about 40%.The 3D PIV measurement found that the jet creates a large circumferential gradient of the flow field, which enhances the entrainment and energy transfer.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Paul Salama, Adam Lubinsky, Bryan Roy, Ziga Ivanic, Paul Lipson, Luis Torres, Joseph Tario, Robert Ancar
The massive numbers of delivery trucks in dense urban areas, such as New York City, create significant vehicle emissions impacting air quality and contributing to higher respiratory disease rates. In downtown Manhattan there are estimated to be over 100,000 truck deliveries daily. The emergence of electric vehicle (EV) delivery trucks is resulting in health and environmental benefits, less noise, reduction of foreign energy dependency, and economic development opportunities. Several firms operating in New York City have incorporated EVs into their fleets including Frito-Lay, Coca Cola Bottling, Walgreens, Fresh Direct, DownEast Seafood, FedEx, DHL Express, and the US Postal Service. Green Loading Zones (GLZs) are dedicated curbside spaces for commercial delivery EVs meant to incentivize early adoption and accelerate market adoption. WXY architecture + urban design, Energetics Incorporated, and Barretto Bay Strategies, examined the impact and potential benefits of this strategy in New York City in a study supported by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the New York State Department of Transportation.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jackeline Rios, Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Andre Lorico, Joachim Taiber, Pierluigi Pisu
Fleet vehicles are a particular case of everyday transportation since they usually have to operate all day long. Therefore, the contamination levels they produce are not negligible. In this context, electric vehicles are a promising solution because they are more efficient and environmentally friendly than their oil based peers. However, electric vehicles face battery related challenges like limited driving range and longer recharging time compared to the refueling time of a conventional vehicle. Thus, identifying how energy is being used by the vehicle is a key task to optimize the utilization of the battery charge. Vehicle simulators facilitate this type of analysis; their results can be used for analysis of routes, charging schedule, and driving behavior. Therefore, it is desirable that any non-expert can use them and get meaningful analysis of their results. We present the design and implementation of a forward simulator for a battery electric bus, developed in MATLAB/Simulink. It provides an easy-to-use interface which allows non-expert users to perform analysis of different parameters related to the powertrain operation of the vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Iman Hazrati Ashtiani, Mehrnoosh Abedi
Road trains have been applied as one of the efficient ways for transportation of goods in different countries like United States, Canada, Brazil and Australia. These long vehicles have a wide variety in length or towing systems like fifth wheel or dolly draw-bar and based on specific measured and regulation could be authorized to move in specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents of these vehicles, safety performance of a specific type of these vehicles, called B-train, is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model of a B-train, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in first phase of study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as SAE lane change and constant radius turn for roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. As far as transportation of fuel or other hazardous liquid are a common usage of B-train vehicles, the effects of liquid fill level variation are also considered in this research.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Sundaravadivelu M, Kavin Raja
Simulation’s drive towards reality boundary conditions is a toughest challenge. Experience has shown that often the most significant source of error in thermal and dynamic analyses is associated within specified boundary conditions. Typically, validating the system by considering both thermal and dynamic loads with predefined assumptions is time consuming and inconclusive when confronted to reality boundary conditions. Thus, solution comes in unique way of combining thermal and dynamic loads with specified boundary conditions will convey computational results closer to real scenario. As a consequence, strain concentrated regions due to thermal expansion are aggregated more, when coupled with dynamic loading. The stress generated by the coupled analyses will proves to be critical in concerning the durability issue of the hot end system. These conditions were evaluated by a finite elements model through a linear and non-linear approach, which had its results summarized.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17697