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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17912
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0225
Prashant R Pawar
The tire is generally characterized on the basis of forces and moments being generated at the contact patch, which generally describes the friction potential of the tire in both longitudinal and lateral directions at different load conditions. The field conditions under which the tires perform is diverse which results in varied performance for the same product. To understand this there is a need to understand range of friction values the tire undergoes in different conditions which cannot be replicated in indoor test-rigs. The longitudinal potential of tire is the important factor in determining the acceleration and braking behaviour, so braking test was performed to measure the longitudinal slip and forces. A joint project has been undertaken between Apollo Tyres and ARAI, where both have used their technical expertise to work on tire characterization out of road test.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0227
Saraf M R
Road roughness induces dynamic loads on vehicles, which cause fatigue damage as a result. Design of vehicle for durability is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Vehicle durability is verified on test tracks, on test rigs, or, increasingly, by computer simulations. Does the test represent real-life vehicle usage? How many times should a vehicle travel over the test tracks to verify the durability? For doing this kind of analysis, it is always required to measure the vehicle response parameters such as wheel forces, axle and chassis acceleration etc. These measurement based approaches have high cost and are time consuming. As these are vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle . Hence it is needed to accelerate this process using parameter which is vehicle independent i.e road profiles. This paper discuss about the methodology, process developed at ARAI for generation of 3d road profile database (in .CRG /.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0233
Marc Pinilla, Pau Kuipers
KEYWORDS – Asphalt concrete mixture, Wet Handling, Coefficient of adherence, aging procedure, Pavement durability, Binder, Additives. ABSTRACT – Asphalt specifications for a Wet Handling tracks are very stringent in the sense of Coefficient of adherence and homogeneity of this coefficient along the time. Currently, asphalt mixture pavements used in wet conditions have a very limited useful life and this keeps degrading following different patterns according to the different asphalt mixtures used. This is because of many reasons but mainly as a consequence of supporting big strains and the extreme conditions during its whole useful life submitted for having the asphalt completely deep in water for most of its live time as well as climatic weather conditions. Moreover, Wet Handling pavements should provide very specific and stable adherence values for vehicle testing during the asphalt aging evolution.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0224
Ramsai Ramachandran, Nilesh Kumar Dehariya, Gaurav Kumar, Himanshu Agarwal, Sukhchain Singh
BIW (Body-in White) is a type of vehicle structure formed by spot welding of different sheet metal components. The BIW structure should be designed to support the maximum load potential under various performance conditions. Thus the structure should have good strength as well as stiffness. Torsion Stiffness of BIW is the amount of torque required to cause a unit degree of twist. It is often considered as a benchmark of its structural competence due to its effect on various parameters like ride, handling, lateral load distribution and NVH performance of vehicle. This paper presents a case study in which physical testing was carried out for obtaining the global torsional stiffness, simulation was carried out replicating the physical test conditions. The simulation result was found to be 94% correlated with the test results.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0221
Jitesh Agrawal
In commercial Vehicles, the purpose of suspension is not only passenger's ride comfort and load carrying, but also accompanying vehicle's handling. Road profile, vehicle design and driver input contribute a lot to the vehicle behavior specially when vehicle is turning, braking and bouncing. One of the vehicle behaviors is brake steering where vehicle itself steers on braking and can be a major cause for life threatening accidents on highways and express ways. In this paper, leaf spring wind-up and vehicle behavior on braking is studied analytically, observed experimentally and characteristics were analyzed. Also, the effect of the same on design parameters is studied and thereby recommendation is derived. In analytical part of paper, various spring's wind off parameters such as Dynamic load on spring, perpendicular distance of projected twisted surface, Angle of spring wind-up, and Induced stress during braking are calculated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0118
Gopi Krishnan N S, Kiran P Wani
The present day sustainable transport solutions demands bringing down the pollution levels and fuel costs. Need for alternative fuels and alternative powertrains arises from this. Many of these alternative solutions are in their premature states of research and are facing a lot of challenges in implementation. Though electric vehicles (EVs) are supposedly more environment friendly, EVs cannot completely replace the ease of use and ease of refueling that a conventional IC engine offers. But the switching to a new technology is inevitable and so a compromise between today’s IC engine technology and Electric Vehicle technology will be a good option for this transition period. Thus begins the era of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) - a technology which uses both conventional Internal Combustion Engine coupled with an Electric Motor for its working. Hybrid cars are already available in the market.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0117
Sreenath K Reghunath, Ashwini Athreya, Deepak Sharma
In the era of increasing the emission standards, hybrid technology is emerging to be the future mobility due to its reduced emissions and also for its fuel economy benefits. In Hybrid Vehicles, IC Engine sometimes operates in inferior efficiency points due to non-availability of secondary power unit support during low torque requirement. This happens due to lack of sufficient energy in the secondary energy storage system. The paper presents the concept of intelligent Stored Energy Control in Hybrid vehicles, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the future energy consumption pattern of the secondary unit. Based on the secondary power unit characteristics, a dynamic equivalent energy reserve calculation is done. The activation and deactivation of the secondary power unit is decided based on continuous monitoring of the level of stored energy and the reserve calculation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0110
Balaji Balasubramanian
This paper describes the system architecture together with control and diagnostics features of an indigenously developed electric vehicle controller for Light Commercial Vehicle. The key functions of vehicle controller include power management, driveline controls, regeneration and vehicle mode controls. In particular this paper presents vehicle's operational strategy in economy, normal and performance modes based on the vehicle speed and SOC. It also has feature to enable vehicle operation in reduced performance mode at low battery voltages. The battery current limitation algorithm is also described in detail that is used to control discharge current to prevent sudden dip in SOC and to increase battery life. The vehicle control strategy is modeled & simulated using model-based softwares and results for a specific test case are validated with embedded controllers-in-the-loop in a test-bench environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0113
Prasad B. Warule, Vaibhav V. Jadhav, Ashish Ranjan
Hybridization of vehicle drive train is an important step to reduce crude oil import and improve air quality and performance. Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Simulation study has been done to evaluate a potential to achieve maximum Fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicle without engine downsizing. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimised gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in best efficiency zones without downsizing.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0114
Siddharth Das, Sushil S Ramdasi, Rakesh Mulik, Neelkanth V Marathe
Depleting fossil fuels and increasing emissions have led the automotive manufacturers and various researches - development organizations to develop various alternate energy sources for automotive propulsion systems. Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have always complimented to the development of more efficient drivetrain systems. Electric Vehicles are considered to be Zero Emission Vehicles, but with a said limitation of range of the vehicle. Commercial Hybrid Electric Vehicles gives the extra added range compared to an electric vehicle, but the tail pipe emissions come into picture because of the IC engine being used in conjunction with the electric drive train. Therefore in order to achieve extended range and zero tail pipe emissions intensive research is going on for the development of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0115
MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte, Nabin Nepal
In current scenario importance of fuel efficient vehicles, lesser emissions & energy efficiency are the major considerations for any vehicle manufacturer. To meet these expectations vehicle manufacturer are exploring alternate powertrains to reduce emissions and produce better fuel efficient vehicles. For any vehicle manufacturer component cost, weight and package volume are the major driving factors for success. This is even true for latest upcoming hybrid and electric vehicles as well. To gain the cost advantage, OEMs are inclined to electrify their existing platforms to compete with other manufacturers. To convert existing vehicles into hybrid vehicles, all the major components like e machine, High voltage battery, power electronics etc. needs to be carefully packaged along with existing components in the same package space. This is a major challenge which needs optimum integration and packaging to ensure requirements at vehicle level and that of hybrid system level are satisfied.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0116
Chinmay Kshirsagar
Engines of commercial vehicles deliver significant amount of power (more than 25% of propulsive power) for non-propulsive loads such as Air-Conditioner, Alternator, Air Compressor, Radiator Fan, Steering Oil pump, lights etc. Use of these auxiliaries cause sub-optimal utilization of engine power resulting in increased fuel consumption and emissions. A fuel cell powered auxiliary power unit (FC-APU) is proposed to isolate the auxiliaries from the engine. Use of FC-APU shall help improve load carrying capacity, gradeability, fuel efficiency, and emissions of the vehicle. This paper describes a mathematical system level model developed using MATLAB-SIMULINK to estimate auxiliary power consumption and simulate FC-APU system. A statistical analysis is performed on the power consumed by various auxiliaries during different duty cycles. The data is used to propose a FC- APU system. Fuel cell is the most expensive component in the system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0146
Dhanashri Ravikiran Desai, Suhas Surywanshi, Bhalchandra Deshmukh
Paper Number Study of Eddy Current Principle and Clutch Mechanism for Fan Drive on Canopied Diesel Power Generator Performance Dhanashri R Desai, S.P.Suryawanshi, B.S.Deshmukh Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Pune, India V. N. Kapatkar Sinhgad College of engineering, Pune, India Copyright © 2014 SAE International ABSTRACT Developing countries always rely on the alternate source of power generation to have the uninterrupted power supply. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0150
Sanjay Chaudhuri, Vikram Saini
Special purpose, high payload carrying capacity, live gooseneck, multi axles, hydraulic suspension semi trailer is ab-initio designed for transportation and tilting of heavy cargo from horizontal to vertical by hydraulically actuated mechanism integrated on the trailer. The chassis is levelled on hydraulic jacks followed by tilting of cargo. Hence the chassis experiences variable forces during tilting and estimated from kinematic model of tilting mechanism. These forces are input for finite element based structural design of chassis. Structural deflection of a step is made as initial condition for certain load cases of the analysis. Live gooseneck of this semi-trailer consists of hydraulically actuated mechanism, interconnected with multiple hydraulic suspensions in appropriate ratios. Estimation of Axles and fifth wheel force distributions of such trailer is complex. Mathematical modelling made to estimate these forces and applied as inputs for finite element analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0111
Sri Charan Gunti, Sai Kiran Gunti, Amjad Shaik, Srinivasa Rao, Amarnath Reddy
Economy and Emissions are the main concerns for success of any commercial vehicle in the present day automotive market. Electric vehicles are attracting more attention due to their advantages in these two points of view as compared to Conventional fuel based vehicles. However, an important drawback for electric vehicles to be noticed is its range per a single charge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to overcome this drawback by upgrading an electric vehicle. The existing electric vehicle is converted into solar power assisted electric vehicle and the range of the vehicle has been increased further by adding additional power unit (IC engine + alternator). A control unit has been developed for energy management. This paper also discusses the performance characteristics of solar panels and IC engine. Results show that the range of converted electric vehicle has been increased by 1.8 times when compared with existing one.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0121
Maradona Rodrigues, Steve King, Dan Scott, Ducai Wang
Statistical studies have shown that electric vehicles existing in the market today can cater to 95% of daily driving in the UK, however problems arise when longer journeys are required or unexpected travel is needed at short notice. These problems necessitate either maintaining a second internal combustion engine powered car or use of public transport. An alternative to this is the use of a range extended electric vehicle (REEV). A REEV can operate as a pure electric vehicle on short journeys or as a series hybrid, with the aid of a small auxiliary power unit (APU), over longer distances. The addition of an APU eliminates the range anxiety prevalent in electric vehicle owners allowing the vehicles to travel further on the same charge. By optimizing the APU operation, significant fuel economy improvements and thus cost savings can be made. One drawback of a REEV however is the difference in vehicle noise output when operating as an electric vehicle and as a hybrid.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0144
Pankaj Brijbihari Sharma, Prafulla Dahiwade
This paper discusses the off-road performance evaluation of military application mini UGVs using terramechanics. Military ground vehicle requirements are defined by the terrains they traverse and the performance specifications defined by the users. By using the analytical approach the primary purpose is to study the mobility of mini UGVs for cross country application. These vehicles are evaluated on conditions of tractive force, drawbar pull, sinkage and slippage. Military vehicles must have the capacity to operate under extreme terrain conditions from deserts to hard rocky and paved roads to hilly and soft soil to snowy terrain. This vehicle was equipped with two electric motor drive of 450W, track size 585mmx50mm and main track with flipper track. The overall dimension of the vehicle is 1000mm length, 750mm width, 500mm height, minimum ground clearance 40mm and total vehicle weight of 60Kg. The vehicle was designed for tractive force of 520N for gradient climb of 40°.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0229
Jibing Zhang, Sanbao Hu, Xuexun Guo, Quan Zhou
Blade Electric Vehicles (BEVs) have received more and more attention from both consumers and automotive enterprises because of their being safer, more energy-saving and environmental friendly. However, BEVs’ development and promotion have had the major challenges such as high use cost, short driving distance and safety issues since they came up initially. To overcome those difficulties, the technologies for driving cell,motor and controller have recently achieved some progresses. Besides, vehicle lightweight technology was also a valid solution for those issues above and it could be much simpler and more effective. According to previous research, in terms of reducing the body weight, the application of new materials (such as light metals and composite materials) was a well-known method whereas their high cost caused the overall increasing of BEVs’ price.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0112
Pranay Verma, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
Indian economy is facing the burden of increasing oil import bill due to continuously rising consumer demands. A major chunk of this is attributed to the automobile industry. Hybridization of automotive vehicles seems to be a viable solution to overcome this burden. However, the effectiveness of hybridization depends upon the control strategy of the vehicle, which, in addition to many other functions also deals with the distribution of the torque between the electric motor and the internal combustion engine. Usually, hybrid vehicles have rule-based control strategies, which are developed from desktop based simulations carried over specific drive cycles on priori basis. Such strategies sometimes do not yield the best distribution of torque between the motor and the engine when the drive cycles are different and/or varying. In this study, an alternate approach to overcome the above stated problem is proposed and also validated using a full parallel hybrid vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0143
Navneet Chaudhari, K.V.V. Rao Srinivasa, Phillips Cecil
The purpose of a differential is to allow the wheels of an automobile to turn at different speeds so that it does not skid during turning. However when a vehicle runs on a slick or muddy surface (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) that same feature causes the wheel with less traction to spin freely as this unit transmits power to the tire with least amount of traction. The function of a difflock is to lock the differential gears , By locking the differential, both the axles receive equal power and hence equal traction is available at both the tires. This Paper describes the positive locking of a differential by stopper, and also in detail the problems associated with its engagement and disengagement in tractors and construction equipment's. Additionally a concept for a difflock stopper which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment's is also discussed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic load cases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0220
Sachin W. Thor, Shriniwas Chippa, Abhijit Majage
Dynamic Analysis of Outside rear view mirror of a car S. W. Thor1, S. P. Chippa1*, A. S. Majage2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 2Finite Four Technologies, Pune *Correspondence author : chippashriniwas@gmail.com Abstract:- An Automobile rear view mirror is attached at the side of the vehicle which is used to provide clear vision outside the vehicle. In the running condition of vehicle, various vibrations occur and are transferred to the mirror which may disturb driver's rear view. Since this issue is related to safety consideration, it becomes essential to minimize the vibration of mirror. Vibration analysis is very much important for the successful design and development of new parts in automobile. In present work, Vibration analysis of existing design of outside rear view mirror is investigated through numerical model using FEM. Furthermore, these results are verified through experimental work.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0036
Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti
Accurate measurements in proving ground for fuel consumption reduction study in heavy duty vehicles Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti Applus IDIADA group ABSTRACT Heavy duty trucks running costs are strongly influenced by high fuel consumption. Even a small reduction has a big effect on fleet cost savings and pollutant contamination. From the different possible sub-systems to improve, reducing the rolling resistance of the tires is a cost-effective option due to its relatively high influence on the fuel consumption preventing to lose other performances. Even if the other causes of resistance forces like mechanical friction and aerodynamics must be optimized as well. The focus of the work is to propose an accurate methodology for the proper evaluation of resistance forces to allow fuel consumption simulations for heavy trucks. For this purpose, the results obtained in proving ground applying different resistance forces measurement methodologies were analyzed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0045
Rico Baumgart, Joerg Aurich, Jan Ackermann, Christoph Danzer
The development of an energy efficient air conditioning system for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger cell reduces the cruising range dramatically. Almost always the compressor of the air conditioning system in electric cars is a scroll compressor with a separate electric motor and appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. Therefore, IAV develops innovative and energy efficient drivetrain structures for electric vehicles, which integrate the motor of the air conditioning compressor directly into the drivetrain of the vehicle. Thus it is possible to switch off the compressor motor and to use the main motor for the propulsion of the air conditioning compressor at certain driving situations. As a result the operating point of the main motor can be shifted to a better efficiency.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0142
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shakti Kumar Singh, Mangeshkumar Jadhao
Abstract In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl and injector specifications in 3.68 l off road diesel engine. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically, investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. Then experimental tests were carried out, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination were determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations were evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0065
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shalabh Parashar
The performance of internal combustion engines should be improved depending on some technological requirements and rapid increase in the fuel expenses. On the other hand, the improvements in engine materials are forced by using alternative fuels and environmental requirements. Therefore, the performances of engine materials become increasingly important. Experimental research of insulated diesel engine incorporating thermal barrier coating (TBC) has produced controversial result. Some publication report that engine efficiency increases with insulation, while other argue that efficiency decreases. There are report also presenting a mixed picture. This Paper presents comparative analysis of heat release in base line and insulated(Piston crown with plasma sprayed zirconia coating) diesel engine. The coating system effects on the fuel consumption, the power and the combustion efficiency, pollution contents and the fatigue lifetime of engine components.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0147
Vladimir Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Andrei Izmailov, Yakov lobachevskii
Feature of the modern Russian state agricultural organizations is what is happening has no valuation reduction of productive resources, tractor fleet, arable land and the number of employed workers. In the current context of limited resources, agricultural organizations are forced to operate tractors droves over the amortization period with unpredictable deadline use. In such a situation arises the problem of determining the optimal quantity and age composition of the tractor fleet. To solve the problem in the article presents the methodological approach of the analysis of two opposing factors. Firstly, presence tractors which used after the expiry of the depreciation is associated with increased costs for their operation, additional loss of crop, associated with reduced odds of technical readiness, which are proportional to the number of tractors working after the expiration of amortization. At the same time, lost profits should be taken into account in value form.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0120
Sohan Sontakke, Pankaj Kumar
The Performance of Electric Hybrid Transmission system is controlled by Electronic control unit (ECU). ECU Casing, which packages Printed circuit board (PCB) with components soldered on both sides, have to protect the PCB and components from • Thermal Damage • Dust and Water ingress • Vibrations in the vehicle • Air-Pressure fluctuations Paper enlightens Product development Architecture of ECU Casing explaining all Phases of product cultivation from processing of inputs till validation of the product. Requirement Analysis being first phase, analyses all PCB requirements, mechanical requirements related to product certification. Architecture Conceptualization being second phase, analyses layout optimization, Material Category, Manufacturing Category, Production Process, Material Grade. Design being third phase, analyses all aspects of Engineering Design, Manufacturing Design, and Feasibility Design.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0185
Kartik Panchal
The front and rear wings are essential in race cars in order to increase the down-force and enhance the stability of vehicle at high speed. The present work focuses on the computational modelling of NACA 4412 airfoil for front and rear wing of the racing vehicle and assesses its performance characteristics. The effect on wing characteristics in vicinity of ground and tire for varying angle of attack in moving ground frame has been studied. The computation has been carried out using high fidelity computational fluid dynamics model to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The front wing has been split into two parts main wing and flap with chord length of 0.3 meters and 0.15 meters respectively. Similarly, the rear wing was modelled with the chord length 0.3meter and aspect ratio of 1.5. The pressure and velocity flow distribution over the body of the vehicle has been studied for varying angle of attack.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0012
Torben Mielke, Mircea Negrean, Wei Lu, Jonas Rox, Jan Gacnik
Modern distributed electronic vehicle systems like advanced driver assistance systems are unique selling points for modern cars. These systems integrate different vehicle domains and existing components. When implementing such new billable features, it is the key to change the existing E/E-architecture only where it is mandatory, to avoid unnecessary additional cost per unit. To minimize the required changes to the existing hardware platform when integrating new functionality, vehicle manufacturers need to have in-depth knowledge of their E/E-architecture. This knowledge allows designing distributed systems which can be integrated cost-effectively (i.e. with the least amount of changes) into the existing E/E-architecture. With modern vehicle architectures featuring several bus technologies (e.g. CAN, LIN, FlexRay, Ethernet) and several dozens of E/E-components, the required in-depth knowledge of such architectures can only be achieved using model-based analysis and design techniques.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17912