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Viewing 1 to 30 of 18142
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1710
Xinran Tao, Kan Zhou, Andrej Ivanco, John R. Wagner, Heath Hofmann, Zoran Filipi
ABSTRACT The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. This paper examines the integration of an advanced control algorithm to a HEV powertrain cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump, three radiators, and heat exchanger and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle, which directly transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into the electric energy. The integrated system starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed and efficiency, as well as the core technology for emission reduction during the starting process and the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the starting process of the linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the starting process that adopts the linear generator as a drive motor is analysed, obtaining the fewest driving cycle and the energy pipeline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, Hans-Christian Reuss, Michael Grimm, A. Al-Janabi
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1709
Daniel Leighton
Electric drive vehicles (EDVs) have complex thermal management requirements not present in traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. In addition to cabin conditioning, the battery, power electronics, and electric motor drivetrain sub-systems also require thermal management. Many current generation EDVs utilize separate cooling systems for each of these sub-systems, which adds both weight and cost. Another issue for EDVs is the lack of abundant waste heat from the engine for cabin heating. In many cases EDVs use battery energy to heat the cabin via an electrical resistance heater, which results in vehicle range reductions of nearly 50% under cold ambient conditions. These EDV thermal challenges present an opportunity for integrated vehicle thermal management technologies which can reduce cost and weight, and enable efficient heating methods that increase vehicle range.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0250
Yanjing Wang, Chao Feng, Guangming Liu, Hong Fu, Shan Xue, Languang Lu, Jianfeng Hua, Minggao Ouyang
In order to reduce driver’s anxiety about range and energy, one direct and effective approach is to offer the remaining driving range based on the vehicle’s states. However, the estimation of the battery’s remaining energy is a key one of all the factors. This paper introduces a experiment-based model for predicting the remaining energy, which considers many factors, such as current, temperature, difference between battery cells, and so on. This approach ensures the accuracy of the remaining driving range. Finally the scheme is validated through the environment space test. Validation results show that this scheme can offer exact remaining energy , which reduces the error of the remaining range greatly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0441
Takashi Takiguchi, Yasuhiro Takii, Yusuke Yano, Nobuyuki Ohta
We require fast and accurate prediction to know the thermal performance for each car package. We established a highly accurate full-vehicle thermal prediction method applying the identification coefficients that we get from vehicle test results. The primary method of predicting this is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of conjugate heat transfer. CFD predicts external and exhaust gas flow, including their temperatures. Conditions taken into consideration are vehicle speed and temperature, heat rejection rate of the condenser, radiator, fan rotation speed, and exhaust gas flow. There are three identification coefficients required by each process. 1) Water temperature prediction process: Calculate ENG cooling loss and solar load by the 1D model, and input it into CFD as a heat rejection rate of the radiator and condenser.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0656
Amir Soltani, Francis Assadian
A new control strategy for wheel slip control, considering the complete dynamics of the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) system, is developed and experimentally validated in Cranfield University’s HiL system. The control system is based on closed loop shaping Youla-parameterisation method. The plant model is linearized about the nominal operating point, a Youla parameter is defined for all stabilizing feedback controller and control performance is achieved by employing closed loop shaping technique. The stability and performance of the controller are investigated in frequency and time domain, and verified by experiments using real EHB smart actuator fitted into the HiL system with driver in the loop.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
The ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emission have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. Hybrid powertrains are of many different configurations and may include such components as hybrid controller, engine, transmission, generator, battery and battery management system, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter etc. A Hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible and can be used for different types of hybrid powertrain configurations is greatly desired. This paper describes the design and implementation of a HiL testing system that can be used for testing various hybrid powertrain configurations and as few or as many of the powertrain components. The system is centered on a high performance real time controller that runs necessary driver, powertrain, driveline, and vehicle models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
This paper is based on a vehicle research project called CULT (Cars Ultra-Light Technology) under the lead of Magna Steyr Engineering (Graz, Austria) which focuses on the development of an ultra-light (600 kg) vehicle (4-seater, A-segment) with a hybrid propulsion system. The Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology of the TU Vienna, was responsible for the complete powertrain development. To reach the project CO2 target of only 49 g/km a downsized CNG DI engine was combined with a 6-gear automated transmission and a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG). The first part of this paper shortly summarizes the final project results by highlighting the CO2 saving potentials obtained by the 12 Volt BSG. The connection of the BSG on the transmission input shaft instead the conventional adaption on the belt-drive of the ICE should maximize the CO2 potentials. This new approach leads to a significantly increased recuperation potential, because the engine drag torque can be de clutched.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1156
Qiao Zhang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu
Accurate and reliable prediction on power demand is critically important for effective power or energy management for hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) with battery and supercapacitor for electric vehicles. Terrain information is one of the most common factors that greatly influence power demand prediction for both driving and regenerative braking. Since a HESS involves complex interactions between battery and supercapacitor, and between HESS and electric motors via a bidirectional DC/DC converter, the dynamics of these interactions can be greatly affected by the dynamics of power demand generated by varying road slopes with ups and downs, or more generally, the changing terrain, as how the power is to be supplied or to be consumed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1159
Ran Bao, Richard Stobart
The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify how turbocharger response time (“turbo-lag”) is best managed using pneumatic hybrid technology. Initially methods to improve response time have been analysed and compared. Then the evaluation of the performance improvement is conducted using two techniques: engine brake torque response and vehicle acceleration, using the engine simulation code, GT-POWER. Three pneumatic hybrid boost systems have been considered: Intake Boost System (I), Intake Port Boost System (IP) and Exhaust Boost System (E). The three systems respectively integrated in a six-cylinder 7.25 l heavy-duty diesel engine for a city bus application have been modelled. When the engine load is increased from no load to full load at 1600 rpm, the development of brake torque has been compared and analysed. The findings show that all three systems significantly reduce the engine response time, with System I giving the fastest engine response.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1161
Lei Feng, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng
This paper studies predictive control method for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy under aggressive driving. Aggressive driving not only causes car crashes but also greatly impacts the overall efficiency of HEVs. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV under aggressive driving scenarios. A dedicated stochastic model predictive control method is developed and it adopts Markov chain to predict driver’s acceleration pedal and brake pedal inputs in the future based on past information. The power output from the engine and motor will be adjusted to match driver’s power request at the end of the prediction window while avoiding transient peaks of engine power output.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1149
Donghao Liu, Haisheng Yu, Jiangwu Zhang
Nowadays environmental pollutions and energy efficiency are two of the major challenges for the automotive industry arisen from the increasingly stringent environmental standard. Over the last few years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been developed as the most promising solutions that can have the advantages both of the conventional vehicles and electric vehicles. The power-split hybrid powertrain has become the main stream of hybrid electric vehicles in the world market. Toyota hybrid system (THS) is a single mode power-split transmission, which has the advantages for the mechanical configure and control strategy. However, at high vehicle speeds, the speed of the driving motor is quite high, so that the efficiency of the driving motor is poor. General Motors (GM) two-mode hybrid system has two power-split modes and four fixed speed ratio transmissions with different combinations of the clutches to realize cost savings and reduce demand on the motor torque and speed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1152
Brendan M. Conlon, Alan Holmes, Margaret Palardy, Trevor Blohm, Leon Zhou, Steven Tarnowsky, Michael Harpster
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. This paper describes the second-generation “Voltec”. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine, are described and compared with the previous generation. Next, the transaxle powerflow is discussed and operation under typical driving conditions is explained. Finally, system efficiency and performance data, based on component tests, is presented and compared with the previous generation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0739
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for motosports drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. Beginning in the 2015 season, NASCAR®’s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) Sprint Cup Series will require driver seats which must have seat belt anchorage locations internal to the seat with a minimum of seven anchorage locations. This paper describes the research, development and benefits of the current NASCAR Seat Submission and Test Protocol Criteria, including the goals of the criteria, the methodology used to develop it and review of the developmental dynamic sled tests and quasi-static tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1274
Prashant Kaliram Pradip, David S-K. Ting, Graham Reader
Otto cycle engine is one of the most common technology used in automotive industry to produce mechanical power from the chemical energy of the fuel. In the cyclic process, about one third of heat energy produced by combustion is rejected to the exhaust, this limits the efficiency of the engine. Stirling engine is a closed-cycle external combustion engine, which works on a temperature difference and converts the heat energy into mechanical work. It is one of the most efficient engine, which can be used to recover heat from the exhaust of Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This combined Otto and Stirling cycle will substantially increase the overall efficiency of the system. Thermodynamic analysis for the combined system with a primary IC engine to power transmission and a Stirling engine for additional power and efficiency is proposed. The study starts with the modelling of commercially available Otto cycle for engine performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1277
Zhaoping Xu, Dengqiang Wang
[Abstract] Environmental pollution is getting worse and the natural resources become less and less. Hybrid electric vehicles have advantage of energy conservation and environmental protection, so they are more and more popular worldwide. As an important component and part of hybrid electric vehicles, a power plant should be developed for generating electrical power. The free piston generator has advantages of high power density, good fuel adaptability, low manufacture and maintenance costs, energy conservation and environmental protection, so it can serve as the power plant for hybrid electric vehicles. In the past decades, it has gained more and more attentions at home and abroad. At first, the author designed a four-stroke free piston generator with a single piston, and made a prototype experiment. Experiment result proved its feasibility and superiority in energy conservation and environmental protection.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1172
Wan Yu, Xu Sichuan
A fuel cell system consists of a stack, a hydrogen fuel supply and an air supply system. This provides the required air flow and pressure which allows the stack to properly react on the cathode side to recombine Oxygen with the Hydrogen's protons and electrons resulting in water and heat. In addition the air flow and pressure are supporting directly or indirectly the water management. In this paper different type air compressors for automotive application are compared: blower, screw compressor, Scroll Compressor/Expander, Variable Delivery Compressor/Expander, Integrated Compressor/Expander, roots compressor, turbocompressor, electrical turbo charger. Different technologies and control strategies allow the fuel cell system integrators and researchers to find the optimum between performances, weight, volume and cost.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1171
Hyun suk Choo
This paper proposes the several methods for recovering the performacne of fuel cell stack for FCEV, which is focused on the reduction of platinum surface oxide layer formed on cathode side during the vehicle operation. As a result of application of recovering methods, it is possible to partially rehabilitate the performance of degraded fuel cell stack by about 25-30% and to increase the durability of fuel cell stack ultimately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1173
S.M. Hosseini, Amir Hossein Shamekhi, Arya Yazdani, Behzad Elmiyeh
Due to increasing energy crisis and problems of environmental pollution, fuel cell hybrid vehicles are considered as an alternative for internal combustion (IC) vehicles. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the most proper kind of fuel cells for portable usage due to high power density and low performance temperature. In this paper, by using a dynamic model, power train system of a real car, SAMAND, is modeled and simulated by the MATLAB/SIMULINK© software. Five important subsystems in the model are: the cathode air supply system, the anode fuel supply system, the electric motor, the battery and the power transmission system. Finally, the parameters like the power and the voltage produced by the fuel cell, the electric motor torque and the vehicle speed are demonstrated as results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1176
Tushar Chaudhary
This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is high temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and air-recirculation ratio has been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel-cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1162
Frank Atzler, Michael Wegerer lng, Fabian Mehne lng, Stefan Rohrer lng
Downsized engines and 48V electrification are important enablers for achieving future emission and CO2 targets. A perfect fit with an attractive benefit-cost level can be achieved by a holistic approach that goes beyond a simple implementation of individual solutions. Some aspects and results will be given in this publication. The overall propulsion efficiency advancement includes the optimization of the internal combustion engine, the manual transmission as well as the Continental’s 48V Eco Drive system. In combination with the electric motor, the internal combustion engine can be calibrated to work very efficiently and with improved transient response. A comfortable drivability even at low engine speeds can be realized by the improved low-end-torque performance thanks to the electrical engine assist and other propulsion measures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1169
Akira Yamashita, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto, Nobuyuki Ogami
Development of High-pressure Hydrogen Storage System on Toyota new FCV, lightening, downsizing, cost reduction, and performance improvement in hydrogen refueling are presented. Two kind of larger diameter tanks have been newly developed, due to reduce the number of the four 70MPa tanks installed in 2008 model. These two tanks were arranged under a rear seat and a trunk without sacrificing any passenger space. The lamination constitution of the container each layer, and shape of the bosses were optimized for the container lightening, and the container mass efficiency of 5.7wt% was achieved. As for the carbon fiber for the container where high grade type had been adopted in 2008 model, the carbon fiber manufacture struggled to improve the strength of the general-purpose type, and we could change the fiber grade. Hereby, reduction of the fiber quantity, downsizing of the container, and the cost reduction were realized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1178
Sushil kumar
To carefully study the dynamic behavior of the fuel cells (FC), a dynamic test stand to validate their performance is essential. This study presents an economical approach for closed loop hardware in-the-loop HiL testing of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Systems PEMFC where the performance of 1.2 kW real PEMFC system is evaluated under the effect of simulated fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle FCHEV supported by various power management strategies. This work proposes the use of HiL methodology to test a real Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) in a closed loop system. The goal of this study is to present a model-based test system where the simulated FC is replaced with the real hardware component, and obtain a fast dynamic response between the simulated model and real hardware in a closed loop. The fuel cell hybrid vehicle was run under the load following and thermostatic control strategies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0440
Julio Carrera, ALFREDO NAVARRO, Concepcion Paz, Alvaro SANCHEZ, Jacobo Porteiro
Recent emissions standards have become more restrictive in terms of CO2 and NOx reduction. This has been translated into higher EGR rates at higher exhaust gas temperatures with lower coolant flow rates for much longer lifetimes. In consequence, Thermal Load for EGR components, specially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during the development. Consequently a new Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA) procedure has been developed in order to calculate durability. The TMA calculation is based on a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation (CFD) in which a boiling model is implemented for obtaining realistic temperature predictions of the metal parts exposed to possible local boiling. The FEM model has also been adjusted to capture the correct stress values by submodeling the critical areas. Life calculation is based on a Multiaxial Fatigue Model that has also been implemented in FEM software for node by node life calculation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0616
Aref M.A. Soliman
In this paper, passive and various types of intelligent vehicle suspension systems are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities and power requirements. These systems are, two and three setting switchable dampers and active suspension systems. The control gains of the intelligent systems are obtained using optimal control theory and gain scheduling strategy (GS) is used for the system behaviour. In the first strategy used, gains are selected based on suspension working space. While, the other strategy, gains are selected based on body acceleration. These strategies are used to maintain suspension working space and dynamic tyre deflection levels within design limits and to minimise body acceleration level. The mean power consumed in rolling resistance and the mean power dissipation within the suspensions are evaluated. The results showed that the gain scheduling strategy improves ride performance for all the types of suspension compared.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 18142