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Viewing 1 to 30 of 18261
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0433
Zeyu Ma, James Yang, Ming Jiang, Yunqing Zhang
A new recursive method is presented for real-time estimating the inertial parameters of a vehicle using the well-known Two-Degree-of-Freedom (2DOF) bicycle car model. The recursive state and parameter estimation is built on the framework of polynomial chaos theory and maximum likelihood estimation. Then the most likely value of both the mass and yaw mass moments of inertial can be obtained with the numerical simulations of yaw velocity. To work with a realistic set of measurements, several levels of measurement noise are exerted to the simulation results of yaw velocity. The estimation values indicate that the proposed method remains robust against the measurement noise together with high convergence speed and accuracy. The proposed novel method will also be useful for a broad range of estimation problems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract title: INTRODUCTION TO SUCCESSFUL PREDICTING OF PRODUCT PERFORMANCE (RELIABILITY, DURABILITY, SAFETY, QUALITY, RECALLS, AND OTHERS) This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance components. The best component for analyzing performance during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates reliability, durability, safety, profit, and total economic situation. Second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from the government (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance , including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls. It will demonstrate how dangerous is the current situation with recalls, reliability, durability, safety, especially in automotive, including in the USA for last thirty years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1230
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Jerry Ku
It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco’s STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team converted a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel hybrid for their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition. EcoCAR2 was a three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their different plug-in hybrid reengineering of GM donated vehicles. WSU’s Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) powertrain design provides 49 km (30 miles) of electric driving using a rear axle mounted traction motor before the front axle mounted ethanol (E85) Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. This design allows the vehicle to operate the traction motor and ICE independently for increased reliability and also together: for increased fuel economy or increased dynamic performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1123
Jiangwu Zhang, Donghao Liu, Haisheng Yu
Torsional vibrations of the full hybrid electric vehicle driveline with a novel single-mode power-split transmission are investigated, in which three power sources, internal combustion engine (ICE), motor/generator 1 (MG1) and motor/generator 2 (MG2) are equipped. The compound planetary gear unit inside the transmission provides the driveline output with continuously variable gear ratios and serves as a power splitting device. Though very similar in configuration, the compound planetary gear used herein is a novel variation of Ravigneaux planetary gear set. MG1, MG2 and ICE are connected to the small sun gear (S1), the large sun gear (S2), the planetary carrier (C), respectively. The ring gear (R) is connected to the final reduction gear (FR), outputting tractions by the conventional differential (DF) to the right and left half shafts for the front wheels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0673
Rohit Ray, Nagarjun Jawahar
Automotive OEM’s are looking to develop plastic parts with maximum life and durability through virtual simulations with help of CAE tools, thereby saving the mold cost, material cost and time. The design constrains would be manufacturability, loads, boundary condition and aesthetics. This work involves the multi-discipline approach to virtually visualize the effect of fluid structure interaction due to splashing on the rear fender of a motorcycle which acts as mud guard. This study shows effect of splashing of water over rear fender on wet roads. First, the pressure developed on the rear fender due to impingement of water on surface is obtained through a multiphase volume of fluid analysis using CFD software Fluent. Secondly, these pressure values are taken as input in Abaqus software and the part is analyzed for its durability along with road excitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1600
Tong Zou, Lu Xiong, Pengfei Yang, Chi Jin
Distributed drive electric vehicles are driven by four independent hub motors mounted directly in wheels while retaining the traditional hydraulic brake system. So it can quickly produce drive/brake motor torque and large stable hydraulic brake force. In this paper a control allocation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles (EV) is proposed to improve vehicles’ lateral stability performance. It exploits the quick response of motor torque and controllable hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic brake system. The allocation strategy is consisted of two sections. The first section uses an optimal allocation controller to calculate the total longitudinal force at each wheel. In the controller, a dynamic efficiency matrix is introduced via local linearization to improve lateral stability control performance, as it considers the influence of tire coupling characteristics over yaw moment control in extreme situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1698
Balamurugan Rathinam, Frederic Ravet, Cedric Servant, Laurent Delahaye, Upendra Naithani
Optimising the in-cylinder aerodynamics in Spark ignition (SI) engines is one of the most important contribution to improve the combustion efficiency and thus to save the fuel consumption and to limit CO and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions. The tumble motion originated near the Top Dead Centre (TDC) known as “Tumble Squeeze” is responsible for higher level of turbulence which is necessary to increase the turbulent flame velocity. Higher the flame velocity is, higher the combustion efficiency is. Experiments are conducted in an optical engine and the velocity fields are measured with the aid of advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique. The velocity fields are computed through simulation and compared with measurements. Then, the turbulence kinetic energy is also calculated from the velocity fields which are basically not possible to measure from the experiments. This study is performed for three different operating points with low and high tumble configurations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1228
Zhuoran Zhang, Miriam Di Russo, Xianfeng Yan, Ahmed I. Uddin, Dhanya Sankaran, Jerry C. Ku
This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0246
Hisashi Higashi
In Japan,low fuel consumption internal combustion engines :Fuel-efficient ICE (fuel-efficient internal combustion engine), HV,PHV,EV,FCV and other types of eco-friendly vehicles have been researched and developed as solutions to the energy and environmental problems, but none of these vehicles have been fully satisfactory in all respects, such as environmental performance, vehicle performance, and infrastructure. Hino Motors developed the small electric bus, based on the concept of short travel distance and high frequency of charging. Since 2012 two buses have operated in two areas as community bus and from 2013 one more. The capacity of lithium ion battery (LIB) was able to be fixed at minimum by development of the energy management in consideration of service. This paper describes the energy management for the small electric bus, and the design of the vehicle and the evaluation results of actual operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1231
Eli H. White, Douglas J. Nelson, P. Christopher Manning
Throughout the past several years, a major push has been made for the automotive industry to provide vehicles with lower environmental impacts while maintaining safety, performance, and overall appeal. Various legislation has been put into place to establish guidelines for these improvements and serve as a challenge for automakers all over the world. In light of these changes, hybrid technologies have been growing immensely on the market today as customers are seeing the benefits with lower fuel consumption and higher efficiency vehicles. With the need for hybrids rising, it is vital for the engineers of this age to understand the importance of advanced vehicle technologies and learn how and why these vehicles can change the world as we know it. To help in the education process, this paper seeks to define a powertrain model created and developed to help users understand the basics behind hybrid vehicles and the effects of these advanced technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0738
Joseph R. Kish, Zach Cano, Alexandra Kobylecky, Joseph McDermid, Timothy Skszek, John Kukalis
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative corrosion assessment of alloys and coating schemes of interest for the fabrication of multi-material lightweight vehicle architectures. Alloys considered for this application included galvanized steel, aluminum alloy 6111 and magnesium alloy ZEK100. The coating scheme considered for corrosion protection included a typical paint scheme (clear coat over top base coat enamel) applied to the alloy surface pre-treated using a commercially available conversion coating and electrocoated prior to painting. The magnesium ZEK100 alloy was also tested with an alternative plasma electrodeposition pre-treatment process applied to the surface as part of the coating scheme. The corrosion assessment of the scribed coated alloys was conducted after 1000 h exposure in the ASTM B117 salt fog environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1171
Hyun Suk Choo, Dae Kuen Chun, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hwan Soo Shin, Sung Kuen Lee, Yong Sun Park, Byung Ki Ahn
This paper proposes the several methods for recovering the performacne of fuel cell stack for FCEV, which is focused on the reduction of platinum surface oxide layer formed on cathode side during the vehicle operation. As a result of application of recovering methods, it is possible to partially rehabilitate the performance of degraded fuel cell stack by about 25-30% and to increase the durability of fuel cell stack ultimately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
We have developed four completely new parts for fuel cell vehicles. They are called separator, stack manifold, ion exchanger, silencer. The separator is a pressed metal plate sandwiched between the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) ,and it has a flow path of hydrogen, air and coolant. The separator we have developed is anode separator. It has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch of flow paths is very fine, it improve the uniformity of the gas flow and uniformity of the surface pressure on the MEA, therefore, it have contributed to improve the power generation performance. Also since nearly 400 separators are stacked up for one Fuel Cell Stack, it has to be very accurate. We have succeeded in the mass production of the separator by applying a precision press technology. Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the fuel cell stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1117
Yang Liu, Zechang Sun
Regenerative braking control for a four-wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicle equipped with a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system was studied. The 4WD electric vehicle powertrain with four in-wheel motors was introduced, and the four motors could be controlled independently during the driving or braking operation modes, which have advantages on powertrain configurations and fuel economy improvement over the vehicles driven by a single motor. An electro-hydraulic brake system using a master cylinder integrated with brake pedal feel simulator, hydraulic brake booster and failure backup was adopted to guarantee the coordinate control between the regenerative force and the hydraulic force, whose brake pedal force and wheel cylinder pressure was decoupled. The energy flow of the 4WD electric vehicle was analyzed during braking, and the brake force distribution strategy between the front-rear axles, in-wheel motor regenerative braking and hydraulic braking was studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Kichun Jo, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0439
Daniel B. Kosinski
The major topic that will be discussed in this paper is the new reliability growth planning model that is being developed by a member of the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) team at the Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). The model incorporates many of the advantageous features of the Army Materiel System Analysis Activity’s (AMSAA) Planning Model for Projection Methodology (PM2) and Bayesian Continuous Planning Model (BCPM) but replaces many of the unrealistic assumptions with more realistic and customizable ones. The interface, input setup and output results that were similar between PM2 and BCPM remain the same to ensure the new reliability growth planning model is intuitive to those familiar with PM2 or BCPM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1169
Akira Yamashita, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto, Nobuyuki Ogami
Development of High-pressure Hydrogen Storage System on Toyota new FCV, lightening, downsizing, cost reduction, and performance improvement in hydrogen refueling are presented. Two kind of larger diameter tanks have been newly developed, due to reduce the number of the four 70MPa tanks installed in 2008 model. These two tanks were arranged under a rear seat and a trunk without sacrificing any passenger space. The lamination constitution of the container each layer, and shape of the bosses were optimized for the container lightening, and the container mass efficiency of 5.7wt% was achieved. As for the carbon fiber for the container where high grade type had been adopted in 2008 model, the carbon fiber manufacture struggled to improve the strength of the general-purpose type, and we could change the fiber grade. Hereby, reduction of the fiber quantity, downsizing of the container, and the cost reduction were realized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1234
Patrick Ellsworth, William Scott, Michael Fowler, Roydon Fraser, Ben Gaffney, Daniel VanLanen
Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent a growing share of the automotive market. With the energy efficiency of a battery, coupled with the extended range of a fuel tank, modern PHEVs claim an impressive 98 mpg and a 380 mile range - although higher values have been reported [1] [2]. This is resultant of the vehicle control system, which discharges the battery in 'EV mode' (charge depletion mode) until a minimum state of charge (SOC) is reached before utilizing a 'charge sustaining' mode with the engine. However, this logic can be improved. Inspection of cell internal resistance (Rint) derived by the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test indicates that Rint is a function of SOC, thus some SOC ranges are more efficient than others. Therefore energy losses can be minimized by moving the charge sustaining operation to an efficient range.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1708
Tibor Kiss, Jason Lustbader, Daniel Leighton
For electric vehicles (EVs), there is a great need for highly optimized thermal management systems. Due to the relative shortage of waste heat, heating the passenger cabin in electric vehicles is difficult. Cooling the cabin can take a high portion of the energy available in the battery, significantly reducing vehicle efficiency and range. The range reduction can be as much as 50% by at least one report. Therefore, compared to IC engine driven vehicles, different heating methods and more efficient cooling methods are needed, which can make the electric vehicle’s thermal management system more complex. The more complex systems typically allow various alternative modes of operation which can be selected based on driving and ambient conditions. Investigating a number of system alternatives and determining the best ranges for the various operating modes with experimental methods can be very time consuming.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0228
Francesco Braghin, Francesco Salis
An innovative low cost active gear-shift and clutch for Formula Student cars is designed and produced. Racecars require extremely quick gear-shifts and every system to be as light as possible. The proposed solution has been designed to reduce energy consumption, weight and improve gear-shift precision compared to an electro-hydraulic solution although keeping state of the art performances. This could be easily obtained with DC electric motors, System modeling, regulator design, based on PI-control, and simulation were carried out. Electronics, both signal and power, micro-controller based design and program coding, written in C language, were the next steps. Data from the working system mounted on the car were acquired, in order to verify the validity of the design choices. The solution has proven to satisfy the requirements with 20 ms shifting time and reduced weight (2 kg), energy consumption and system complexity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0414
Rory Lilley, M. Sh. Asfoor, Michael Santora, Dan Cordon, Edwin Odom, Steven W. Beyerlein
Over the last four years the Vandal Hybrid Racing team at the University of Idaho has developed a compact, lightweight, and mass centralized vehicle design with a rule-based energy management system. Major areas of innovation included an upright, spindle, and braking system that dramatically reduced rolling resistance, a close fitting frame design made possible by locating major components (engine, battery box, electric motor, and gas tank) close to the ground and to the center of gravity. The vehicle also incorporates a trailing link suspension, and realization of a rule-based energy management system that oversees operation of a Lynch electric motor as well as a YZ250f engine that is housed in a custom crankcase. 2 MJ of energy can be initially stored in a single 50 lb lithium polymer battery box underneath the cockpit. 33 MJ of gasoline is stored in a 1.5 inch wide, 0.761 gallon tank immediately behind the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle, which directly transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into the electric energy. The integrated system starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed and efficiency, as well as the core technology for emission reduction during the starting process and the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the starting process of the linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the starting process that adopts the linear generator as a drive motor is analysed, obtaining the fewest driving cycle and the energy pipeline.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 18261