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Viewing 61 to 90 of 170
2012-06-05
Video
What will the passenger car fleet look like over the next two decades? As most expected, affordability and convenience are the major drivers of new vehicle technology penetration into the market. Within this scope, vehicle electrification strategy to limit oil dependence and meet the European targets for CO2 emissions should be cost-effective and convenient to the buyer. This paper will focus first, through different economic models, on the penetration of passenger electrified vehicles (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles PHVs and Electric Vehicles EVs) in Europe (EU15: 15 European Union member countries) up to 2030. Economic models are based on real world use behaviors and driving patterns in order to compute fuel and energy consumption and to estimate total cost of the vehicle including incentives. The economic models use household wages in order to later make conclusions on vehicle technology market shares by vehicle classes.
2012-06-05
Video
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
2012-06-04
Video
This paper forms the third of a series and presents results obtained during the testing and development phase of a dedicated range extender engine designed for use in a compact class vehicle. The first paper in this series used real world drive logs to identify usage patterns of such vehicles and a driveline model was used to determine the power output requirements of a range extender engine for this application. The second paper presented the results of a design study. Key attributes for the engine were identified, these being minimum package volume, low weight, low cost, and good NVH. A description of the selection process for identifying the appropriate engine technology to satisfy these attributes was given and the resulting design highlights were described. The paper concluded with a presentation of the resulting specification and design highlights of the engine. This paper will present the resulting engine performance characteristics.
2012-05-30
Video
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
2012-05-29
Video
This paper proposes a current limits distribution control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (parallel HEV) which includes an advanced powertrain concept with two electrical driving axles. One of the difficulties of an HEV powertrain with two electrical driving axles is the ability to distribute the electrical current of one high voltage battery appropriately to the two independent electrical motors. Depending on the vehicle driving condition (i.e., car maneuver) or the maximization of the entire efficiency chain of the system, a suitable control strategy is necessary. We propose an input-output feedback linearization strategy to cope with the nonlinear system subject to input constraints. This approach needs an external, state dependent saturation element, which translates the state dependent control input saturation to the new feedback linearizing input and therefore preserves the properties of the differential geometric framework.
2012-05-29
Video
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
2012-05-29
Video
This paper presents a low-cost path for extending the range of small urban pure electric vehicles by hydraulic hybridization. Energy management strategies are investigated to improve the electric range, component efficiencies, as well as battery usable capacity. As a starting point, a rule-based control strategy is derived by analysis of synergistic effects of lead-acid batteries, high efficient operating region of DC motor and the hydraulic pump/motor. Then, Dynamic Programming (DP) is used as a benchmark to find the optimal control trajectories for DC motor and Hydraulic Pump/Motor. Implementable rules are derived by studying the optimal control trajectories from DP. With new improved rules implemented, simulation results show electric range improvement due to increased battery usable capacity and higher average DC motor operating efficiency. Presenter Xianke Lin
2012-05-25
Video
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
2012-05-25
Video
In this paper we present the results of full-scale chassis dynamometer testing of two hybrid transit bus configurations, parallel and series and, in addition, quantify the impact of air conditioning. We also study the impact of using an electrically controlled cooling fan. The main trend that is noted, and perhaps expected, is that a significant fuel penalty is encountered during operation with air conditioning, ranging from 17-27% for the four buses considered. The testing shows that the series hybrid architecture is more efficient than the parallel hybrid in improving fuel economy during urban, low speed stop and go transit bus applications. In addition, smart cooling systems, such as the electrically controlled cooling fan can show a fuel economy benefit especially during high AC (or other increased engine load) conditions.
2012-05-25
Video
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
2012-05-23
Video
One promising solution for increasing vehicle fuel economy, while still maintaining long-range driving capability, is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) whose rechargeable energy source can be recharged from an external power source, making it a combination of an electric vehicle and a traditional hybrid vehicle. A PHEV is capable of operating as an electric vehicle until the battery is almost depleted, at which point the on-board internal combustion engine turns on, and generates power to meet the vehicle demands. When the vehicle is not in use, the battery can be recharged from an external energy source, once again allowing electric driving. A series of models is presented which simulate various powertrain architectures of PHEVs. To objectively evaluate the effect of powertrain architecture on fuel economy, the models were run according to the latest test procedures and all fuel economy values were utility factor weighted.
2012-05-23
Video
This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
2012-05-23
Video
Due to the integration of many interacting subsystems like hybrid vehicle management, energy management, distance management, etc. into the VCU platform the design steps for function development and calibration become more and more complex. This makes an aid necessary to relieve the development. Therefore, the aim of the proposed simulation-based development and calibration design is to improve the time-and-cost consuming development stages of modern VCU platforms. A simulation-based development framework is shown on a complex function development and calibration case study using an advanced powertrain concept with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concept with two electrical axles. Presenter Thomas Boehme, IAV GmbH
2012-05-17
Video
Multicore processor are well established in classical and tablet personal computers for some year. Such processors use more then one central core for computation and allow to integrate more computational power with smaller costs. However more than 90% of all processors worldwide are not placed in classical IT but are empedded in bigger systems like in modern vehicles or airplanes. Such systems face a very high demand in terms of safety, security an reliability which hinders the use of multicores in such systems. The funded project ARAMiS faces these demands and has the goal to enable the usability of multicore systems in the domains automotive and avionics, as well as later also railway. ARAMiS is the basis for higher traffic safety, traffic efficiency and comfort.
2012-05-16
Video
Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will focus on what a small team of ambitious and talented engineers can do when they have a dream! Back in 2009, a team of graduates from Imperial College London came together to do something radical to change the public perception of electric vehicles forever. They came up with the idea to design and build the world's longest range electric car, and then drive it down the longest and toughest road in the world; the 26,000km Pan-American Highway! Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will share the story from start to finish, and will also focus on the technology used to achieve such a feat, with particular mention of the electric motors. Presenter Alexander Schey, Imperial College London
2012-04-17
Video
The SAE 2012 World Congress theme, Get Connected, represents the new and diverse connections that will drive significant advancements in the auto industry of tomorrow. Not only does the theme symbolize literal connections, such as those between vehicles, infrastructure, the Internet, and the nation's electrical grid, but also demonstrates the most fundamental of connections; the connections and relationships between engineers who are developing the next generation vehicle technology. From OEMs to suppliers, across academia and governments, connecting to one another and using these connections to share ideas and expertise - in both healthy competition and in partnership - will be the catalyst of forthcoming innovation and the auto industry's basis to continued future success. GetConnected: SAE 2012 World Congress April 24-26, 2012 Cobo Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA Start connecting today. Vist www.sae.org/congress for more information.
2012-04-10
Video
Trans Tech recently debuted the all-electric eTrans school bus providing a total zero emission school bus. The presentation will demonstrate Smith Electric Vehicles and their history with electric vehicles. The presentation will help ensure that everybody has an idea of what the electric school bus will do and to dispel any rumors about the vehicle. Presenter Brian S. Barrington, Trans Tech. Bus
2012-04-10
Video
The basics of propane gas used as an automotive fuel. Topics include what propane is, how it is priced, how fleet obtain it and the basics on propane fueling infrastructure and employee training. Presenter Nathan Ediger, Ferrellgas
2012-04-10
Video
This talk will describe the nuances of a number of different types of driveline and how these will perform in the school bus marketplace. We will cover the results of the Plug-In School Bus program and some of the successes and challenges seen in those buses. Finally, we will discuss a vision for where the market is likely to go on the next 5-10-and 20 years. Presenter Ewan Pritchard, North Carolina State Univ.
2012-04-10
Video
Understanding the different types of alternative fuel and advanced vehicle technologies that are available, and deciding which would be the best fit for your fleet, is only half the battle. Limited budgets, now more than ever, create a need to find funding assistance to pursue these new technologies. This presentation will provide insight into making sure you know what assistance is available by providing information not only on the funding programs themselves, but also who to know and where to go to make sure you always have access to the best available information. Presenter Lori Clark, North Central Texas Council of Gov
2012-04-10
Video
With so many options for alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and emission reduction technologies, how can fleet managers make the best decisions for their fleet?s performance, compliance, and sustainability goals? Even more important, where is the funding that is often critical for implementing these decisions? This presentation will provide guidance on how to assess the options, how to prepare for writing grants and where to find funding opportunities. Presenter Laura Palombi, Clean Energy Coalition
2012-04-10
Video
A review of the processes that lead to the conclusion that CNG was the best solution for the fleet, including the efforts to gain public support for alternative fuels for school buses. MISD is now home for 42 CNG powered school buses (of 200). The presentation will include training and design tips for safety and smooth operations along with maintenance considerations for using CNG. Alternative fuels, the dilemma of which comes first - refueling station or operational buses ? has an impact on grant approval and funding, bearing discussion of the option of a public/private model. Unlike other alternative fuels, CNG has a national security impact Presenter Charles Stone, Mansfield Indep School Dist
2012-04-10
Video
Propane autogas, the world?s third most-used engine fuel, powers vehicles, transit buses, and now school buses. Blue Bird has recently launched the Next Generation Vision type C school bus, powered by a ROUSH CleanTech liquid propane autogas fuel system and a Ford 6.8L V10 engine. The bus reduces operating costs by up to 40%, greenhouse gas emissions by up to 24%, and maintains the factory horsepower, torque, and towing capacity ratings. Learn about how school districts are saving over $.30 / mile using this clean, domestically-produced fuel. Presenter Brian Carney, Roush CleanTech.
2012-04-10
Video
Who are the people who know the most about the buses in your fleet? They are most likely the operators and the servicing technicians. They are also the key people whose knowledge, level of training and attitude can determine the success or failure of new powertrain technologies. Training and recruitment of both need to be held to a higher standard than we have seen in the past. I will argue that even the culture of those involved in fleet operations needs to be changed. The bar for technical competence and product knowledge needs to be raised for operators and technicians. In return managers should find ways to include them as stakeholders, investing them with both additional responsibility and accountability. This will require greater access to training and recognition of achievement. Where are the busses stored and serviced? Most likely in an all-purpose state/county/municipal service facility servicing a variety of equipment.
2012-04-10
Video
Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
2012-04-10
Video
Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition is tracking performance data for the nation's largest hybrid diesel electric school bus fleet. Presenter Melissa Howell, Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition
2012-04-10
Video
The presentation by Tucker Perkins, President of CleanFUEL USA, provides important information to those wanting to learn about alternative fuels, specifically propane autogas. CleanFUEL USA provides liquid propane injection engine system for the 6L engine in the GM G4500 cutaway chassis used in many Type A busses. They are also developing an 8L engine in partnership with Freightliner/ThomasBuilt Bus for the Type C bus. This presentation discussed many of the advantages of propane autogas use, such as better economics, lower emissions, and inexpensive infrastructure for the fueling network. Presenter Tucker Perkins, CleanFUEL USA
2012-04-05
Video
Learn how the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program can help with the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology school buses. Presenter Mark S. Smith, US Department of Energy
2012-03-31
Video
Toyota is committed to the development of advanced powertrains to help address concerns with future oil supplies, the impacts of increased carbon dioxide emissions, and air pollution. Towards that end Toyota is planning to bring to market in 2012 a plug-in hybrid vehicle, a short range electric vehicle, a long range electric vehicle and in the 2015 timeframe hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicle. This presentation will focus on our electric vehicle plans and the challenges with bringing electric vehicle to the market. From the 2010 Alt Fuels Study, Toyota has identified that two key barriers for EV adoption are the times to charge the vehicle, and electricity cost. The study finds that the current infrastructure could be sufficient for most driving needs but EV drivers will still need to alter their driving habits slightly.
2012-03-29
Video
Several technological advancements have enabled hybrid technology to become a viable option in the commercial truck market. Although hybrid trucks are becoming more mainstream, they are not the right alternative fuel solution for every application. When matched with the right duty cycle, hybrid technology can provide a significant cost savings. Due to these advancements and anticipated benefits, hybrid commercial trucks are forecasted to become a significant part of the commercial truck market. Presenter Glenn Ellis, Hino Motors Sales USA Inc.
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