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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1515
Neil Lewington, Lauri Ohra-aho, Olav Lange, Klaus Rudnik
Industry trends towards lighter, more aerodynamically efficient road vehicles has the potential to degrade a vehicle’s response to crosswinds. In this paper, a methodology is outlined that indirectly couples a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics with a multi-body dynamics simulation (MBD) to determine yaw, roll and lateral response characteristics during a ‘severe’ crosswind event. This indirect coupling approach mimics physical test conditions outlined in open loop test method ISO 12021:2010 that forms part of the vehicle sign-off criterion at Ford Motor Company. The methodology uses an overset mesh CFD method to drive the vehicle through a prescribed crosswind event, providing unfiltered predictions of vehicle force and moment responses that are used as applied forces in the MBD model. The method does not account for changes in vehicle attitude due to applied aerodynamic forces and moments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1575
Andrei Keller, Sergei Aliukov, Vladislav Anchukov
Trucks are one of the most common modes of transport and they are operated in various road conditions. As a rule, all-wheel drive trucks are equipped with special systems and mechanisms to improve their cross-country capability and overall efficiency. The usage of blocked mechanisms for power distribution is one of the most popular and effective ways to improve the off-road vehicle performance. However, the lock of differential may adversely affect the stability and control of vehicle because of the unobvious redistribution of reactions acting on wheels, which consequently leads to poor performance and safety properties. Problems of rational distribution of power in transmissions of all-wheel drive vehicles, as well as research in the field of improving directional stability and active safety systems are among the priorities in modern automotive industry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0258
Mark Brudnak, James Walsh, Igor Baseski, Bryan LaRose
Laboratory based durability simulation has become an increasingly important component of vehicle system design validation and production release. It offers several advantages over field testing which has driven its adoption in the automotive and military sectors. Among these advantages are 1) repeatability, 2) earlier testing, 3) isolation of subsystems or components and 4) ability to compress and/or accelerate the testing. In this paper we present time-domain methods and techniques adapted, implemented and used at TARDEC to reduce the time required to perform a laboratory durability test of a full vehicle system, subsystem or component. Specifically, these methods approach a durability schedule holistically by considering all events/surfaces, repeats and channels of interest. It employs standard Generic Stress Life (GSL) approach, utilizing rain flow cycle counting and a minimum-average method of identifying portions of the events which are less severe.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1152
Jongryeol JEONG, Wonbin Lee, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
For many years, we have tested, analyzed and validated the models for convention, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles including thermal aspects. In this study, the control analysis and model validation of BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data. The vehicle test was performed on a chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber at Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Lab. BMW i3-REX is a series type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of 0.65L in-line 2-cylinders range extending engine with 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor and 18.8 kWh lithium-Ion battery. First, the components and vehicle models were developed based on the test data including thermal aspects. For example, engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1164
Zhe Huang
Electrification has been considered one of the major solutions to meet stringent US fuel economy and CO2 targets of 2025. Numerous published researches are mainly focused on improving fuel economy for passenger cars, but less has been done for larger size light-duty vehicles, such as pickup truck, SUV and minivan, which contribute to a considerable amount of vehicle sales in the US market. Due to the vehicle size, it is expected that ideal electrification architecture is different than that of the passenger car. The purpose of this study is to identify the best electrification strategy for an existing class 2 pickup truck for fuel economy improvement, while taking into account cost effectiveness for large market penetration. Vehicle electrification configuration concepts are examined by computer simulations. A design of experiment (DOE) is conducted to specify electric powertrain components for each configuration concept.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1160
Claudio Cubito, Luciano Rolando, Federico Millo, Biagio Ciuffo, Simone Serra, Germana Trentadue, Marcos Garcia Otura, Georgios Fontaras
This article analyses the vehicle Energy Management of a Euro 6 C-segment parallel Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) available on the European market, equipped with a Flywheel Alternator Starter (FAS) hybrid system. The car has various selectable operating modes, such as the Electric Vehicle (EV), Blended and Sport, characterized by a different usage of the electric driving with significant effects on the electric range and on CO2 emissions. The different hybrid control strategies were investigated applying the UNECE Regulation 83, used for the European type approval procedure, along the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To evaluate the influence of the forthcoming Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), which will replace the NEDC from September 2017, the same testing procedure was applied. Vehicle testing was carried out on a two axle chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission LAboratory (VELA) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1159
William D. Treharne, Charles Badger, Douglas Martin, Mohamed Mansour, Mark Smith
Hybrid and Electric vehicles present special challenges when developing a customer-selectable Economy mode, as the vehicles are already energy-efficient by design. This paper analyzes the sources of sub-optimal fuel economy in: energy generation, vehicle usage, and customer usage. The paper first reviews the effects on customer acceptance from other implementations of Economy Mode, using “Things Gone Wrong” data from customer surveys on competitive vehicles. This information was used as lessons learned for the new design. The paper then discusses which vehicle functional changes can be implemented to improve fuel economy while maintaining acceptable vehicle performance, along with acceptable noise, vibration, and harshness objectives. The vehicle parameters studied in this paper include: 12V loads, engine operating commands of torque and speed, EV operating limits, customer demand inputs, regenerative braking, cruise control operation, and climate control function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1184
Kiyoshi Handa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Minowa, Steven Mathison
Fuel cell automobiles are already on the market, and construction of hydrogen refueling stations is proceeding. Meanwhile, fuel cell motorcycles are still in the development stage, and it is necessary to develop a hydrogen refueling method for motorcycles. Automobiles and motorcycles should be able to share hydrogen refueling stations in the same manner as gasoline stations in order to reduce investment into infrastructure construction. However, the hydrogen vessel capacity of motorcycles is only a fraction that of automobiles, so the flow rate is too small and adjustment is a challenge when using a refueling method with a fixed pressure ramp rate, such as that of the automobile refueling standard. In addition, there are a number of issues for using the same refueling method as automobiles, such as cases in which the vessel becomes full simply by the refueling for initial pressure detection. For these reasons, it is a challenge to share hydrogen refueling stations with automobiles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0031
Mohamed Benmimoun
In the last years various advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been introduced in the market. More highly advanced functions up to automated driving functions are currently under research. By means of these functions partly automated driving in specific situations is already or will be soon realized, e.g. traffic jam assist. Besides the technical challenges to develop such automated driving functions for complex situations, e.g. construction or intersection areas, new approaches for the evaluation of these functions under different driving conditions are necessary, in order to assess the benefits and identify potential weaknesses. Classical approaches for evaluation and market sign off will require an extensive testing, which results in high costs and time demands. Therefore the classical approaches are hardly feasible taking into account higher levels of support and automation. Today the final sign-off requires a high amount of real world tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation. Most research in this area main focus on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve autonomous driving functions such as model based approaches and neural network based approaches. However, even if the autonomous driving functions are ideally achieved, the performance of the system is still subject to sensing exceptions. Few research has studied how to efficiently handle such sensing exceptions. In existing autonomous approaches, sensors, such as cameras, radars and lidars, usually need to be full calibrated or trained after mounted on the vehicles and before being used for autonomous driving. A simple unexpected on the sensors, e.g., mounting position or angle of a camera is changed, may lead the autonomous driving function to fail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0210
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Abd El-Rahman Ali Hekal, Dipan P. Arora, Alaa El-Sharkawy, Sadek S. Rahman
With the increase in demand of fuel efficient transportation system, various efforts have been made to collect waste energies to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions in the automobiles. Currently, in a typical internal combustion engine, approximately one third of the fossil fuel combustion by-product is wasted heat. By collecting the heat emitted through the exhaust systems using heat exchanger concept can be used to increase the passenger heating and comfort during cold ambient conditions as well as reduction of exhaust system surface temperatures. Lower exhaust surface temperature improves the durability of various under-hood and underbody components near the exhaust pipe. In this paper, the effects of integrating a gas/coolant heat exchanger close to the engine catalytic converter on reduction of the exhaust surface temperature for various real-world dynamic driving conditions are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0215
Mohammad Nahid, Amin Sharfuzzaman, Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0214
Simon o. Omekanda, Rezwanur Rahman, Eric M. Lott, Sadek S. Rahman, Daniel E. Hornback
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of inputs. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine model are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink and Flowmaster, respectively. In order to extend the lumped mass engine model it also has been extended to Simulink model. In contrast to the complexity of the models the “Heuristic search” of input parameters has been found to be challenging and time consuming.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0216
Joydip Saha, Harshit Coutinho, Sadek S. Rahman
Current and future automotive systems are becoming more complex than ever. They consist of different subsystems such as the engine, transmission, cooling system, driveline, controls systems, HVAC and active/passive safety systems. Hardware and software development for each of these subsystems have different timeline’s. The subsystems are usually developed by different teams within an organization and in some cases are also developed by suppliers. These are some of the main hurdles for carrying out a system level analysis of the vehicle earlier in the development process. Model.CONNECT was used to overcome the above mentioned hurdles by connecting a driveline model, a cooling system model, thermal controller and two-phase flow models with minimal effort.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0217
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan P. Arora, Amr Gamal Sami, Abd El-Rahman Ali Hekal
In this paper, an algorithm for transient thermal analysis of rotating components has been developed. The analysis considers the effect of a radiation from surrounding heat sources and convection by under-body airflow. The objective of this work is to determine the instantaneous temperature of the rotating element’s surface at different operating conditions. Experimental determination of these temperatures is possible though it is typically a challenging task, especially at high rotational speeds and high temperatures. The proposed model utilizes a modular approach to calculate the view factor between the radiation heat source and the rotating component. This approach can be extended to include any geometric layout and arrangement between the two surfaces. The view factors are dynamically evaluated at each time step during the simulation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0213
Rezwanur Rahman, Sadek S. Rahman
The demand for Hybrid Electrified Vehicles (HEVs) is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0211
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Avik Chakravarty
In this paper we investigate the application of time constant to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients from experimental vehicle-level test data. For simulation of vehicle components temperatures, heat transfer coefficients are critical pieces of information that must be known with a reasonably high level of accuracy. Available data from literature are based on empirical equations that may or may not apply for the components of interest. The variation in accuracy depends on the geometry of the components being investigated and the airflow around it. In this approach, the vehicle speed is allowed to run in a step change under fixed engine load and ambient temperature. The test is allowed to continue until component temperature reaches steady state. The time constant for each component is determined from the response curve. From the time constant data, convective heat transfer coefficient can be determined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0212
Mohammad Nahid, Rezwanur Rahman, Tabassum Hossainy, Shreyas Kapatral, Prashant Modi, Joydip Saha, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1-D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor as well as transmission lubricant temperature during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N Khalid Ahmed
While excluding component changes, it is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. One strategy to improve EV range could be to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper investigates how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile data was used to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on evolving driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1246
Fan Xu, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang, Yan Zhou, Mohammed Alam
Power modules play a key role in traction inverters for vehicle electrification applications. The harsh automotive operating environment is a big challenge for power modules. The paper highlights the challenges for power modules usage in electrified vehicles (xEVs), and proposes a design verification procedure for such application in order to ensure safe and reliable operation under all conditions. First, power modules operate in all climate zones and are exposed to a wide ambient temperature range underhood from -40°C to 105°C. A typical automotive power module should therefore withstand a junction temperature from -40°C to 150°C without exceeding its safe operating area (SOA), e.g. avalanche breakdown voltage, maximum current, and thermal limit. Second, an inductive induced high voltage spike could be generated during the power semiconductor fast switching at high voltage and high current conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1257
Haotian Wu
Previous studies have investigated various hybrid and electric powertrain architectures to balance concerns about the energy consumption and drivability. However, present architectures have some intrinsic drawbacks on the powertrain torque winding up, weight, packaging and energy harvest. This study proposed an electric powertrain that is powered by four independent motor drive. In order to investigate the drivability and regeneration braking performance, physics-based models of vehicle, motor and battery were developed; meanwhile, the dual-loop feed-forward motor control and hybrid sliding mode control were presented. The Physics model-based evaluation was conducted by using the co-simulation technology of LMS AMESim and Simulink. The results show that the proposed four-wheel independent electric powertrain can achieve better drivability and regeneration braking performance. The proposed hybrid sliding mode control can converge faster than the bang-bang control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1252
Ming Cheng, Lei Feng, Bo Chen
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model of Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model with battery thermal aging features. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1254
Raja Sangili Vadamalu, Christian Beidl
Vehicle connectivity presents opportunities for reduction of energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Potential for efficiency enhancement through predictive measures has been demonstrated in research projects such as simTD and ECOMOVE. Powertrain systems exploiting information from vehicle connectivity have widened the system boundary resulting in additional degrees-of-freedom for predictive trajectory planning. Heuristic methods based on component characteristics are currently widely used for Energy Management (EM) functionality of hybridized powertrains. Despite its better usability, increased calibration effort and sensitivity to synthetic calibration scenarios are drawbacks of such control methods. Availability of predictive data, better computing power and challenges posed by varied scenarios in real driving have led to interest in online-optimizing EM functionality.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0263
Krishnaraj Udayachalam, Manan Trivedi, Ziliang Zheng, Amit Shrestha, Naeim Henein
SASOL IPK ( Iso-Paraffinic Kerosene) is a low cetane number synthetic fuel formed from coal by Fischer-Tropsch process which can be used as an extender to JP8, currently used in military ground vehicles. This paper presents two surrogates developed considering the following criteria: (a) availability of kinetic combustion models for each component, (b) smallest number of components to reduce computation time and cost, (c) matching the following properties of target fuel: derived Cetane Number (DCN), distillation curve , density, lower heating value, molecular weight and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. The autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates were validated in IQT(Ignition Quality Tester) according to ASTM D6890-10a. Surrogate formulation strategy involves an equation to calculate DCN of the surrogate mixture from the DCN of each component.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0486
Daniel Frantz
In light of growing global awareness of environmental concerns, automotive manufacturers have received pressure from governmental regulations and consumer demand to incorporate more recycled materials into vehicle production. Polyamide 6 (nylon 6, PA6), a polymer used in many automotive components, is a prime target for the incorporation of recycled materials. PA6 is used and recovered by the carpet industry, and can be processed into a usable recycled polymer (RPA6). To evaluate the potential use of RPA6, injection molded samples comprised of RPA6, glass fiber, and one of three recycled fillers (rice husk ash, micronized rubber powder, and torrefied biomass) will be prepared and subjected to mechanical, thermal, morphological, and rheological testing. It is predicted that these materials will meet the requirements for automotive door handles, engine fan shrouds, and turn signal arms, which are typically made from glass-reinforced nylons.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1358
Hyunbin Park
We present a novel rear-view side mirror constructed with an external lens and a planar mirror to improve both aerodynamics as well as blind spot of vehicles. We have designed the exterior lens with a free-form optical design technique to display the undistorted image on the planar mirror. The manufactured prototype of the mirror has the maximum protrusion length of 7.0 cm from the vehicle body with the field of view angle of 40 degrees for a passenger’s side, and of 15 degrees for a driver’s side, respectively. The proposed side mirror provides an alternative solution to replace conventional side mirrors in compliance with the FMVSS regulation of the rear-view side mirror of vehicles.
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