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Viewing 1 to 30 of 12805
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2205
Velmurugan M A, MahendraMohan Rajagopal
Agricultural tractors are often subjected to various applications like front end loading work, cultivation work, where frequent forward and reverse gears are needed. Most of Indian agricultural tractors are equipped with mechanical transmission system which demands repeated clutching and de-clutching operation for such applications resulting in increased operator fatigue and lesser productivity. Also need of electronics in Indian agricultural industry for better farm mechanization is growing high. This research work depicts development of electronic bi-directional shifting (power shuttle) control design and calibration for farm vehicle fitted with wet clutch transmission.This research also reduces operator fatigue via frequent directional shift through electronic transmission. The control system is designed without any electronic interfacing with engine and also provides clutch-less gear shifting and auto-launch which offers ease to drive even for novice driver.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2452
Kingsley Joel Berry, Abdrahamane Traore, Aravind Krishna, Pavankumar Gangadhar, Allan Taylor
This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 36 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with P2 configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption test methods and its limits of the third stage will be introduced and explained in detail. Then, the quasi static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC cycle are built.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2364
Jiaqiang Li, Chao He, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Zidi Li, Wei Chen, Shijie wang
Urea selective catalytic reduction is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea selective catalytic reduction process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and provides to catalysts to reduce NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12℃. For preventing deposits formation, the aqueous urea solution is difficult to be injected into the exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200℃. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Jiapeng zhang
The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fration (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative DOC+V-SCR exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2208
Tao Liu, Ziwang Lu, Guangyu Tian
To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) , an adaptive energy management strategy (EMS) considering driver’s power demand reasonability is proposed, which is necessary to reduce fuel consumption, emission and traffic congestion. To get accurate and reliable control strategy two aspects are the most important: 1) a rigorous and organized modeling approach to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV, 2) a trade off between optimization and real time. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. Based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) a powertrain architecture of HEV is constructed. Generally EMS includes rule based that can be used online with suboptimal solution and optimization based that ensures the minimum fuel consumption with heavy computation duty and requirement of prior knowledge.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled engines have been widely equipped on heavy duty vehicles both for fuel-economic and environmental protection concerns, however, they always suffer from deteriorated combustion performance and flame stability due to relatively low burning velocity of methane for lean mixture. In this paper, experimental study was conducted on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition, lean-burn LNG engine with methanol port injection. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure traces, heat release rate (HRR), mass fraction burned (MFB), ignition delay, centroid of heat release, position of CA50 and CA90, as well as cyclic variation of peak pressure were analysed under light load (BMEP=0.3876MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 5.2%, 10.2%, 17.2%). The experimental results show that combustion phase advanced with increment of MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2462
Ruipeng Zhang, Kaichuang Meng
The powertrain of the separated axle hybrid electric dump truck was analyzed, and the vehicle dynamics model was established. Considering the switch among different drive modes during the process of driving, a driving force coordinated allocation control strategy was applied. The control strategy adopts hierarchical structure, the upper layer determines power take-off mode of the vehicle, the middle layer calculates the drive torque of each axle according to its axle load, the lower layer uses PID algorithm to avoid the slip of the drive axle. Control model is established according to the control strategy, combined with the established vehicle dynamic model, co-simulation was conducted. The simulation results show that the driving force coordinated control strategy can adapt to the full load climbing condition and low adhesion road condition, realize the reasonable distribution of driving force and make full use of the ground adhesion.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2222
ZhenYang Liu, Xihui Wang
The ever increasing popularity of electric vehicles and demand in passengers comfort and safe requirements of vehicle have led more efficient heat pump air conditioning system to an indispensable device in electric vehicle. Many studies have shown that the addition of nano particles contributes to improving the thermal conductivity of nano fluids more than that of conventional refrigerants. Therefore, the appliance of the magnetic nano-refrigerant in heat pump air conditioning system has great potential to improve the heat transfer efficiency. This paper aims at studying the magnetic nano-refrigerant comprised of the magnetic nano powder Fe3O4 and refrigerant R134a.According to the relevant theoretical analysis and different empirical formula, the heat transfer coefficient, density, viscosity, and other physical parameters are calculated approximately.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan ZENG, Penghao ZHANG
Abstract:In low temperature condition, the increase of fuel viscosity, the decrease of flow-ability of lubricating oil and the decrease of storage battery performance cause the engine starting difficult. The current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but it causes a negative influence on storage battery performance and exhaust emission. In this paper, a warming device uses solar energy to directly warm up the engine. The device transfers solar power into thermal energy and store it into heat reservoir and uses heat conductor to warm up the engine. By using solar power to save power, the lifespan of the engine is extended and exhaust emission is decreased. This paper find out the heat amount necessary for diesel engine through resource gathering and calculation, choose an appropriate device and design a corresponding solar warming system. Keywords: warming system, solar power, diesel engine
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1953
Manfei Bai, Lu Xiong, Zhiqiang Fu, Renxie Zhang
Abstract: In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation require an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1954
Peng Hang, Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo
Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. Compared with conventional front-wheel-steering (FWS) vehicles, 4WIS and 4WID EV has superior maneuverability, handing stability and path-tracking capability thanks to more actuators. Therefore, it is more suitable for a desired AGV. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1958
Motion Planning of Automatic Driving in Complex Traffic Scenarios With the increasing complexity, dynamicity and uncertainty of traffic, motion planning of automatic driving is getting more difficult and challenging. This paper focuses on the real-time motion planning problem of connected and automated vehicles in complex traffic scenarios. To effectively solve this problem, a general driving risk model is presented, which contains the following two essential parts: i) collision risk, i.e., the collision risk between the subject vehicle and other surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, buildings etc.; ii) non-collision risk, such as violation of traffic regulations, the difference between the actual operation state of the subject vehicle and the intention of driver, etc. In order to achieve the real time collision detection, the subject vehicle is approximated to a dot and its shape is considered by extending the dimension of obstcales considering their relative position and velocity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1955
Yandong Ruan, Hui Chen, Jiancong Li
An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key component of autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and economy. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1960
Xiaopeng Zong, Guoyan Xu, Guizhen Yu, Hongjie Su, Chaowei Hu
Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper we apply reinforcement learning to the problem of forming effective strategies. We note that there are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. First, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which means that traditional Q-learning can’t deal with. Second, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. We make three contributions in our work.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1962
Hongluo Li, Yutao Luo
With the rapid development of science and technology, intelligent electric vehicle (IEV) has gradually become the research focus to the scholars. The planning of the trajectory and the accurate path tracking ability are the two key technologies to realize the intelligent driving objective. This paper is conducted in this field that related research about intelligent drive to study the optimal steering wheel angle input.This paper proposes a method that dynamically plans the trajectory, not only to achieve quick reaction to the changing driving environment, but also to optimize the balance between vehicle performance and driving efficiency. First of all, the lane changing trajectory was planned based on the positive and negative trapezoidal lateral acceleration method, synchronously, the multi-objective optimization function was built which comprehensive such indexes: lateral acceleration/ lateral acceleration rate/ yaw rate/lane changing time and lane changing distance.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1967
Wei Liu, Huan Tian, Jun Hu, Shuai Cheng, Huai Yuan
Image segmentation is critical in autonomous driving field. It can reveal essential clues such as objects’ shape or boundary information. The information, moreover, can be leveraged as input information of other tasks: vehicle detection, for example, or vehicle trajectory prediction. SegNet, one deep learning based segmentation model proposed by Cambridge, has been a public baseline for scene perceptron tasks. It, however, suffers an accuracy deficiency in objects marginal area. Segmentation of the area can be seen as the most difficult one compared with others. To alleviate the problem, in this paper, we propose one edge enhanced deep learning based model. Specifically, we first introduced one simple, yet effective Artificial Interfering Mechanism (AIM) which feeds segmentation model manual extracted key features. We argue this mechanism possesses the ability to enhance essential features extraction and hence, ameliorate the model performance.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1978
Yuxiang Feng, Simon Pickering, Edward Chappell, Pejman iravani PhD, Chris Brace
The major contribution of this paper is to propose a low-cost accurate distance estimation approach. It is the first step of a research program aiming to model driving style variance. This paper proposes to fuse long range radar and monocular camera using Kalman filter, and can potentially be used in driver modelling, accident avoidance and autonomous driving. Based on MATLAB and Python, sensory data from a Continental radar and a monocular dashcam were fused using Kalman filter. Both sensors were mounted on a VW Sharan, performing repeated driving on a same route. The established system consists of three components, radar data processing, camera data processing and data fusion using Kalman filter. For radar data processing, raw radar measurements were directly collected from a data logger and analyzed using a Python program. Valid data were extracted and time stamped for further use. Meanwhile, a Nextbase monocular dashcam was used to record corresponding traffic scenarios.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2010
Junfeng Yang, Michael Ward, Jahangir Akhtar‎
The INSIGHT project aims to develop driverless shuttles with advanced sensors and control systems for testing pedestrian areas with a focus on improving urban accessibility for disabled and visually-impaired people. The project activities require a safety case to provide guidance to identify and classify hazardous events, and avoid these risks by providing appropriate requirements and processes. The safety approach complying with requirements in ISO 26262 has been employed to generate series of hazardous events, safety goals and functional safety requirements in the vehicle level throughout the entire development lifecycle process. The technical focus of this study is on navigation system, human-machine interaction system and vehicle motion control system, e.g. steering, propulsion, suspension and brake. The malfunctioning behaviour of these system has been assessed, and their safety with layers of protection are produced based on the present method.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our Concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will also increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1977
Xin Bi, Bin Tan, Zhijun Xu, Libo Huang
The sensing technology of vehicle is the primary problem for advanced driver assistant system(ADAS) and autonomous driving functions. The fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is an important trend to enhance the environmental perception performance. Converting the multiple target parameters (such as distance, velocity, angle, etc.) detected by radar sensor into the corresponding image coordinates is the key of fusion algorithm processing, as well as a difficulty. This paper presents a method in order to detect and classify the on-road obstacles, like cars or not cars (other obstacles),faster and more accurately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Intelligent and Connected Vehicles ( ICV) is a new generation of vehicles equipped with advanced sensors,controllers and actuators,and integrated with modern communication and network technologies. It can realize intelligent information exchange and sharing between vehicle and X(X——pedestrian,vehicle,road,background, etc.), with the functionalities of environment sensing,intelligent decision-making and cooperative control.It is safer,cleaner and smarter,and finally can replace the human driver.ICV becomes hotspot all around the world and it is highly concerned by Chinese government. National projects(e.g.,“13th Five Year Plan”and “Made in China 2025”) have paid a lot attention to the development of ICV. China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has established a demonstration area of ICV in Shanghai,thus Shanghai became the first pilot city of intelligent vehicle and autonomous driving.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2491
Baskar Anthonysamy, Arun kumar Prasad, Babasaheb Shinde
Fierce competition in India’s automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whose brake force distribution is variable. Braking force distribution has an important and serious role in the vehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking force distribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the virtual optimization process has been implemented. This strategy, defined as an innovative braking force distribution strategy, is based on the wheel slips.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets imposed by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a significant number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for 2021. Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV fuel consumption is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0173
Jean-Charles Dabadie, Antonio Sciarretta, Gregory Font, Fabrice Le Berr
Due to more and more complex powertrain architectures and the necessity to optimize them on the whole driving conditions, simulation tools are becoming indisputable for car manufacturers and suppliers. Indeed, simulation is at the basis of any algorithm aimed at finding the best compromise between fuel consumption, emissions, drivability, and performance during the conception phase. For hybrid vehicles, the energy management strategy is a key driver to ensure the best fuel consumption and thus has to be optimized carefully as well. In this regard, the coupling of an offline hybrid strategy optimizer (HOT) based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) and an online equivalent-consumption-minimization strategy (ECMS) generator is presented. Additionally, methods to estimate the efficiency maps and other overall characteristics of the main powertrain components (thermal engine, electric motor(s), and battery) from a few design parameters are shown.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0174
Laura Tribioli, Paolo Iora, Raffaello Cozzolino, Daniele Chiappini
Road transportation is proved to be one of the main contributor to pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions. This, together with the rising of fuel price, is striving the automotive sector research towards innovative solutions. Promising solutions fuel cell vehicles, which generally make use of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with the possibility of further reducing pollutant emissions, giving a satisfactory range without the need of an internal combustion engine. Nonetheless, even being a relatively mature technology, there are still some disadvantages related to the use of fuel cells for vehicles, such as high costs, low power density, and lack of hydrogen infrastructures. The latter issue could be solved by using an on-board fuel processor for hydrogen production.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1926
Jos Frank, Sohin Doshi, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Abstract In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1935
Vellavedu Velumani Praveen, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract Formula SAE is a prestigious engineering design competition, where student team design, fabricate and test their formula style race car, with the guidelines of the FSAE rulebook, according to which the car is designed, for example the engine must be a four-stroke, Otto-cycle piston engine with a displacement no greater than 710cc. According to FSAE 2017 Rule Book [1], ARTICLE 3, IC3.2 and IC3.3 state that the maximum sound level should not exceed 110 dBC at an average piston speed of 15:25 m/s (for the KTM 390 engine, which has 60 mm stroke length, the noise level will be measured at 7500 RPM) and 103 dBC at Idle RPM. So, the active muffler which works as a normal reflective muffler till the 7500 RPM range, after which an electronic controlled throttle mechanism is used to reduce the backpressure (since after 7500 RPM the noise level doesn't matter in FSAE) by using tach signal from the engine to control the throttle (two position).
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1938
Shyam Sunder Manivannan, Gopkumar Kuttikrishnan, Rajesh Siva, Janarthanan C, G A Ramadass
Abstract The hybrid robot will be a battery operated four wheel drive vehicle with a rigid chassis for all terrain operation. The vehicle will be suited for various payloads based on applications with geological, atmospheric sensors and buried object identification at a depth of 8 to 100 m., etc. The vehicle will be remotely controlled through a RF signal, allows it to maneuver up to 5 km. The novelty of the design, is its capability for all terrain and ease of trafficability based on skid steering, self-alignment of sensors and vehicle traction in spite of possible inverted conditions and the vehicle can travel from land, snow, water and vice versa. The vehicle could be deployed for surveying coastline of water bodies, borderlines and also be extensively used in polar region for studying glacier aging and as advance vehicle for the convoys and polar mapping.
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