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Viewing 181 to 210 of 19836
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0258
Mark Brudnak, James Walsh, Igor Baseski, Bryan LaRose
Laboratory based durability simulation has become an increasingly important component of vehicle system design validation and production release. It offers several advantages over field testing which has driven its adoption in the automotive and military sectors. Among these advantages are 1) repeatability, 2) earlier testing, 3) isolation of subsystems or components and 4) ability to compress and/or accelerate the testing. In this paper we present time-domain methods and techniques adapted, implemented and used at TARDEC to reduce the time required to perform a laboratory durability test of a full vehicle system, subsystem or component. Specifically, these methods approach a durability schedule holistically by considering all events/surfaces, repeats and channels of interest. It employs standard Generic Stress Life (GSL) approach, utilizing rain flow cycle counting and a minimum-average method of identifying portions of the events which are less severe.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0260
Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
The increasing electrification of military vehicles is also increasing the need for accurate models of electric motors and generators for use in powertrain design. In particular, there is a strong need to accurately model the internal temperatures of these machines. Thus, an accurate yet computationally-efficient thermal model is required. In previous work, a technique capable of dramatically reducing the order of a 3-dimensional finite-element (FE) thermal conduction model was developed. The developed model has acceptable accuracy but is orders of magnitude faster than the FE model. This new model was validated by a locked-rotor test with close agreement, but the results are unsatisfactory when the rotor is spinning, since the resulting heat convection behavior is not precisely modeled. This paper will present a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0257
Liang Wu, Fangwu Ma, Yongfeng Pu, HongBin Yin
This research focuses on an integration of body tilting controller and rear wheel steering controller to improve military ground vehicle performances in terms of safety, steering sensitivity, road holding capability, lateral stability and ride comfort. An active body tilting controller allows the car body to tilt against the direction of centrifugal force so as to eliminate unpleasant lateral acceleration for ride comfort and balance left and right vertical tire forces for road holding capability. Due to the balanced vertical tire forces, the tilting controller also has a great potential to enhance steering sensitivity and lateral safety in cornering maneuvers. In order to get additional improvement of the lateral stability and safety, an active steering controller is used which controls the rear wheels to follow desired yaw rate and sideslip angle of vehicle as much as close.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0256
Xianhe Wu, Yudong Fang, Zhenfei Zhan, Xu Liu, Gang Guo
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the most crucial problems in the automotive industry. Increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, such as fuel economy and environmental protection, must be met. The lightweight design needs to consider various vehicle attributes, including crashworthiness and stiffness. Therefore, the essence of vehicle weight reduction is a typical Multidisciplinary Design Optimization problem. To improve the computational efficiency, meta-models have been widely used as the surrogate of FE model in the multidisciplinary optimization of large structures. However, these surrogate models introduce additional sources of uncertainty, such as model uncertainty, which may lead to the poor accuracy in prediction. In this paper, a method of corrected Surrogate model based multidisciplinary design optimization under uncertainty is proposed to incorporate both of the uncertainties introduced by meta-models and design variables.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0263
Krishnaraj Udayachalam, Manan Trivedi, Ziliang Zheng, Amit Shrestha, Naeim Henein
SASOL IPK ( Iso-Paraffinic Kerosene) is a low cetane number synthetic fuel formed from coal by Fischer-Tropsch process which can be used as an extender to JP8, currently used in military ground vehicles. This paper presents two surrogates developed considering the following criteria: (a) availability of kinetic combustion models for each component, (b) smallest number of components to reduce computation time and cost, (c) matching the following properties of target fuel: derived Cetane Number (DCN), distillation curve , density, lower heating value, molecular weight and hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. The autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates were validated in IQT(Ignition Quality Tester) according to ASTM D6890-10a. Surrogate formulation strategy involves an equation to calculate DCN of the surrogate mixture from the DCN of each component.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0240
Yanli Zhao, Hao Zhou, Yimin Liu
Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle is one of key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars yearly in third party vendors to offer employee shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees from designated locations and provide daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operation efficiency behind these commercial services. They can significantly reduce operation costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus number, while maintaining given the same quality of service. The study will develop an off-line optimization routing methods for employee shuttle services in some regions. First, based on the historical demand data collected from a factory in Thailand, we develop a constraint programming model to compute the optimal routes and number of shuttles needed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0695
Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
In order to meet the continuously stringent standards in terms of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption from combustion engines of road vehicles, several investigations have been recently conducted about in-cylinder techniques and aftertreatment systems. In particular, the control of the fuel injected quantity and of the center of combustion (MFB50) performed cylinder-by-cylinder can effectively provide advantages in terms of pollutant formation and fuel consumption. In the present investigation, an experimental comparison among different control strategies is performed in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. The first control strategy is the standard one originally implemented in the ECU, whereas the other two are referred to as model-based and pressure-based combustion controls and have been implemented by means of rapid prototyping and proper hardware device connected to the ECU.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0622
Sury Janarthanam, Sarav Paramasivam, Patrick Maguire, James Gebbie, Douglas Hughes
Abstract Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) utilize a High Voltage (HV) battery pack to improve fuel economy by maximizing the capture of vehicle kinetic energy for reuse. Consequently, these HV battery packs experience frequent and rapid charge-discharge cycles. The heat generated during these cycles must be managed effectively to maintain battery cell performance and cell life. The HV battery pack cooling system must keep the HV battery pack temperature below a design target value and maintain a uniform temperature across all of the cells in the HV battery pack. Herein, the authors discuss some of the design points of the air cooled HV battery packs in Ford Motor Company’s current model C-Max and Fusion HEVs. In these vehicles, the flow of battery cooling air was required to not only provide effective cooling of the battery cells, but to simultaneously cool a direct current high voltage to low voltage (DC-DC) converter module.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Abstract Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0059
Barbaros Serter, Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Abstract Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0063
John Botham, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Antony Powell, Peter Miller, Olivier Haas, David McGeoch, Arun Chakrapani Rao, Colin O'Halloran, Jaroslaw Kiec, Asif Farooq, Saman Poushpas, Nick Tudor
Abstract PICASSOS was a UK government funded programme to improve the ability of automotive supply chains to develop complex software-intensive systems with high safety assurance and at an acceptable cost. This was executed by a consortium of three universities and five companies including an automotive OEM and suppliers. Three major elements of the PICASSOS project were: use of automated model based verification technology utilising formal methods; application of this technology in the context of ISO 26262; and evaluation to measure the impact of this approach to inform key management decisions on the costs, benefits and risks of applying this technology on live projects. The project spanned system level design and software development. This was achieved by using a unified model based process incorporating SysML at the system level and using Simulink and Stateflow auto-coded into C at the software level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0067
Wei Han, Xinyu Zhang, Jialun Yin, Yutong Li, Deyi Li
Abstract Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0068
Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Jasprit Singh Gill, Pierluigi Pisu, Joachim Taiber
Abstract In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, most of today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
Abstract This manuscript compares window-based data imputation approaches for data coming from connected vehicles during actual driving scenarios and obtained using on-board data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleansing and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course for each vehicle ID, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle's ignition statuses ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of ignition ON and OFF events is also presented, since this signal was not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
Abstract While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Abstract Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract With the embedded sensors – typically Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and GPS, the smartphone could be leveraged as a low-cost sensing platform for estimating vehicle dynamics. However, the orientation and relative movement of the smartphone inside the vehicle yields the main challenge for platform deployment. This study proposes a solution of converting the smartphone-referenced IMU readings into vehicle-referenced accelerations, which allows free-positioned smartphone for the in-vehicle dynamics sensing. The approach is consisted of (i) geometry coordinate transformation techniques, (ii) neural networks regression of IMU from GPS, and (iii) adaptive filtering processes. Experiment is conducted in three driving environments which cover high occurrence of vehicle dynamic movements in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions. The processing effectiveness at five typical positions (three fixed and two flexible) are examined.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0126
Joshua W. Finn, John R. Wagner
Abstract Hybrid vehicle embedded systems and payloads require progressively more accurate and versatile thermal control mechanisms and strategies capable of withstanding harsh environments and increasing power density. The division of the cargo and passenger compartments into convective thermal zones which are independently managed can lead to a manageable temperature control problem. This study investigates the performance of a Peltier-effect thermoelectric zone cooling system to regulate the temperature of target objects (e.g., electronic controllers, auxiliary computer equipment, etc) within ground vehicles. Multiple thermoelectric cooling modules (TEC) are integrated with convective cooling fans to provide chilled air for convective heat transfer from a robust, compact, and solid state device. A series of control strategies have been designed and evaluated to track a prescribed time-varying temperature profile while minimizing power consumption.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0133
Bin Xu, Adamu Yebi, Simona Onori, Zoran Filipi, Xiaobing Liu, John Shutty, Paul Anschel, Mark Hoffman
Abstract This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1172
Yan-Song Chen, Joshua Chang, I-Ming Chen, Ming-Yen Chen, Tyng Liu
Abstract A hybrid transmission may be in any combination of a power-split, series or parallel configuration. This study is aimed to develop a hybrid transmission with six possible configurations: power-split, series, two parallel configurations, and two EV configurations. The Function Power Graph (FPG) methodology was applied in this study. After creating and merging FPGs, a possible solution consisting of only one planetary gearset, one ICE, one MG1, one MG2, two rotating clutches, and one brake clutch was synthesized to satisfy all configuration requirements. This transmission was based on power-split configuration which can switch to other configurations. The parallel configuration I extracted more power from MG1 and ICE during lower speed driving in order to utilize the two sufficiently, and respond to the increased desire for horsepower in the market. Additionally, parallel configuration II was set up so that ICE can directly propel the vehicle during freeway cruising.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1170
Tong Zhang, Chen Wang, Wentai Zhou, Huijun Cheng, Haisheng Yu
Abstract Because a compound power-split transmission is directly connected to the engine, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in strong jerks and torque losses when the hybrid vehicle is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. In order to enhance ride comfort and reduce the output torque gap during mode transition process, a brake clutch assisted coordinated control strategy was developed. Firstly, the dynamic plant model of the power-split vehicle including driveline model, engine ripple torque and brake clutch torque was deduced. Secondly, the brake clutch assisted mode transition process was analyzed, and the output torque capability was compared between cases of both brake clutch assisted and unassisted mode transition process. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired motor torque, brake clutch torque, engine torque, and the moment of fuel injection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1167
Kousuke Baba, Yuuki Kubo, Toyoji Yagi, Akihiro Imura
Abstract In this paper, we propose a high voltage brushless AC starter that contributes to improved fuel efficiency and a reduction in the cost of the one-motor two-clutch hybrid system, which we call a 1MG2CL system. We have named it the HV starter, and it is composed of an AC motor, inverter and pinion with a shift mechanism. One of the issues with the 1MG2CL system is the high electrical energy when starting an ICE as it switches over from EV drive to HEV drive. While the ICE is starting, the main motor has to crank the ICE via the clutch; the clutch slips to absorb the main motor power, so the main motor has to output a high power to overcome the loss. Therefore, to contribute to reducing the electrical power by eliminating clutch slip losses, we developed an HV starter as a dedicated ICE starting device. Thanks to the reduction in electrical power, the HV starter is able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce system costs.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1168
Zheng Liu, Walter J. Ortmann, Bernard Nefcy, Dan Colvin, Francis Connolly
Abstract In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Regenerative Braking is an essential function to convert vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy, which charges the battery during a braking event to make a portion of captured kinetic energy available for use later. In comparison, conventional vehicles use friction brakes only and kinetic energy is dissipated as heat and not made available for later use. This paper introduces methods of evaluating Regenerative Braking Efficiency, including multiple efficiency definitions that lead to different attributes. The paper proposes regenerative brake event definitions during the FTP cycle and how they are used for control strategy and calibration updates. Also, we apply the efficiency metrics to four different vehicles from four automotive manufacturers for comparison. The paper presents a sample comparison result.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1182
Xin Guo, Xu Peng, Sichuan Xu
Abstract Startup from subzero temperature is one of the major challenges for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to realize commercialization. Below the freezing point (0°C), water will freeze easily, which blocks the reactant gases into the reaction sites, thus leading to the start failure and material degradation. Therefore, for PEMFC in vehicle application, finding suitable ways to reach successful startup from subfreezing environment is a prerequisite. As it’s difficult and complex for experimental studies to measure the internal quantities, mathematical models are the effective ways to study the detailed transport process and physical phenomenon, which make it possible to achieve detailed prediction of the inner life of the cell. However, review papers only on cold start numerical models are not available. In this study, an extensive review on cold start models is summarized featuring the states and phase changes of water, heat and mass transfer.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1183
Kenneth Johnson, Michael J. Veenstra, David Gotthold, Kevin Simmons, Kyle Alvine, Bert Hobein, Daniel Houston, Norman Newhouse, Brian Yeggy, Alex Vaipan, Thomas Steinhausler, Anand Rau
Abstract Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1179
Tatsuya Arai, Ozaki Takashi, Kazuki Amemiya, Tsuyoshi Takahashi
Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1173
Shunya Kato, Ikuo Ando, Koji Ohshima, Tooru Matsubara, Yasuhiro Hiasa, Hideki Furuta, Yuma Mori
Abstract Lexus launched the new hybrid luxury coupe LC500h in 2017 to help enhance its brand image and competitiveness for the new generation of Lexus. During the development of the LC500h, major improvements were made to the hybrid system by adopting the newly-developed Multi Stage Hybrid System, which combines a multi stage shift device with the transmission from the previous hybrid system to maximize the potential of the electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission. Optimum engine and electrical component specifications were designed for the new vehicle and transmission. As a result, the LC500h achieves a 0-to-60 mph acceleration time of 4.7 seconds, with a combined fuel economy of 30.0 mpg while satisfying SULEV emissions requirements. Two controls were constructed to help resolve the issues that arose due to adding the shift device.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1198
Po Hong, Hongliang Jiang, Jian qiu Li, Liangfei Xu, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract The lithium-ion battery plays an important role in saving energy and lowering emissions. Many parameters like temperature have an influence on the characteristic of the battery and this phenomenon becomes more serious in an electric vehicle. In this paper, the application of a boost DC/DC converter to the battery system of high power for online AC impedance identification is proposed. The function of the converter is to inject a current excitation signal into the battery at work and the normal output current is drawn by a load. Through analyzing the average state space equations and deriving the small signal model of the converter, the gain function is deduced of the fluctuated current signal against the fluctuated duty cycle which controls the converter. The control algorithm is designed and the system model is verified using Matlab/Simulink with respect to the disturbance current signal generation, the gain function and its variation with frequency range.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1184
Kiyoshi Handa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Minowa, Steven Mathison
Abstract A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 19836