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Viewing 151 to 180 of 19836
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1253
Somnath Sengupta, Chethan Gururaja, Sushant Hingane, Prajwal A K, Malay Maniar, Ondřej Mikuláš, Jaroslav Pekar
Abstract Increasingly strict CO2 and emissions norms are pushing the automotive industry towards increasing adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. HEVs are complex hardware systems which are often controlled by software that is complex to maintain, time-consuming to calibrate, and not always guaranteed to deliver optimal fuel economy. Hence, coordinated, systematic control of different subsystems of HEV is an attractive proposition. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) based supervisory controllers have been developed to coordinate the power split between the two prime movers of an HEV – internal combustion engine and electric motor. A dynamical physics based HEV model has been developed for simulation of the system behavior. A cost function has been formulated to improve fuel economy and battery life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Jayaraman Krishnasamy, Martin Hosek
Abstract An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, which are enabled by a novel isotropic soft magnetic material produced by a unique additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The motor is expected to offer an unprecedented combination of high power output, compact size, low weight and energy efficiency, achieving more than two times higher power density than state-of-the-art high-performance traction motors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies showed that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to traffic light changes. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1478
Srinivas Kurna, Sajal Jain, Palish Raja, Laxman Vishwakarma
Abstract In an automobile, main function of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle on a desired course. Steering system consists of various components & linkages. Using these linkages, the torque from steering wheel is transferred to tyre which results in turning of the vehicle. Over the life of vehicle, these steering components are subjected to various loading conditions. As steering components are safety critical parts in the vehicle, therefore they should not fail while running because it will cause vehicle breakdown. In commercial vehicle segment, vehicle breakdown means delay in freight delivery which results in huge loss to costumer. Therefore, while designing steering components one should consider all the possible loadings condition those are possible. But, it can’t be done through theoretical calculation. Therefore, physical tests have to be carried out to validate design of steering system, which is very costly & time-consuming process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1734
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Guo-Shun Chuang
Abstract An accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is necessary not only for optimal energy management but also for protecting the lithium-ion batteries (LIB) from being deeply discharged or overcharged. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is established to simulate the dynamic behavior of LIB. Parameters of internal resistance, diffusion resistance and diffusion capacitance are identified using the recursive least square method. Because open circuit voltage (OCV) and SOC have an obviously nonlinear relationship, an extended Kalman filter is proposed to estimate the SOC based on the ECM model. Local linearization is employed to approximate the nonlinear SOC-OCV curve by a straight line with the slope and intersection around the operating point. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed algorithm is less than 5% for the test patterns.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1730
Gridsada Phanomchoeng, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Nowadays, the tendency of people using bicycles as the way of transportation has increased as well as the tendency of the bicycle accidents. According to the research of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), National Survey on Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitude and Behavior, the major root causes of bicycle accidents are from the road surface condition. Thus, this work has developed the system to detect the road surface condition. The system utilizes the laser and camera to measure the height of road. Then, with the information of the road height and bicycle speed, the road surface condition can be classified into 3 categories due to severe condition of the road. For the secure road, cyclists could safely ride on it. For the warning road, cyclists need to slow down the speed. Lastly, for the dangerous road, cyclists have to stop their bicycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1727
Yumin Lin, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Hsien-Chi Tsai, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract A model-based sensor fault detection algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect and isolate the faulty sensor. Wheel speeds are validated using the wheel speed deviations before being employed to check the sensor measurements of the vehicle dynamics. Kinematic models are employed to estimate yaw rate, lateral acceleration, and steering wheel angle. A Kalman filter based on a point mass model is employed to estimate longitudinal speed and acceleration. The estimated vehicle dynamics and sensor measurements are used to calculate the residuals. Adaptive threshold values are employed to identify the abnormal increments of residuals. Recursive least square method is used to design the coefficients of the expressions for adaptive threshold values, such that the false alarms caused by model uncertainties can be prevented. Different combinations of estimations are employed to obtain 18 residuals.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1723
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Jham Tikoliya, Hemant Nishad
Abstract As the commercial vehicle engine heads towards the next generation of stringent emissions and fuel economy targets, all aspects of the internal combustion engine are subject to close scrutiny. Inherently, ICE’s are very inefficient, with efficiency varying between 18 ~ 40%. This efficiency is a function of friction losses, pumping losses and wasted heat. Currently, automotive OEM’s globally are hard at work trying to attack these issues with various solutions to achieve incremental gains. The leading trend is getting more power from less space, also known as downsizing. Due to the importance of downsizing, direct injection and other technologies, it is imperative to highlight another key area, where OEM’s are expanding their limits to gain those extra few kilometers per liter of fuel i.e. weight reduction. From an emissions perspective, it is estimated that every 50 kg of weight reduced from an average 1,500 kg vehicle cuts CO2 emissions by 4 ~ 5 grams.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1152
Jongryeol Jeong, Wonbin Lee, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1427
Daniel Koch, Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost
Abstract Tire disablement events can cause a drag force that slows a vehicle. In this study, the magnitude of the deceleration was measured for different phases of 29 high speed tire tread separation and air loss tests. These deceleration rates can assist in reconstructing the speed of a vehicle involved in an accident following a tire disablement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1433
Enrique Bonugli, Joseph Cormier, Matthew Reilly, Lars Reinhart
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and ‘typical’ roadway surfaces. Motorcycle helmet impacts into asphalt and concrete surfaces were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impact testing. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate an off-centered oblique collision. Helmeted Hybrid III ATD head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. The study was limited to a single helmet model and impact angle (30 degrees). Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and concrete in magnitude, duration and onset.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1406
Changliu Liu, Jianyu Chen, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract Road safety is one of the major concerns for automated vehicles. In order for these vehicles to interact safely and efficiently with the other road participants, the behavior of the automated vehicles should be carefully designed. Liu and Tomizuka proposed the Robustly-safe Automated Driving system (ROAD) which prevents or minimizes occurrences of collisions of the automated vehicle with other road participants while maintaining efficiency. In this paper, a set of design principles are elaborated as an extension of the previous work, including robust perception and cognition algorithms for environment monitoring and high level decision making and low level control algorithms for safe maneuvering of the automated vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0412
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays the semi-active suspension system is a challenge in the Automobile industry to improve the ride comfort performance of the vehicles. Hence, improving the vehicle ride comfort performance by using the semi-active suspension has a negative effect on the harshness performance of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper suggests a solution to improve the harshness performance of the vehicle through optimizing the damper top mount characteristics of the of the semi-active suspension system. In this study an optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort and harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated full vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0425
Hong Wang, Yanjun Huang, Chen Lv, Amir Khajepour
Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked bulldozers greatly. In this paper, we will present a procedure for the design of a rule-based power management strategy by defining a cost function, such as minimizing the fuel consumption over a driving cycle. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a series hybrid electric tracked bulldozer, dynamic programming algorithm is then utilized to determine the optimal control actions for a series hybrid powertrain in order to minimize fuel consumption, which can be the benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies. The results from comparing the DP strategy and the rule-based control strategy indicate that there is an approximately 6.8%improvement in fuel economy. Index Terms- Series hybrid electric tracked vehicle, power management strategy, rule-based, dynamic programming.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0413
Mustafa Ali Arat, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Most ground vehicles related accidents occur when the friction demand to perform a maneuver with a certain vehicle and tires exceeds the coefficient of friction of the pavement surface. As generally known, the forces and moments acting on the vehicle body are mainly generated by tire forces which highly depend on this surface friction coefficient. The common characteristics of tire forces on any surface include a linear region where the forces vary linearly with respect to the relative slip values; and a nonlinear region where the forces saturate and may even start decreasing. The experience of most of the daily drivers on the roads is limited within this linear region where the dynamic behavior of the vehicle remains proportional to the driver’s inputs. Therefore, an unexpected change in tire or surface characteristics (due to a change in surface friction, large driver inputs, etc.) may easily cause the driver to panic and/or to lose his/her ability to maintain a stable vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding, Jiancai Liu PhD, Jianbo Su Sr, Zhiyuan He Sr, Benhong Tan Sr, Ligang Wang
Recently, for automotive industry, weight reduction is increasingly needed to improve fuel efficiency and to meet emission requirement. Substituting heavy metallic materials with strong and light composites seems to be the most viable choice to achieve vehicle weight reduction. Because of a high level of styling flexibility and simple process, injection molding is the concern of OEMS. However, injection molding part especially for large part would have large deformation. Therefore, the deformation must be controlled within the requirement during development. According with topology optimization result, we get the structure of IP carrier. The result of moldflow analysis showed that the largest deformation in X direction is 19.4mm, in Y direction is 9.5mm, in Z direction is 13.7mm, which were not satisfy the deformation requirement that was the deformation of the core area must be less than 3mm. By structure optimization, the deformation reduction was obviously.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0502
Mingde Ding, Jiancai Liu, Jianbo Su, Zhong Su, Bo Liu, Ligang Wang
The IP carrier plays a very important structural and safety role in the vehicle. Functionally, it forms the skeleton of the cockpit, providing the base architecture off which IP components are attached and function. At present, the IP carrier is commenly used steel, and is welded by more than 20 parts. Its weight is usually 8-14kg. For the reason of fuel efficiency and enviromental friendly, lightweight of the IP carrier is very necessary. Various lightweight technologies have been applied to IP carrier: Magnesium alloy part, Alluminum alloy part, Hybrid composite part, Composite material injection part. For Magnesium alloy part, the IP carrier which have the equal performance compared to steel part can be integrated to one part, therefore the production process is simplified. Weight can be reduced 40%-60% However, the magnesium injection part have high process requirement and need postreatment which will add cost obviously. These disadvantages limited the mass production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0259
Xinran Tao, John R. Wagner
ABSTRACT Heat rejection in ground vehicle propulsion systems remains a challenge given variations in powertrain configurations, driving cycles, and ambient conditions as well as space constraints and available power budgets. An optimization strategy is proposed for engine radiator geometry size scaling to minimize the cooling system power consumption while satisfying both the heat removal rate requirement and the radiator dimension size limitation. A finite difference method (FDM) based on a heat exchanger model is introduced and utilized in the optimization design. The optimization technique searches for the best radiator core dimension solution over the design space, subject to different constraints. To validate the proposed heat exchanger model and optimization algorithm, a heavy duty military truck engine cooling system is investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0261
Randolph Jones, Robert Marinier III, Frank Koss, Robert Bechtel, John A. Sauter
When evaluating new vehicle designs, modeling and simulation offer techniques to predict parameters such as maximum speed, fuel efficiency, turning radius, and the like. However, the measure of greatest interest is the likelihood of mission success. One approach to assessing the likelihood of mission success in simulation is to build behavior models, operating at the human decision-making level, that can execute realistic missions in simulation. This approach makes it possible to not only measure changes in mission success rates, but also to analyze the causes of mission failures. Layering behavior modeling and simulation on underlying models of equipment and components enables measurement of more conventional parameters such as time, fuel efficiency under realistic conditions, distance traveled, equipment used, and survivability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0264
Venkatesh Babu, Ravi Thyagarajan, Jaisankar Ramalingam
In this paper, the capability of three methods of modelling detonation of high explosives (HE) buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) (2) Structured - Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (S-ALE), and (3) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE),are investigated. The ALE method of modeling the effects of buried charges in soil is well known and widely used in blast simulations today Due to high computational costs, inconsistent robustness and long run times, alternate modeling methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and DEM are gaining more traction. In all these methods, accuracy of the analysis relies not only on the fidelity of the soil and high explosive models but also on the robustness of fluid-structure interaction. These high-fidelity models are also useful in generating fast running models (FRM) useful for rapid generation of blast simulation results of acceptable accuracy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0267
Tomasz Haupt, Gregory Henley, Angela Card, Michael S. Mazzola, Matthew Doude, Scott Shurin, Christopher Goodin
Pending OPSEC review
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0270
Richard Gerth, Ryan Howell
Recently, the Army has published the Lightweight Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Campaign (LCVSTC), within which it was recommended to develop a better understanding of the operational impact that weight reduction has to the Army. The question of the value of lightweighting to the military is, as the authors describe in this paper, a complex topic. The operational benefits of weight reduction are surmised, but not quantified or proven. Weight reduction for upgrades is different than for new programs. Weight reduction technologies are treated on par with requirement trades. And finally, the financial implications of weight reduction are not well understood or quantified. The answer to the question: “what is the value to the Army of a ton saved?” is “it depends.” The value can range from $0.00 to several $100,000 per vehicle. The operational impact of weight reduction presented in the paper are 1.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0268
Venkatesh Babu, Richard Gerth
Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has been used to refine grain structure in sheet metals, and is based on friction stir welding (FSW) principles developed and patented by TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK in 1991. In Friction Stir Processing (FSP) a tool generates heat from friction and pressure causing a material to become plastic without melting. The tool then mixes the base material in a circular motion as it traverses laterally through the material . It is possible to add 2D or 3D Nano particles to locally alter the material’s stiffness (young’s modulus). For example in, friction stirred TiB2 particles in cast iron resulted in over 2x hardness and wear resistance (by ASTM G35). Since FSP is not a forming process, the pattern of the ribs can be any 2D pattern (linear, circular, spiral, etc.). The main focus of the Nano-reinforced FSP is to achieve increased localized stiffness with minimal increase in density of the local material to achieve light weighting.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0273
Chris Goodin, Jeremy Mange, Sara Pace, Thomas Skorupa, Daniel Kedziorek, Jody Priddy, Larry Lynch
Mercury is a high-fidelity, physics-based object-oriented software for conducting simulations of vehicle performance evaluations for requirements and engineering metrics. Integrating cutting-edge, massively parallel modeling techniques for soft, cohesive and dry granular soil that will integrate state-of-the-art soil simulation with high-fidelity multi-body dynamics and powertrain modeling to provide a comprehensive mobility simulator for ground vehicles. The Mercury implements the Chrono::Vehicle dynamics library for vehicle dynamics, which provides multi-body dynamic simulation of wheeled and tracked vehicles. The powertrain is modeled using the Powertrain Analysis Computational Environment (PACE), a behavior-based powertrain analysis based on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Autonomie software. Vehicle -terrain interaction (VTI) is simulated with the Ground Contact Element (GCE), which provides forces to the Chrono-vehicle solver.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0274
Xueyu Zhang, Zoran Filipi
This paper presents the development of an electrochemical aging model of LiFePO4-Graphite battery. It is designed for power management optimization of heavy-duty hybrid electric trucks. The model enables to assess the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion surface concentration rather than average concentration, and an approximate analytical method is used to speed up calculations while preserving required accuracy. The side reaction of electrolyte decomposition is considered as the main aging mechanism. First, the side reaction rate is built based on a single particle (SP) model. Next the particle differential equations of solid-phase lithium ion diffusion is solved by approximate analytical solution. The SP model with analytical solutions is compared with two models, namely SP model with finite difference method (FDM) and equivalent circuit model (ECM). The current profile from the simulation of series HEV under Urban Assault driving cycle is used as input.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0271
Robert Jane, Gordon G. Parker, Wayne Weaver, Ronald Matthews, Denise Rizzo, Michael Cook
This abstract is pending a security review.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0272
Andrej Ivanco
Military vehicles experience a wide range of duty cycles depending on place and purpose of their deployments. Vehicle fuel consumption directly depends on those use cases, which are ranging from patrolling during peace keeping operations to direct engagements in hostiles areas. Vehicle design should accommodate this wide range of operation modes to maximize the vehicle practicality over their service life. This paper aims to quantify the sensitivity of the powerpack design for a notional 15-ton series-hybrid electric vehicle regarding different vehicle use cases including the highly dynamic military drive cycles. The optimal generator design for a powerpack (engine coupled to a generator) will be established for each of the use case separately by previously developed Finite-element based optimization routine and iteratively benchmarked by Dynamic programing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0328
Yunkai Gao, Genhai Wang, Jingpeng Han
Based on the 4-channel road simulation bench, a scheme of fatigue bench test which was suitable for cab with frame and suspension was designed with the method of multi-body dynamics simulation and physical iteration. Large load and large displacement signals above the suspension can be loaded on the test bench, and it is effective for the fatigue bench test of the same type. The multi-body dynamics model was built according to the durability specifications of cab assembly, and the feasibility of the scheme was proved through the verification for the fixture and virtual iteration analysis. The test bench with linear guide and spherical joint was built to simulate the actual condition of cab on suspension based on the results of the road load signal analysis and multi-body dynamics analysis. The acceleration signal beside the suspension was taken as a target signal and the drive signal of cylinders was obtained through physical iteration.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 19836