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Viewing 61 to 90 of 19860
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1480
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Yechen Qin, Feng Zhao, Liang Gu
Abstract The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1478
Srinivas Kurna, Sajal Jain, Palish Raja, Laxman Vishwakarma
Abstract In an automobile, main function of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle on a desired course. Steering system consists of various components & linkages. Using these linkages, the torque from steering wheel is transferred to tyre which results in turning of the vehicle. Over the life of vehicle, these steering components are subjected to various loading conditions. As steering components are safety critical parts in the vehicle, therefore they should not fail while running because it will cause vehicle breakdown. In commercial vehicle segment, vehicle breakdown means delay in freight delivery which results in huge loss to costumer. Therefore, while designing steering components one should consider all the possible loadings condition those are possible. But, it can’t be done through theoretical calculation. Therefore, physical tests have to be carried out to validate design of steering system, which is very costly & time-consuming process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1483
Jia Mi, Lin Xu, Sijing Guo, Mohamed A. A. Abdelkareem, Lingshuai Meng
Abstract Systematic research on dynamic model, simulation analyses, prototype production and bench tests have been carried out in recent years on the most popular energy-harvesting shock absorbers-the mechanical motion rectifier (MMR), and the hydraulic-electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA). This paper presents a novel application of the HESA into bogie system of railway vehicles. In order to study the differences of suspension performance and energy harvesting property between first suspension system and second suspension system of the application, simulation models are built in AMESim to make comparison studies on the different department suspensions caused by the nonlinear damping behaviors of the HESA. The simulation results show that the system can effectively reduce the impact between wheel and rail tracks, while maintaining good potential to recycle vibratory energy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1465
William R. Bussone, Joseph Olberding, Michael Prange
Abstract SAE J211 provides no definitive specification as to the appropriate procedures for filtering angular rate sensor data prior to differentiation into angular acceleration data, especially for impact data. Accordingly, a 3-2-2-2 array (nine-accelerometer-package or NAP) of linear accelerometers and a triaxial angular rate sensor were mounted into a Hybrid III 50th-percentile-male ATD headform and compared in a variety of impact events and multibody simulations. Appropriate low-pass digital filter cutoff frequencies for differentiating the angular rate sensor data into angular accelerations were sought via residual analysis in accordance with current SAE J211 guidelines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1341
Alok Kumar, Sandeep Sharma
Abstract Public conveyance such as a bus is a major contributor to socio - economic development of any geography. The international market for passenger bus needed to be made viable in terms of passenger comfort, minimum operational costs of the fleet by reduced fuel consumption through light weighting and yet robust enough to meet stringent safety requirements. Optimized design of bus body superstructure plays vital role in overall performance and safety, which necessitates to evaluate bus structure accurately during initial phase of design. This paper presents a robust methodology in numerical simulation for enhancing the structural characteristics of a bus body with simultaneous reduction in the weight by multi-material optimization while supplemented with sensitivity and robustness analysis. This approach ensures significant reduction in vehicle curb weight with promising design stiffness.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1358
Hyunbin Park
Abstract This paper presents a novel rear-view side mirror constructed with an external lens and a planar mirror to improve aerodynamics and minimize the blind spot of drivers. To resolve the drawback of the conventional side mirror, some vehicle manufacturers have lately attempted to develop a camera-based solution to replace traditional protruding side mirrors. However, driving vehicles on public roads without such side mirrors is illegal in most countries including the USA. The United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) specifies that the mirror installed on the driver side should be flat and should have unit magnification. The proposed system avoids the large, protruding, external side-mirror that is currently used in present-day vehicles. Instead, it integrates this external element into the interior of the vehicle to improve aerodynamic resistance, safety, and styling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1371
Hao Pan, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Xingzhi Dong
Abstract Brake pedal feel plays an important role in the driver's comprehensive subjective feeling when braking, which directly affects the active safety and riding comfort of passenger car. A systematical mathematical model of the vehicle brake system is built in according with the structure and system characteristics of hydraulic servo brake system. A complete hydraulic servo brake system simulation model composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake pipe, brake wheel cylinders, brake calipers is established in AMESim. The effects of rubber reaction plate stiffness, rubber valve opening, brake master cylinder piston, brake caliper, brake pipe deformation and friction liner deformation on brake pedal feel are considered in this model. The accuracy of this model is verified by real road vehicle tests under static and dynamic two different conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Abstract Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Abstract Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensors, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was testing using an ABS scan tool communicating with the SAE J1587 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1537
Ananya Bhardwaj
Abstract Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1433
Enrique Bonugli, Joseph Cormier, Matthew Reilly, Lars Reinhart
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and ‘typical’ roadway surfaces. Motorcycle helmet impacts into asphalt and concrete surfaces were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impact testing. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate an off-centered oblique collision. Helmeted Hybrid III ATD head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. The study was limited to a single helmet model and impact angle (30 degrees). Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and concrete in magnitude, duration and onset.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1700
Rebekah L. Houser, Willett Kempton, Rodney McGee, Fouad Kiamilev, Nick Waite
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential to greatly shape the way the electric power grid functions. As a load, EVs can be managed to prevent overloads on the electric power system. EVs with bidirectional power flow (V2G) can provide a wide range of services, including load balancing, and can be used to increase integration of renewable resources into electric power markets. Realizing the potential of EVs requires more advanced communication than the technology that is in wide use. Common charging standards do not include a means for an EV to send key vehicle characteristics such as maximum charge rate or battery capacity to a charging station and thus to the grid.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1701
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Abstract The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1709
Zhigang Wei, Sarat Das, Ryan Barr, Greg Rohrs, Robert Rebandt, Xiao Wu, HongTae Kang
Abstract Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1702
Piyush Aggarwal, Bo Chen, Jason Harper
Abstract The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1593
Sunil kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet Sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract A drive cycle is a time series of vehicle speed pattern developed to simulate real world driving conditions. These driving cycles are used for estimating vehicle on-road energy consumption, vehicle emissions, and traffic impact. Vehicle operating on fossil fuels are a significant source of air pollution, and these are being replaced by a small electrical vehicle in congested road traffic conditions, such as densely populated residential areas, near hospitals and market places, etc. The electrical vehicle run quieter and does not produce emissions like combustion engines. So far, there is no existing drive cycle officially developed for electric three wheelers which can represent real world driving pattern in India. In this study, 15 electrical auto rickshaws were driven by different drivers in various routes of a Tier II city of India and vehicle speed and time pattern were recorded using onboard Global Positioning System (GPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1594
Guirong Zhuo, Kun Xiong, Subin Zhang
Abstract Micro electric vehicle has gained increasingly popularity among the public due to its compact size and reasonable price in China in recent years. Since design factors that influence the power of electric vehicle drive-motor like maximum speed, acceleration time and so on are not fixed but varies in certain scopes. Therefore, to optimize the process of matching drive-motor’s power, qualitatively and quantitatively studies should be done to determine the optimal parameter combination and improve the design efficiency. In this paper, three basic operating conditions including driving at top speed, ascending and acceleration are considered in the matching process. And the Sobol’ method of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is applied to evaluate the importance of design factors to the drive-motor’s power in each working mode.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1596
Amar Penta, Rohit Gaidhani, Sampath Kumar Sathiaseelan, Prasad Warule
Abstract Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1606
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Pavel Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya
Abstract In this paper, we consider a new design of synchronous motor with salient poles rotor and all coils placed on the stator. This design, uses a laminated silicon steel rotor, which is not so expensive as a rotor with super strong permanent magnets. This design of machine eliminates copper rings on the rotor and brushes which is used in regular synchronous motors, and eliminates disadvantages involved with these arrangements. In an earlier publication, authors considered the opportunity realization of synchronous mode operation in the machine with salient pole rotor and DC stator excitation. Now, we consider the new synchronous mode operation with individual DC excitation of each the alternative current (AC) windings for realization the first, second and third phase synchronous machines. In theoretical basics of analyses and design of synchronous motors we pay more attention to the single-phase motor because it is the basis for design polyphase synchronous machines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1318
Prashant Khapane, Suresh Bhosale
Abstract Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirements for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the program when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering changes that are expensive, time consuming and stressful. Like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model the physics of sand media and also solve the complex multi-physics problem of impact of the whole vehicle with the sand dune.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1734
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Guo-Shun Chuang
Abstract An accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is necessary not only for optimal energy management but also for protecting the lithium-ion batteries (LIB) from being deeply discharged or overcharged. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is established to simulate the dynamic behavior of LIB. Parameters of internal resistance, diffusion resistance and diffusion capacitance are identified using the recursive least square method. Because open circuit voltage (OCV) and SOC have an obviously nonlinear relationship, an extended Kalman filter is proposed to estimate the SOC based on the ECM model. Local linearization is employed to approximate the nonlinear SOC-OCV curve by a straight line with the slope and intersection around the operating point. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed algorithm is less than 5% for the test patterns.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1697
Hua Bai, Alan Brown, Matt McAmmond, Juncheng Lu
Abstract Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1699
Luting Wang, Bo Chen
Abstract Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0861
Balasubramanian N., Karthick Durairaj, Jayabalan Sethuraman
Abstract Asian countries hold a vast majority of the global two-wheeler population. Currently majority of these two wheelers are fueled by carburetors owing to their low cost and ease of maintenance. As these countries try to adopt emission norms similar to that of Euro 6 in a few years from now, they will be migrating to an injection system like port fuel injection (PFI), as it offers good control over emissions by using closed loop corrections, based on the exhaust lambda feedback. Stanadyne R&D has developed an innovative injection system that can be applied for such port fuel injection in two-wheelers. In this innovative design, the pump and injector are integrated into a single unit, making the system simple, compact and less expensive. The integrated injector uses a solenoid and spring arrangement, for pressurizing the fuel in a small chamber, and consumes less current. The pressurized fuel is then injected through orifice to produce spray in the intake port.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
Abstract A new extended planar model for multi-axle articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axle articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicle model. At the same time, the extended nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly, a nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly, the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficients using TruckSim software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0438
Zhenhai Gao, Tianjun Sun, Lei He
Abstract A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0429
Michael Holland, Jonathan Gibb, Kacper Bierzanowski, Stuart Rowell, Bo Gao, Chen Lv, Dongpu Cao
Abstract This paper outlines the procedure used to assess the performance of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) in a virtual test environment using the newly developed Euro NCAP Lane Support Systems (LSS) Test Protocol, version 1.0, November 2015 [1]. A tool has also been developed to automate the testing and analysis of this test. The Euro NCAP LSS Test defines ten test paths for left lane departures and ten for right lane departures that must be followed by the vehicle before the LKAS activates. Each path must be followed to within a specific tolerance. The vehicle control inputs required to follow the test path are calculated. These tests are then run concurrently in the virtual environment by combining two different software packages. Important vehicle variables are recorded and processed, and a pass/fail status is assigned to each test based on these values automatically.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0430
Bangji Zhang, Kaidong Tian, Wen Hu, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Abstract This paper introduces a vehicle model in CarSim, and replaces a portion of its standard suspension system with an HIS model built in an external software to implement co-simulations. The maneuver we employ to characterize the HIS vehicle is a constant radius method, i.e. observing the vehicle’s steering wheel angle by fixing its cornering radius and gradually increasing its longitudinal speed. The principles of the influence of HIS systems on cornering mainly focus on two factors: lateral load transfer and roll steer effect. The concept of the front lateral load transfer occupancy ratio (FLTOR) is proposed to evaluate the proportions of lateral load transfer at front and rear axles. The relationship between toe and suspension compression is dismissed firstly to demonstrate the effects of lateral load transfer and then introduced to illustrate the effects of roll motion on cornering.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 19860