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2017-12-08
Paper
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
2017-11-20
Technical Paper
2017-01-5021
Greg Suter, Lodewijk Wijffels, Oliver Nehls
This paper will detail the development of a Handling Controller designed to assist the driver in recovering from oversteer situations using an Active Front Steering (AFS) system. The AFS system uses an electric motor to provide a steering angle overlay to the driver’s steering input. This angle can be used to supplement countersteer during an oversteer event, and to rapidly remove countersteer when the sideslip is collapsing, preventing a fishtailing situation. Key factors considered in designing the system were functional safety considerations for potential sensor failures, and how to assist the driver without creating an unnatural feel or excessive torque feedback in the steering wheel. This system may be used to supplement brake stability controls, increasing stability levels with less harshness. The lessons learned from this application may also be used in designing autonomous steering systems to recover from oversteer situations.
2017-11-13
Tech Insights
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0011
Alberto Grimaldi, Lorenzo Mucciarella, Francesco Virgilii
Concerning internal combustion engines (ICEs), the analysis and evaluation of combustion quality and pollutant agents has drawn the attention of public opinion and worldwide authorities. Moreover, combustion quality in ICEs affects the drivability of motorbikes/cars, a most important quality for the customers’ point of view. The possibility to monitor engine behavior is a target that every car/motorcycle OEM is seeking, so as to comply with legislated pollutant limits. As the EURO V OBD Stage II regulations state, starting from the year 2020 all the emission related components will need to be monitored. In particular, the legislator requests to monitor the frequency of misfires, due to possible damage to the catalytic converter; in fact, the malfunction of this component can dramatically affect exhaust gas pollutant emissions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0017
Yuzuru Sasaki, Nobuhiko Yamaguchi, Akira Arioka, Katsunori Komuro, Dai Kataoka, Shunji Akamatsu
Abstract In recent times, due to the improvement of internal cylinder flow analysis technology with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the prediction accuracy of fuel consumption and emission has improved. However, small motorcycles often have complex intake ports which restrict the layout of injectors. Therefore optimization of injection spray to achieve high combustion efficiency and less wall wetting is a challenge. In this study, we predicted fuel consumption and emission performance by the simulation result of air fuel distribution and wall wetting amount with an actual motorcycle engine model. We optimized injector nozzle length, spray angle and spray tip penetration. After the optimization, we evaluated the emission performance and fuel consumption with an actual engine. As a result, we were able to confirm the improvement of fuel consumption and emission performance.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0018
Masayuki Miki, Tetsuya Kimura
The stability factor is widely used for four-wheel vehicles as an index representing the turning performance of a vehicle. Stability factor for two-wheel vehicles has been proposed as an indicator of cornering performance from the same way of thinking. In line traceability evaluation as a sensory evaluation item of motorcycles, the expressions of understeer and oversteer are sometimes used, but the relation with stability factor for two-wheel vehicles has not been investigated. In this paper, a test in which the slip angle characteristics of the front and rear tires were varied using a riding simulator was conducted, and the correlation between the stability factor and the rider evaluation was investigated to derive an index showing the line traceability.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0039
Satoshi Itoh, Michiyasu Yamamoto
One of the fuel efficiency improvement policy of Small vehicle included Regenerative Braking System (JSAE 20139006 / SAE 2013-32-9006), but developed New Compact Hybrid System to realize further fuel efficiency improvement. The previous system has losses for the engine friction when deceleration energy is collected, but the new system realizes effective regeneration with separating the engine. The new system collect deceleration energy in decelerating time and coasting as well as the previous system, but the fuel consumption with the engine is minimized by running EV with the collected energy and realize further fuel efficiency improvement. In addition, the assist is also performed with collected energy, so both good efficiency and good accelerating performance are realized. This system adopts Auto Gear Shift® system (following, AGS) which is based on a manual transmission.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0006
Yoichi Inoue, Toshiya Ohta, Hirotaka Kurita
A carburizing is widely applied for many kinds of engine components for motorcycles. On the other hand, a delayed fracture phenomenon of strengthened steel materials occurred under actual usage is a serious concern. The delayed fracture characteristics of surface modified steels such as a carburized steels followed by a tempering have a difficulty being evaluated by only measuring a partial characteristic of the hardened portion due to the existence of an inhomogeneity of a microstructure and a gradient of strength. Therefore, the studies on the characteristics of the delayed fracture of the surface modified steels are not so many. In this paper, the authors evaluated the delayed fracture characteristics of carburized and tempered actual components by comparing hydrogen desorption curves acquired with a thermal desorption spectroscopy using hydrogen-charged specimens with changing tempering conditions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0036
Gundavarapu V S Kumar, M Suresh, Manish Garg
Thermal management is of vital importance in the development of a scooter type motorcycle (two-wheeler). Traditionally the thermal management development of a two-wheeler is done through experimental methods, or using sub-system level CFD models. In current work, a comprehensive, complete vehicle, three-dimensional CFD model has been developed to assess thermal performance of the scooter and its sub-systems. The model can predict thermal performance in different operating conditions, such as, wide open throttle, idling and key-off. A typical thermal interaction in engine happens through metal contact conduction, air cooling and oil flow path in the engine. The model can capture the sub system interaction, such as, an interaction between the cooling system and engine cabin. Modeling oil is computationally expensive, as it involves complex physics modeling such as multiphase flow.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0008
Pei Yi Lim, Youhei Inagaki
Sustainability trends and reduced fuel consumption as a value proposition to end users have led to an ever-increasing focus on fuel efficiency in the personal mobility segment. This is evident in the development of smaller and lighter engine hardware with optimized combustion systems as well as the lowering of engine oil viscosity grades and formulation of additives with improved friction properties. Due to the unique challenges of lubricating motorcycle engines, the development of fuel efficient motorcycle engine oil presents several technical dilemmas. The reduction of oil viscosity gives rise to durability concerns particularly in such high temperature and high speed operating conditions, while the formulation of additives with lower friction properties may affect clutch friction that is necessary for a manual motorcycle.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0033
Akinori Shinagawa, Hisayuki Nozawa, Yutaro Uchiyama
Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0041
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0042
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0049
Kohei Hirano, Yuki Chihara
The new titanium fuel tank has been developed to reduce weight of the fuel tank of production motocrossers. While the titanium permits deep drawing to shape a tank by presswork, the processing of titanium material is difficult, hence no past application of the material for a motorcycle fuel tank. This project was aimed at development of new techniques for mass production of titanium fuel tanks, and succeeded in mass production of titanium fuel tanks having an adequate durability to apply to a motocrosser that can receive a strong impact while driving. As a result, approximately 40% of weight reduction from the plastic fuel tank having the same fuel capacity was realized.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0053
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
In this study we focus on systematic disturbances caused by the motorcycle pitch dynamic when measuring longitudinal acceleration on motorcycles using low-cost acceleration sensors. Major systematic influences in the sensor measurement like gravitational acceleration, suspension dynamics and the road slope are addressed. During acceleration phases the motorcycle pitch angle changes according to the suspension setting. As a result the longitudinal sensing axis of the accelerometer includes parts of the gravitational acceleration and lags parts of the longitudinal acceleration. Gravitational acceleration has also significant influence on inclined roads. To obtain correct values of the effective longitudinal acceleration, the disturbances in the measured signal are analyzed and in further consequence compensated. For this purpose a linearized in-plane-dynamics model of the motorcycle is derived from a comprehensive multibody simulation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0055
Yota Sakurai, Yoshinori Nakao, Astushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kunihiro Tanaka
In this study on the motorcycle engine, we investigated the geometry of the newly developed intake port with an objective of improving the fuel consumption and the torque in practical range. Herein we present the results obtained. We believe that an effective measure for achieving the stated objective is to improve the combustion speed and combustion stability. To realize that, it is necessary to increase the turbulence during combustion and improve the homogeneity of air-fuel mixture. To investigate the feasible shape of the port, the CFD simulation (including fuel spray analysis) was performed and a geometry that improved the turbulent kinetic energy and mixture homogeneity at the time of ignition was selected. For confirming the combustion improvement effect achieved by tumble strengthening, an engine test was conducted with the same amount of intake air as that used in.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0056
Hirotoshi Inui, Toru Sakurai, Eiichi Sato, Tadashi Minoda, Yasuhiro Nakai
Tapered handlebars using high strength aluminum alloys have been applied mainly to motorcycle models requiring weight reduction and high texture appearance that aluminum handlebars can offer as their characteristics. This handle bar is manufactured through extrusion processing. Conventionally used alloys had low extrusion productivity, which led to increased cost of the handlebars. In view of this, we selected an alloy securing the strength by adding a large amount of zinc while reducing the amount of the copper, which deteriorates the extrusion productivity, to the minimum adding amount, in consideration of maintaining the stress corrosion cracking resistance. However, a large amount of zinc decreases the stress corrosion cracking resistance. Therefore, in order to obtain a metallic structure favorable to the prevention of stress corrosion cracking, the mandrel extrusion was applied for the pipe manufacturing method, and heat treatment condition and swaging condition were optimized.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0060
Hiroto Takahashi, Toshiki Shinohara
Many general purpose engines, such as the ones used in construction machines, operate in environments with excessive amounts of airborne dust, and are thereby equipped with a cyclone air cleaner so that they can remove as much dust from contaminated air streams in the engine. However, the compact general purpose engine is mainly a single-cylinder type, and the intake flow pulsates. Since the centrifugal action of the cyclone air cleaner under the intake pulsation changes according to the pulsation, it is difficult to enhance the dust separation performance. In this study, we aimed to determine a cyclone air cleaner factor with high purification performance even under the intake pulsation conditions of a general purpose engine. We have designed an ideal geometry for the cyclone air cleaner, which centrifugally separates dust during inhaling and discharges the centrifuged dust using positive pressure due to pulsation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0067
Ranjana Meena, Pradeep Ramachandra, Adwitiya Dube
With the increased demand of mobility in the form of two-wheelers and the continued dominant share of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) in Indian market, there is considerable influence on the deterioration of air quality. The regulators in this region have legislated Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) as a measure to restrict tail pipe emissions, which necessitates the automotive industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Some of the factors influencing this includes, air-fuel mixture formation, spray targeting, fuel properties, flow dynamics, combustion chemical kinetics, exhaust after-treatment etc. The focus area of this paper is to study the influence of air-fuel mixture formation which is highly dependent on fuel droplet atomization, injection timing, fuel injector, injection pressure and mixture preparation techniques to reduce the engine out emissions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0071
Jürgen Tromayer, Michael Gaber, Roland Kirchberger, Fern Thomassy, Scott McBroom
Abstract Meeting upcoming emission limits such as EURO 5 with comparatively simple and low-cost vehicles will be very challenging. On the engine side, a big effort in terms of fuelling, combustion optimization as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment will be necessary without any doubt. Besides that, additional system optimization potential can be gained by a systematic adaptation of the drive train. One approach is to use a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) system to run engines in specific ranges with good fuel economy. However, existing belt driven CVTs show comparatively poor efficiencies. To overcome this drawback, the integration of a novel Continuously Variable Planetary Transmission (CVP), designed and developed by Fallbrook Technologies, was investigated in detail. For this purpose, a longitudinal dynamics simulation in Matlab-Simulink was carried out to compare a standard mass production vehicle drive train with several CVP setups.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0068
Yoshihiro Aramaki, Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Kenta Murai, Kazuki Yoshida, Toshihisa Takaki, Takanori Chino, Kenta Suzuki
The number of people experiencing psychological discomfort due to the increasing amount of noise emanating from motor vehicles has been on the rise. Legal regulations define the permissible level of vehicle noise in a given area. Active noise control (ANC) is a noise cancellation method that reduces low-frequency sounds, such as engine noise, effectively. Furthermore, this method is suitable for controlling engine noise because the equipment necessary to perform it is small and does not require a large space for installation. Advances in digital processing technology have increased the scope of ANC’s applications, and it is no longer restricted to use in motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the motor vehicle engine noise produced during acceleration. In this study, we attempt to control the engine sounds from a vehicle with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0076
Adyati Yudison, Driejana, Iman K. Reksowardojo, Aminudin Sulaeman
Motorcycles account for almost 80% of private vehicles in Indonesia, with an annual growth rate of 12% per year. This paper aims to investigate the emission profiles of CO2, CO, HC and NOx based on typical fuel and motorcycle types in Indonesia. Questionnaire surveys were undertaken to gather fuel type, engine technology and capacity representing the motorcycle population in Bandung City, Indonesia. Emissions were measured based on six-speed variations on a chassis dynamometer. Questionnaire surveys from 290 respondent show that EURO II and EURO III technology with engine capacity less than 150cc is the most utilized type of motorcycle in Bandung. Most of the users’ chose RON 90 and RON 92 gasoline. Based on the results, four groups of 5 motorcycle of EUROII-RON90, EUROII-RON92, EUROIII-RON90, and EUROIII-RON92 were tested. Emission data showed that the higher the speed, the lower the emission, except for CO and NOx which have a different pattern.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0083
Makoto Hasegawa, Takanobu Kaneko
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. ISO/DIS 26262 second edition published in 2016 has Part 12 as a new part in order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle. Proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity in accordance with ISO/DIS 26262 Part 12, are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level. To estimate precise these factors, there would be a case that it might not be appropriate to apply studies done for passenger car to motorcycle, and it would be necessary to apply motorcycle specific knowledge and estimation methods. In our previous studies we clarified these motorcycle specific issues and studied the method for the adaptation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0079
Tsukasa Shimizu, Jin Itou, Hideki Shirazawa, Yasuyuki Muramatsu
It is important to make small and light weight motor for small EV. It is necessary to select appropriate cooling system (liquid cool or air cool) according to motor output. We thought that there is a threshold output that makes the volume smaller and the weight lighter including the liquid cooling system. As a result of the rough calculation, it was found that the weight can be reduced by adopting the liquid cooling for at about 10kW or more. In this study we focused on motor and cooling system volume and weight and tried to clarify appropriate cooling system according to motor output.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0086
Shinji Takayanagi, Kiyotaka Sakai, Takashi Iwasa, Tomoyuki Matsumura, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kenji Tanaka
A low fuel consumption tire with an affordable price that is applicable for small motorcycles marketed mainly for India and Southeast Asian countries was developed. Two contradicting requirements, which are reduction of the rolling resistance and retention of the wet grip performance, were satisfied by applying a method based on viscoelastic properties of the tread rubber. Regarding the composition of compound of the tread rubber, the amounts of carbon black and oil were reduced instead of using silica. In addition, a polymer having a high glass transition temperature was employed. Moreover, response to the roll motion, which is unique in motorcycles, was made satisfactory to the requirement by modifying the dynamic modulus E* of the tread rubber. With those measures, the rolling resistance was reduced by more than 15% to conventional tires while maintaining the basic performances such as tire grip and stability in maneuvering.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0087
Sangriyadi Setio, Wiranto Arismunandar, Rudy Ong, Adefrid Dwithama, Stefanus Adrian, Angela Claudia, Nu’man Amri Maliky, Jery Octavianus, Muhammad Alif Mabbrur, Michell Tjhoi
Developing and designing fuel efficient vehicle for a one gallon of fuel marathon is a challenging task. Engines have to be optimized to achieve maximum fuel efficiency. In this study, we evaluate the optimal compression ratio (CR) and ignition timing that produce the best torque in a custom gasoline-based-motorcycle-engine that use ethanol E100 fuel. In the first experiment, CR was adjusted between 9 and 12 to evaluate its effect on the engine mileage’s record. The experiment was conducted on the test track. In the second experiment, Ignition timing was adjusted by a custom-made engine control unit (ECU) between 15° and 45° before top dead center (BTDC). The engine performance was investigated in terms of best torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), with variation of engine speed between 1500 and 8000. The test was conducted on dynamometer. The test was also performed in constant compression ratio and stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, 9.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0028
Huang Hui-Hui, Tsai Chien-Hsiung, He Wei-Ta
In this study, the temperature of solid/fluid inside a continuously variable transmission (CVT) of a 400 cc scooter is investigated numerically utilizing ANSYS FLUENT. The moving reference frame (MRF) technique with conjugate heat transfer between gases and solid rotation/translation are implemented to carry out the simulation. The emphasis of the present study is put on the effects of CVT housing configuration, belt’s thermal conductivity, and the heat dissipated from the crankcase on the thermal-flow-field of CVT. The numerical results show that the temperature of the drive/driven pulleys are concurred with those of experimental results. It is found that the proposed design of partition plate inside the CVT housing can direct the flow into belt and prevent the fluid around driven and drive pulley from mixing, and can further decrease the temperatures of the belt and pulley.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0124
Ashutosh Jahagirdar, Ravindra Kharul, Nitin Bhone, Ashok Kulkarni
Anti-Hop Clutches are popular for bikes above 400 cc. They offer the advantage of better driving stability in lower gears and during down shifting. The currently used designs of such clutches are having different constructions with complex geometry parts and almost 30% more number of parts (compared to standard clutch) are used in some designs to achieve the desired 'Driving Assist' and 'Coasting Slip' effect. The production process used, demands for specialized tools for manufacturing the complex geometry of parts and the price of the clutch assembly is more than double as compared to standard, equivalent design of multi plate wet clutches. These type of clutches are commonly known as - Anti Hop Clutch or Slipper Clutch or Assist and Slip clutches. To achieve same performance benefits with simpler design, less number of parts with a Flexibility to alter the Assist and Slip effect to suit the application, Endurance Technologies Ltd. developed a new concept.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0125
Rianti Sulamet-Ariobimo, Gregah Yudha, Tono Sukarnoto, Yusep Mujalis, Yoska Oktaviano
Lighter automotive components are produced to respond to global issue regarding energy. Lighter components can be achieved by replacing the material to those known as lighter material such as aluminium or applying thin wall casting technique. Lightweight automotive components will mean lower fuel consumption. Based on the success in making thin wall ductile iron plate (TWDI) with a thickness to 1 mm using a vertical casting, it encourages the implementation of the design to create lightweight automotive components. The design was applied to produce a thin wall two-cylinder engine ductile iron connecting rod which will be upgraded with austempering process. This connecting rod will be applied in Vespa PX150. The designs were simulated in Z-Cast simulation software and analyzed to determine the most optimum design. The chosen design was casted in a foundry to match the simulation. Evaluation of the characteristics will be run in the second stage of the research.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0099
Kazunobu Sakamoto
The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of durability predictions for motorcycle body components through the implementation of a fatigue analysis that uses the finite element method (FEM) to identify the fatigue failure characteristics of arc welds, die-cast aluminum alloys, and thermo-plastics. In addition to highly accurate load conditions and stress analysis, a fatigue analysis that also takes into consideration the fatigue failure mechanism is essential to making accurate durability predictions. Fatigue tests were carried out under several load conditions using specimens of several different shapes that simplified the actual structures. The fatigue life of the weld toe is assumed to be the difference of the crack propagation rate due to the loading mode. The durability of die-cast aluminum alloys was found to be sensitive to the microscopic structure due to the casting process.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 20059