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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3380
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9679
Alvaro Baleato Varela, Franz Irlinger
Abstract Lap time simulation has always been a topic of interest in the automotive industry as it summarizes the whole dynamic performance of an automobile in a single value. During the development of road and race cars, to avoid expensive testing and to prove different design solutions, it is useful to simulate the maximum performance of the vehicles. The cars are driven to their limits to exploit their capabilities, where their dynamic behaviour can be highly non-linear. The vehicle models need to replicate these characteristics as precisely as possible. Due to this, the problem of achieving the minimum lap time with a certain car around a race track is a challenging problem to solve. A method to evaluate the minimum lap time is presented, approaching the optimal solution by coupling a driver model, a simulation environment and genetic algorithms to perform the optimization. The algorithm also offers the possibility to add vehicle parameters to be optimized regarding the lap time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
Abstract A new extended planar model for multi-axle articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axle articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicle model. At the same time, the extended nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly, a nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly, the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficients using TruckSim software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0632
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen
Abstract In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of engine systems, especially for combustion system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1169
Ahmed M. Ali, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf, Hesham Kamel, Shawky Hegazy
Abstract This paper presents an integrated experimental and simulation investigation which is conducted on a series hybrid electric vehicle. The mathematical model is simulated in two distinct environments; MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Suite. An experimental test rig is devised in order to measure the vehicle performance including wheeled-chassis dynamometer. Components consumed powers, vehicle speed, engine revolution, fuel consumption and consumed energies are all measured in real time and the results are used to verify the numerical modelling work. For optimizing the performance of the vehicle, a rule based control algorithm is proposed and applied to the model using Stateflow environment. Many sequential-decision logic-based rules are graphical coded to operate the internal combustions engine at its most fuel efficient modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1109
Keisuke Ota, Masami Kondo, Shuntaro Shinohara, Norihiro Tsukamoto, Seiji Masunaga, Ayumu Sagawa
Abstract To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1145
Eric De Hesselle, Mark Grozde, Raymond Adamski, Thomas Rolewicz, Mark Erazo
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles are continuously challenged to meet cross attribute performance while minimizing energy usage and component cost in a very competitive automotive market. As electrified vehicles become more mainstream in the marketplace, hybrid customers are expecting more attribute refinement in combination with the enhanced fuel economy benefits. Minimizing fuel consumption, which tends to drive hybrid powertrain engines to operate under lugging type calibrations, traditionally challenge noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) metrics. Balancing the design space to satisfy the cost metrics, energy efficiency, noise and vibration & drivability under the hybrid engine lugging conditions can be optimized through the use of multiple CAE tools. This paper describes how achieving NVH metrics can put undesirable boundaries on Powertrain Operation which could affect other performance attributes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0419
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Jian Zeng, Yunquan Zhang
Abstract In addition to ride comfort, handling stability and other conventional vehicle performances, we should also focus on other aspects of performance to a center axle trailer combination, such as the maximum stable side-inclination, the anti-rolling stability, the lateral stability and so on. Based on the finite element method, a rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck combination was built and analyzed in the multi-body environment (ADAMS), in which the key components of the chassis and cab suspension were treated as flexible bodies. A series of simulations were carried out to evaluate the lateral stability of the center axle trailer in accordance with the relevant regulations of the vehicle. The influence of design variables on the lateral stability was studied by an experiment. Furthermore, in order to improve the lateral stability of the trailer combination, the optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/Car, iSIGHT and Matlab.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1327
Prashant Khapane, Vivek Chavan, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0338
Harish Sonawane, Gaurav Paliwal, Swejal Jain, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract Tractor-semitrailers make up large proportion of heavy commercial vehicles, handling stability of tractor-semitrailers is critical to driving safety. Handling behavior of Tractor-semitrailers is complex and depends on various parameters. This paper presents a mathematical approach & multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation based study to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of the articulated vehicle affect it’s handling behavior and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of vehicle handling. A Full vehicle multi body dynamic model is created and steady state cornering maneuvers are performed on simulation tool MSC ADAMS/View for calculating understeer gradient using constant radius test method. Various parameters affecting understeer gradient are identified, studied and their relative effect on understeer gradient is measured. These critical parameters were then optimized using MSC ADAMS/View tool to achieve the desired handling targets.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0097
M.L. Sreedevi, G.R. Mineeshma, Renji Chacko, Swapnil Ghugal, Parag Mengaji, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle
Abstract This paper introduces xEV Simulator- A MATLAB based simulator platform capable of analyzing EV/HEV powertrain system in both backward and forward modelling. xEV Simulator employs Forward Simulation for drive-cycle performance evaluations and Backward simulation for powertrain component sizing and support xEV powertrain design. The powertrain subsystems are modelled in Simulink. This enables the model based system simulation and further controller prototyping and HiL testing. xEV Offline Simulator GUI enables user to simulate standard EV/HEV configurations with standard drive-cycles. The model parameters of different component subsystems can be configured. The Backward modelling and simulation support the estimation of subsystem values like Propulsion motor, Energy storage, etc., to perform as per the drive-cycle requirement.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0334
Antonio H. Dutra Cardoso, Eduardo Hiroaki Nishi, Rodolfo Silva Guimarães
Abstract Currently the high demand for quality and low pollutant emissions in the Diesel commercial vehicles market, it is notable the increase in the sensitivity variation of components. In a commercial vehicle, we have the engine as the main agent, since it has many components under industrial manufacturing processes which may present variations, mainly when it requires critical adjustments. One of the most significant components in the engine performance is the turbocharger. Based on the difficulty to meet the design specification adjustment, this study was performed to detect the possible influences of the waste-gate actuator adjustment. In addition, the study also considers the contribution in terms of emissions, whereas the current legislation requires stringent levels. Therefore, the research was divided into vehicle tests (performance) in a controlled test track with different settings and emissions tests in a steady-state dynamometer.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0532
Thiago M. Pereira, Marco A. Bolson, Thomas F. Junge, Wagner de O. Prestes
Abstract The growing concerns with pollution emissions, the uncertain future about the availability of fossil fuels and the recent advances in battery technology put the electrical powertrain development forward. Hybrid and electric vehicles have already become reality and they are gaining more space in the market. Electrical motors have a peculiar characteristic: differently from combustion engines, their peak torque is already available at 0 rpm. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a much better acceleration response, in comparison to a combustion engine with similar power. Considering that, the objective of this project is to adapt the entire electric powertrain of a passenger car into a kart. Technologies of electronic control module, motor, inverter and battery are among the most advanced currently available and they may take the vehicle to 0-100 km/h acceleration results comparable to supersport cars.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0309
Adriano Schommer, André Ogliari, Mario Martins
Abstract In the way of achieving maximum performance of a racecar several aspects of it have to be optimized. The whole picture of vehicle performance involves crossing data to find relationship among systems and identifying trends, pitfalls and optimum points. In this paper, a straightforward software tool for tire data analysis is developed and described. The software aims to integrate tire data analysis in early stages of the development process of a Formula SAE racecar. In addition, it is thought to be a learning environment to fresh team members. To establish and achieve the necessary goals, an affordancebased model was used to elicit user needs. Regarding the tires, it was possible to precisely point out what data is required to quickly fit a Pacejka tire mode and to cross raw tire data of different tires and preview the steady state balance of a vehicle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2354
Aaron J. Conde, Martha Christenson, Brad Richard
Abstract Tailpipe emissions, fuel consumption, and wheel torque data were measured for three pairs of vehicles tested over four drive cycles at the Emissions Research and Measurement Section of Environment and Climate Change Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. Each pair of vehicles included identical vehicle models; one vehicle was equipped with an AWD drivetrain and one vehicle was equipped with a FWD drivetrain. The AWD vehicle was tested on a double-axle chassis dynamometer. The amount of AWD activity was heavily dependent on driving behavior and AWD system design. During periods of torque delivery, the percentage of AWD activity ranged between 32% and 57% for the FTP-75 drive cycle, between 3% and 8% for the HWFCT drive cycle, and between 21% and 29% for the US06 drive cycle. The fourth drive cycle was the FTP-75 driven at -7°C. AWD distributions did not show sensitivity to temperature for the first and second vehicle models.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2226
Mohammad Alzorgan, Joshua Carroll, Essam Al-Masalmeh, Abdel Raouf Turki Mayyas
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is an essential aspect of the automotive technology in this era of technological revolution, where the goal is to make vehicles more convenient, safe, and energy efficient. Taking advantage of more degrees of freedom available within vehicle “energy management” allows more margin to maximize efficiency in the propulsion systems. It is envisioned by this research that future fuel economy regulations will consider the potential benefits of emerging connectivity and automation technologies of vehicle’s fuel consumption. The application focuses on reducing the energy consumption in vehicles by acquiring information about the road grade. Road elevation are obtained by use of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in order to optimize the controller. The optimization is then reflected on the powertrain of the vehicle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract The Global Fuel Economy Initiative in 21st session of COP21 to the UNFCCC aims to develop 50 percent more efficient automobiles by the year 2050.This initiative has enhanced interest in fuel economy improvements and emission reduction using novel engine-related technologies and fuel efficient engine oil. Low viscosity grade engine oils have demonstrated the potential to improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lowering the greenhouse gases. In this context of developing fuel efficient engine oils, this study focuses on establishing the validity of an in-house short duration test protocol to differentiate engine oils from a fuel economy aspect and also attempts to relate reduced exhaust emissions. In the present study, low viscosity grade oils - SAE 0W-20, SAE 5W-30 and SAE 20W-40 as the baseline oil, were selected for assessing engine oil effects on fuel economy of diesel engines.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2160
Alexander Bech, Paul J. Shayler, Michael McGhee
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2328
Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu, Michael Gee, Rod Williams
Abstract Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2166
Ahfaz Ahmed, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Eshan Singh, William Roberts, Sukho Chung, Mani Sarathy
Abstract Commercial gasoline fuels are complex mixtures of numerous hydrocarbons. Their composition differs significantly owing to several factors, source of crude oil being one of them. Because of such inconsistency in composition, there are multiple gasoline fuel compositions with similar octane ratings. It is of interest to comparatively study such fuels with similar octane ratings and different composition, and thus dissimilar physical and chemical properties. Such an investigation is required to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasoline fuels that show similar knock characteristics in a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, but may behave differently in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines or any other engine combustion modes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
Abstract This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture used in its charge depleting mode. This architecture will be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro by the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. Our bench testing goals are to determine the accuracy of our current vehicle model components, if our current controller algorithms are efficient, and if our powertrain is properly integrated. Three torque control strategies using two UQM motors will be evaluated. Initial findings in this paper will be used to prepare the MSU EcoCAR 3 team for vehicle optimization and further integration work during the year three portion of the EcoCAR 3 competition. Three charge depleting motor control strategies are evaluated for drivetrain torque loss and energy consumption. The control strategies were tested using a Nissan Frontier chassis as the bench testing frame (or mule) on a chassis dynamometer.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8019
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
Abstract The main objective of this project was to compare the fuel consumption and dynamic performances of direct-drive and overdrive transmission tractors. Fuel consumption was evaluated at constant high speed and on various road profiles, while the dynamic performance was assessed on various road profiles only. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure (J1526) was used for constant high speed fuel consumption track test evaluations. The direct-drive transmission tractor consumed less than the overdrive transmission tractor, even though it was heavier. The testing on various road profiles was conducted using a towing dynamometer, for comparing the dynamic capability of the tractors when simulating the same towing load on two hilly road profiles: the Townes Pass path (in the Rocky Mountains) and the Saguenay path (in the Saguenay region of Quebec). Each tractor was to haul the set load along the given path while trying to attain 90 km/h speed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8113
Xiaohua Zeng, Guanghan Li, Dafeng Song, Sheng Li, Xianghua Li
Abstract To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8135
Robert Prohaska, Arnaud Konan, Kenneth Kelly, Michael Lammert
Abstract In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL’s Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1906
Haijiang Liu, Wei Huang
Abstract The application of energy efficient technologies reduces the driving qualities of vehicles. Taking subjective evaluation methods to evaluate vehicle qualities is costly, poor reproducibility, seriously affecting the vehicle calibration cycle. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the subjective evaluation methods, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the content of drivability evaluation, and the subjective evaluation system is modified for an objective evaluation system. A Fuzzy Hierarchy quantization method is proposed based on AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Progress) and Fuzzy comprehensive method to quantify the content of drivability evaluation.
2016-09-14
Journal Article
2016-01-1881
Zhengshuai Fan, Hui Chen
Abstract The Automatic Parking System (APS) is consisted of environmental perception, path planning and path following. As one of the key technologies in APS, path following module controls the lateral movement of the vehicle during the parking process. A mature path following module should meet all the performance indexes of high precision, fast convergence, convenient tuning and good passenger comfort. However, the current path following control methods can only meet parts of the performance indexes, instead of all. In order to satisfy all the performance indexes above, a path following control method based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the linearization of the non-linear vehicle kinematic model was done to establish a linear system of the path following error. Secondly, LQR optimal control was used to achieve the closed-loop control of this linear system to guarantee its stability and fast convergence property.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1589
Jackie A. Mohrfeld-Halterman, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations and its application in a race vehicle multi-body full lap simulation. Developed to fit quasi steady state (QSS) wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1676
Wenchao Liu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Chunshan Li
Abstract The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1675
Ricardo Prado, Paula Pedret, Christophe Moure, Ruben Morales-Menendez
Abstract Developments of new Electric and Hybrid propulsion systems demands chassis adaptations. The purpose of the XeV project was to develop and integrate a full suite of active chassis systems to deliver a fully electrified All-Wheel-Drive Pick-up truck. To achieve so, a new chassis frame, engine cradles and battery box were designed to bring direct drive from electric motor to wheel. On the other hand, for a four-wheelindependent-drive, a new rear suspension design was implemented, and a complex torque vectoring and traction control strategy was developed to provide optimum on and off road performance. All systems were tuned to meet the new drivetrain configuration, weight distribution and vehicle loading conditions making it possible to achieve comparable results with respect to the original combustion engine vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1015
Somendra Pratap Singh, Shikhar Asthana, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Recent scenario of fossil fuel depletion as well as rising emission levels has witnessed an ever aggravating trend for decades. The solution to the problems has been addressed by investments and research in the field of fuels; such as the use of cleaner fuels involving biodiesel, alcohol blends, hydrogen and electric drivelines, as well as improvement in traditional technologies such as variable geometry systems, VVT load control strategies etc. The developments have highlighted the enormous potential present in such systems in terms of maximizing engine efficiency and emission reductions. The present paper aims at designing and implementing an intake runner system for a CI engine capable of providing flexibility with variations in operating conditions. Primarily, the design aims at altering the air flow phenomenon within the primary intake of the engine by inducing swirl in the runner through a secondary runner.
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