Function, Technology and the Level of Implementation of the Digital Tachograph System in EU-AETR and Non EU-AETR Countries
The paper presents main legal rules introducing the digital tachograh system main requirments which must be fulfilled by producers of digital tachographs in order to get the type approval, possibility of future requirements of digital tachograph, main functions of digital tachograph, characteristics of participant of digital tachograpfs system and their tools of the identification, acting and setting of authorize workshops in Poland and Europe Union, accessible methods of check and calibration of digital tachographs and their description, based on Commission Regulation (EC) No 1360/2002 of 13 June 2002, replacing the Annex 1B and Polish law. These paper also presents current level of implementation of digital tachograph system in Europe in light of introduction of digital tachograph second generation.
In 2007, the Novo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro (New Brazilian Traffic Code) completes ten years in existence. The forecast reduction in the number of accidents and deaths have not been borne out, and the absolute and relative figures continue to rise. Recently, two studies, published by the IPEA in Brazil and AUTOFORE in Europe, have shed light on a theme which has been neglected in this country: What is the real cost of traffic accidents and vehicle emissions? This work seeks to determine, by means of a bibliographic review, the impacts of the introduction of a periodic technical inspection system in Brazil RESUMO O novo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro completará em 2007 dez anos de existência. As expectativas em torno da redução do número de acidentes e de mortes no trânsito não se confirmaram e os números absolutos e relativos continuam em ascensão. Recentemente dois estudos publicados, no Brasil pelo IPEA e o AUTOFORE na Europa, trazem luz sobre um tema latente no país: quanto custam os acidentes de trânsito e as emissões veiculares?
This paper creates a worksheet to thoroughly document vehicle damage during an incompatible vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. This data form serves as a supplement to the current and already established NASS inspection forms. It will assist biomechanics research by determining the extent by which incompatibility caused or changed occupants' injuries through structural analysis of the vehicles. This study identifies deficiencies in the current NASS inspection system for compatibility, and develops new measurable parameters to document the crash and associate injury to it.
Problems with commercial motor vehicle components such as service brakes, steering controls, lighting devices, reflectors, tires, coupling devices, and other equipment can lead to accidents. Following a collision, accident reconstructionists may be called upon to determine whether these conditions were present before the crash and whether they were a causative factor. The paper gives an overview of current requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR)(1) and Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) that are related to daily vehicle inspections and commercial vehicle maintenance. Examples are presented to show how post-accident examinations detected vehicle deficiencies that were overlooked in the driver's vehicle inspection and/or fleet maintenance procedures. A discussion is included as to how such findings may be integrated into a reconstruction and cause analysis. Suggestions are offered to promote safer motor carrier practices relevant to vehicle inspections and maintenance issues.
Current regulations (49 CFR Part 396.11 and 396.13) mandate that a commercial driver inspect the vehicle at the conclusion of the duty shift. This inspection should note any defects which were noticed during use. This report must be in writing. Unfortunately, many drivers have chosen not to do the inspection, but falsely fill out the report form or simply do nothing at all. A 2002 study shows that as many as 23.7% of all commercial vehicles inspected (levels 1, 2, 5) were found to be defective1. A 2003 study showed that as many as 23.2% of large trucks and 10.3% of commercial buses were deemed out of service2. This poor behavior has a direct effect on safety. Specifically an increased number of accidents related to maintenance defects. In fact, as much as a 5% increase in fatal accidents can be attributed to mechanical defects3. A product has been developed which forces the driver to go to each of the legally prescribed areas of the inspection. This is accomplished by using “Smart Radio Frequency Identification Tags” (R.F.I.D.) which are located on the vehicle at the critical inspection locations.
Heavy-duty vehicles account for approximately 30 percent of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 65 percent of the particulate matter (PM) emissions from the entire California on-road fleet, despite the fact that these vehicles comprise only 2 percent of the same. To meet legislative mandates to reduce excess smoke emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles, the Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) adopted, in December 1997, amendments to the regulations governing the operation and enforcement of the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP or the “roadside” program) and the Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP or the “fleet” program). The initial roadside program was adopted in November 1990 in response to Senate Bill (SB) 1997 (stat. 1988, ch. 1544, Presley), and enforced from 1991 to 1993. It was suspended in October 1993, when the Board redirected staff to investigate reformulated fuels issues. The Board adopted the fleet program in December 1992, but until recently it had not been enforced.
Fleet Inspection of Compressed Natural Gas Cylinders for Natural Gas Vehicles Using Source Location Acoustic Monitoring
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is being increasingly used as an automotive fuel. This gas is stored in fuel cylinders at pressures up to 3600 psig to maximize the vehicle range. These cylinders must be inspected periodically; hydrostatically and/or visually, which requires removal of the cylinders from the vehicle. An alternative technique termed SLAM (for source location acoustic monitoring) has been used here to inspect cylinders in the US Postal Service fleet. The advantage of the SLAM technique is that the cylinders were inspected without removing them from the vehicles. The inspection was performed during refueling and resulted in minimal vehicle down time. The SLAM technique involves placing sensors on the cylinder surface and measuring the acoustic activity emanating from defects. The SLAM technique captures the total acoustic emission (AE) waveform, unlike other parameter based AE techniques that capture simple measures such as AE counts or hits. The advantage of this approach is that the maximum amount of information can be extracted from AE activity such as the location of the acoustic events.
This paper describes the application of an Active Thermal Imaging technique (ATI), whereby a temperature gradient is produced by the operation of the braking system in use, to determine thermal brake imbalance. Results obtained from passenger vehicles and heavy goods vehicles (trucks) are detailed, showing how side-to-side thermal imbalance can be quickly and quantitatively recorded at the roadside.
There is recent interest in examining whether performance-based brake tests are advantageous compared to presently used visual inspections for safety checks of on-the-road commercial vehicles. In this first of a series of two papers, the basic features of visual inspections and performance-based brake tests are presented and discussed. It is shown that the visual inspection method is inherently “predictive” in nature and therefore conservative. A performance-based brake test is objective but not predictive. The performance based test may reveal safety-related defects only for the specific vehicle load configuration and operating condition. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of what may be required for future enforceable use of performance-based brake testing devices for “on the road” inspections of commercial vehicles. In the short term, use of performance based testing will depend on correlation of test results with presently enforceable visual methods or standards. In the long term, development and acceptance of additional safety-related criteria would be appropriate.
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are a major contributor to California's air quality problems. Emissions from these vehicles account for approximately 30% of the nitrogen oxide and 75% of the particulate matter emissions from the entire on-road vehicle fleet. Additionally, excessive exhaust smoke from in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles is a target of numerous public complaints. In response to these concerns, California has adopted an in-use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Smoke and Tampering Inspection Program (HDVIP) designed to significantly reduce emissions from these vehicles. Pending promulgation of HDVIP regulations, vehicles falling prescribed test procedures and emission standards will be issued citations. These citations mandate expedient repair of the vehicle and carry civil penalties ranging from $300 to $1800. Failure to clear citations can result in the vehicle being removed from service. It is projected that this program will reduce nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions from these vehicles by 19, 22 and 32 tons per day respectively at a cost effectiveness ranging from $0.44 to $0.47 per pound reduced.
This paper reports the results of Phase I of a study of heavy-duty diesel inspection and maintenance (I&M). Heavy-duty diesel vehicles have generally been exempted from I&M programs, due to the lack of a suitable inspection procedure and uncertainty as to the reduction in excess emissions which might result. This paper describes common types of tampering and malmaintenance which can lead to excess emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses, and presents the results of two surveys aimed at estimating the frequency of occurrence of these problems. Data showing the effects of some of these problems on engine emissions are also presented. Finally, a preliminary estimate of the impact of excess emissions from diesel trucks and -buses in California is presented. Further work to develop suitable inspection procedures and to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative I&M programs is being performed in Phases II and III of the project.
A Sample of I/M Program Evaluation Methods and Procedures as Applied to Colorado's Vehicle Inspection Program
Many parts of the country have been in violation of the carbon monoxide and ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Because of these violations, vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs have been implemented throughout the country. A method and procedure of evaluating the benefits of an I/M program as compared to the projected benefits designated in the MOBILE3 Emission Factor model has been developed. The method includes a detailed analysis of the individual operating parameters of an I/M program, such as the vehicle population, waiver procedures, and manual vs. automated analyzers. Evaluation of these parameters can assist agencies to compare benefits of their I/M programs to those projected in MOBILE3. This is of major importance, due to the requirements of the 1987 deadline for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment and the “reasonable extra efforts” program which undoubtedly will be required by EPA.
The light-duty diesel vehicle has been targeted for some years as a contributor to the visibility problem in many urban areas. The Colorado Department of Health. Air Pollution Control Division, has conducted a pilot inspection/maintenance program for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of a loaded mode inspection program in reducing diesel opacity and particulate emissions levels. The study consisted of screening approximately 200 vehicles using a loaded mode test cycle and exhaust opacity measurements to select a test population of 13 vehicles. Those vehicles exceeding a given opacity standard were subjected to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) both before and after repairs. The vehicles subsequently underwent a series of maintenance sequences. The repair effectiveness of each sequence, as well as overall repair effectiveness, for opacity, gaseous and particulate emissions reductions was quantified and is presented in this report along with the associated retail costs of repairs.
To assure safe runnings of motor vehicles, laws in Japan have made it statutory for motor vehicles to periodically undergo motor vehicle tests. During these tests (diagnosis and inspections), brakes, speedometers, wheel alignment, headlamps, exhaust emissions and so forth are inspected by means of appropriate pieces of test equipment. After the test results have been compared against the reference values, "pass/fail" evaluation is indicated, memorized and recorded. Moreover, instructions for the driver are provided on indicators. The test equipment with such capabilities has been employed in the government-run motor vehicle inspection stations in Japan. In addition to such government-run motor vehicle inspection stations, this paper deals with an automated motor vehicle inspection system which has been designed compactly and which is to be used in nongovernmental service shops directly connected with services and repairs.
Though primarily decentralized, California has proposed a biennial Inspection/Maintenance Program that is a hybrid of the decentralized and centralized concepts of vehicular pollution inspections. Private repair garages will volunteer to become licensed by the State in order to conduct inspections and repairs. This novel approach greatly enhances motorist convenience but also results in lesser inspection and repair accuracy than seen in the typical centralized approach. Several features have been built into the proposed program that protect the motorist and minimize decisions on the part of the mechanic. Equipment and quality assurance measures are comparable to those typically found in a centralized approach. The major features of the program will be discussed in this paper.