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Viewing 1 to 30 of 389
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1959
Abhishek Taluja, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
The Ride Comfort has always been an important attribute of a vehicle that gets trade-off with handling characteristics of a vehicle. However, to cater the growing customer requirements for better ride comfort in a vehicle without compromising on other attributes, evaluating and achieving optimal ride comfort has become a significant process in the vehicle development. In the current engineering capability and virtual engineering simulations, creating an accurate and real time model to predict ride comfort of a vehicle is a challenging task. The qualitative evaluation of ride attributes has always been the proven conventional method to finalize the requirements of a vehicle. However, quantitative evaluation of vehicle ride characteristics benefits in terms of target setting during vehicle development process and in robust validation of the final intended product against its specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1480
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Yechen Qin, Feng Zhao, Liang Gu
Abstract The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0413
Mustafa Ali Arat, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Abstract Most ground vehicles related accidents occur when the friction demand to perform a maneuver with a certain vehicle and tires exceeds the coefficient of friction of the pavement surface. As generally known, the forces and moments acting on the vehicle body are mainly generated at the tire-road surface interface. The common characteristics of tire forces on any surface include a linear region where the forces vary linearly with respect to the relative slip values; and a nonlinear region where the forces saturate and may even start decreasing. The experience of most of the daily drivers on the roads is limited within this linear region where the dynamic behavior of the vehicle remains proportional to the driver’s inputs. Therefore, an unexpected change in tire or surface characteristics (due to a change in surface friction, large driver inputs, etc.) may easily cause the driver to panic and/or to lose his/her ability to maintain a stable vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0429
Michael Holland, Jonathan Gibb, Kacper Bierzanowski, Stuart Rowell, Bo Gao, Chen Lv, Dongpu Cao
Abstract This paper outlines the procedure used to assess the performance of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) in a virtual test environment using the newly developed Euro NCAP Lane Support Systems (LSS) Test Protocol, version 1.0, November 2015 [1]. A tool has also been developed to automate the testing and analysis of this test. The Euro NCAP LSS Test defines ten test paths for left lane departures and ten for right lane departures that must be followed by the vehicle before the LKAS activates. Each path must be followed to within a specific tolerance. The vehicle control inputs required to follow the test path are calculated. These tests are then run concurrently in the virtual environment by combining two different software packages. Important vehicle variables are recorded and processed, and a pass/fail status is assigned to each test based on these values automatically.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0430
Bangji Zhang, Kaidong Tian, Wen Hu, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Abstract This paper introduces a vehicle model in CarSim, and replaces a portion of its standard suspension system with an HIS model built in an external software to implement co-simulations. The maneuver we employ to characterize the HIS vehicle is a constant radius method, i.e. observing the vehicle’s steering wheel angle by fixing its cornering radius and gradually increasing its longitudinal speed. The principles of the influence of HIS systems on cornering mainly focus on two factors: lateral load transfer and roll steer effect. The concept of the front lateral load transfer occupancy ratio (FLTOR) is proposed to evaluate the proportions of lateral load transfer at front and rear axles. The relationship between toe and suspension compression is dismissed firstly to demonstrate the effects of lateral load transfer and then introduced to illustrate the effects of roll motion on cornering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1591
Haotian Cao, Xiaolin Song, Zhi Huang
Abstract Generally speaking, lateral steering control method which ensures a good performance in tracking quality and handle quality simultaneously for autonomous vehicle is a changeling task. In order to keep the vehicle to stay safe when facing with severe situations such as an emergency lane change, a switched MPC lateral steering controller, which is on the basis of the stability feature of the vehicle, is presented in this paper. First, a MPC steering controller based on the 3DOF nonlinear vehicle model is derived, a comparative study of different vehicle models for MPC prediction are made. It proves that the presented MPC controller based on 3DOF nonlinear vehicle model possesses an advantage of balancing the conflicts between the tracking quality and handling quality of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
Abstract For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1303
Nobuhisa Yasuda, Shinichi Nishizawa, Maiko Ikeda, Tadashi Sakai
Abstract The purpose of this study is to validate a reverse engineering based design method for automotive trunk lid torsion bars (TLTB) in order to determine a free, or unloaded, shape that meets a target closed shape as well as a specified torque. A TLTB is a trunk lid component that uses torsional restoring force to facilitate the lifting open of a trunk lid, as well as to maintain the open position. Bend points and torque of a TLTB at a closed trunk position are specified by a car maker. Conventionally, a TLTB supplier determines bend points of the free shape by rotating the given bend points from a closed position around a certain axis to satisfy the specified torque at the closed position. Bend points of a deformed TLTB shape in the closed position often do not match the target bend points given by a car maker when designed by the conventional method, which can potentially cause interference issues with surrounding components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1298
Kamlesh Yadav, Abhishek Sinha, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1309
S. M. Akbar Berry, Hoda ElMaraghy, Johnathan Line, Marc Kondrad
Abstract Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1308
Abhishek Softa, Anuj Shami, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The fuel efficiency of a vehicle depends on multiple factors such as engine efficiency, type of fuel, aerodynamic drag, and tire friction and vehicle weight. Analysis of weight and functionality was done, to develop a lightweight and low-cost Roof rack rail. The Roof rack rail is made up of a lightweight material with thin cross section and has the design that allows the fitment of luggage carrier or luggage rack on the car roof. In starting this paper describes the design and weight contribution by standard Roof rack rail and its related parts. Secondly, the selection of material within different proposed options studied and a comparison of manufacturing and design-related factors. Thirdly, it has a description of the design of Roof rack rail to accommodate the luggage carrier fitment on the car roof. Moreover, optimizations of Roof rack rail design by continuous change in position, shape, and parts used.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1557
Graeme F. Fowler, Robert Larson
Abstract Because the great majority of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) use a solid rear axle for improved off-road mobility, these vehicles typically transition from understeer to oversteer with increased cornering severity in tests customarily used by automobile manufacturers to measure steady-state vehicle handling properties. An oversteer handling response is contrary to the accepted norm for on-road passenger vehicles and, for this reason, has drawn scrutiny from numerous researchers. In this paper, an evaluation of ATV handling is presented in which 10 participants operated an ATV that was configured to have two different steady-state cornering characteristics. One configuration produced an approximately linear understeer response (labeled US) and the other configuration transitioned from understeer to oversteer (labeled US-OS) with increasing lateral acceleration in constant-radius turn tests conducted on a skid pad.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1566
Willibald Brems, Nico Kruithof, Richard Uhlmann, Andreas Wagner, Werner Krantz, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1300
Raj Jayachandran, Bhimaraddi Alavandi, Matt Niesluchowski, Erika Low, Yafang Miao, Yi Zhang
Abstract An engine cooling system in an automotive vehicle comprises of heat exchangers such as a radiator, charge air cooler and oil coolers along with engine cooling fan. Typical automotive engine-cooling fan assembly includes an electric motor mounted on a shroud that encloses the radiator core. One of main drivers of fan shroud design is Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising the main function of airflow for cooling requirements. In addition, there is also a minimum stiffness requirement of fan shroud which is often overlooked in arriving at optimal design of it. Low Speed Damageability (LSD) assessment of an automotive vehicle is about minimizing the cost of repair of vehicle damages in low speed crashes. In low speed accidents, these fan motors are subjected to sudden decelerations which cause fan motors to swing forward thereby damaging the radiator core. So designing fan shroud for low speed damageability is of importance today.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0419
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Jian Zeng, Yunquan Zhang
Abstract In addition to ride comfort, handling stability and other conventional vehicle performances, we should also focus on other aspects of performance to a center axle trailer combination, such as the maximum stable side-inclination, the anti-rolling stability, the lateral stability and so on. Based on the finite element method, a rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck combination was built and analyzed in the multi-body environment (ADAMS), in which the key components of the chassis and cab suspension were treated as flexible bodies. A series of simulations were carried out to evaluate the lateral stability of the center axle trailer in accordance with the relevant regulations of the vehicle. The influence of design variables on the lateral stability was studied by an experiment. Furthermore, in order to improve the lateral stability of the trailer combination, the optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/Car, iSIGHT and Matlab.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0437
Bin Li, Subhash Rakheja
Abstract In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1305
Yucheng Liu, Jeremy Batte, Zachary Collins, Jennifer Bateman, John Atkins, Madelyn Davis, David Salley, Cindy L. Bethel, John Ball, Christopher Archibald
Abstract A robot mining system was developed by the State Space Robotic undergraduate student design team from Mississippi State University (MSU) for the 2016 NASA Robotic Mining Competition. The mining robot was designed to traverse the Martian chaotic terrain, excavate a minimum of 10 kg of Martian regolith and deposit the regolith into a collector bin within 10 minutes as part of the competition. A Systems Engineering approach was followed in proceeding with this design project. The designed mining robot consisted of two major components: (1) mechanical system and (2) control system. This paper mainly focuses on the design and assessment process of the mechanical system but will also briefly mention the control system so as to evaluate the designed robotic system in its entirety. The final designed robot consisted of an aluminum frame driven by four motors and wheels. It utilized a scoop and lifting arm subsystem for collecting and depositing Martian regolith.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0338
Harish Sonawane, Gaurav Paliwal, Swejal Jain, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract Tractor-semitrailers make up large proportion of heavy commercial vehicles, handling stability of tractor-semitrailers is critical to driving safety. Handling behavior of Tractor-semitrailers is complex and depends on various parameters. This paper presents a mathematical approach & multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation based study to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of the articulated vehicle affect it’s handling behavior and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of vehicle handling. A Full vehicle multi body dynamic model is created and steady state cornering maneuvers are performed on simulation tool MSC ADAMS/View for calculating understeer gradient using constant radius test method. Various parameters affecting understeer gradient are identified, studied and their relative effect on understeer gradient is measured. These critical parameters were then optimized using MSC ADAMS/View tool to achieve the desired handling targets.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Abstract Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0051
Keisuke Terada, Takayuki Sano, Kenichi Watanabe, Takashi Kaieda, Kazuhisa Takano
Abstract In recent years three-wheel camber vehicles, with two wheels in the front and a single rear wheel, have been growing in popularity. We call this kind of vehicle A “Leaning Multi Wheel category Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as a “LMWV”). A LMWV has various characteristics, but one of them stands out in particular. When a LMWV is cornering, if one of the front wheels passes over a section of road surface with a low friction coefficient, there is very little disturbance to the vehicle’s behavior and can continue to be driven as normal. However, there has been no investigation into why these vehicles have this particular characteristic. Consequently, in this paper an investigation was carried out in order to determine the behavior of a LMWV in this situation. First, measurements were taken using an actual vehicle to confirm the situation described above.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0226
Javier Gutierrez, Guido Tosolin, Alexandre Catala
Abstract The integration of IDIADA Spain virtual Proving Ground (ISVPG) within ADAMS/Car offers a new virtual scenario to carry out detailed analysis of durability as well as Comfort & Ride. Moreover, these high resolution roads (modeled as OpenCRG road format) support model development activities through better correlation with experimental tests. This approach helps to reduce the number of real tests and to shorten development process times. At the same time, this data would be prepared for performance testing to support driving simulator and active system development. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits to use FTire model for Ride and Comfort applications and the use of flexible bodies for better predictions. The availability of this information will depend on the status of the project and the level of maturity of the simulation input data. As a result, different levels of accuracy will be reached according to the existing input data.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0124
Luís Felipe Ferreira Motta Barbosa, José Elias Tomazini, Marcelo Sampaio Martins, Lucas Reis Rangel Querido Moreira, Marcos Yukio Tokuue Hori, Luís Felipe Santos Silva
Abstract The torsional stiffness of a chassis is one of the most important properties of a vehicle’s structure, once a low torsional stiffness has many negative effects, especially in handling characteristics. For the first time, the torsional stiffness was considered on the design of a Baja SAE prototype of the team from UNESP - FEG, “Equipe Piratas do Vale”. In this work, a finite element analysis is first performed in order to evaluate the torsional stiffness of this prototype, called MB1114. Then, an experimental evaluation of this parameter is executed, detailing the post-processing of the results, such as the hysteresis effect and uncertainty analysis. It also shows that it is possible to measure the torsional stiffness of chassis with a low experimental uncertainty without spending too much. The test rig used is simple to be produced and can be easily stocked. Those features are important for Baja and Formula SAE teams.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0182
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract There are many variables involved in the design of a front suspension, such as hardpoints' coordinates, steering geometry or even an anti-roll bar, which could make design difficult and time consuming. The MacPherson strut, due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and low manufacturing cost, is widely used in vehicles in contrast to double wishbone and multi-link suspensions. Although its tuning process still demands time, it can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a front suspension model with MacPherson strut is studied, so that the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0184
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract The twist-beam suspension is widely used in vehicles due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and its low manufacturing cost in comparison with multi-link suspension. The difficulties related to the design of a twist-beam axle concern the large number of possible configurations for twist-beam profile and the stiffness adjustment of axle beam and suspension arms. However, design process can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a simplified twist-beam suspension model is studied, and the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8012
Daniel E. Williams, Amine Nhila, Kenneth Sherwin
Abstract A large percentage of commercial vehicles transport freight on our interstate highway system. These vehicles spend the vast majority of their duty cycle at high speed maintaining a lane. As steering is integrated into ADAS, objective performance measures of this most common mode of commercial vehicle operation will be required. Unfortunately in the past this predominant portion of the commercial vehicle duty cycle was overlooked in evaluating vehicle handling. This lanekeeping mode of operation is also an important, although less significant portion of the light vehicle duty cycle. Historically on-center handling was compromised to achieve acceptable low speed efforts. With the advent of advanced active steering systems, this compromise can be relaxed. Objective measures of lanekeeping are developed and performance of various advanced steering systems is quantified in this important operating mode.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8041
Richard A. Romano, George D. Park, Victor Paul, R. Wade Allen
Abstract Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8026
Xiangpo Cui, Guoying Chen
The distributed driving electric vehicle, uses four in-wheel motors as distributed power sources is a typical over-actuated system. Thus, this kind of vehicle has better stability potential and fault tolerance than the conventional one. In this paper, the general structure of fault-tolerance control (FTC) system based on control allocation is analyzed. And a reconfigurable driving force allocation strategy is proposed to ensure the trajectory tracking and stability when some motors’ faults occur. Both the constraints of tire force and actuators are taken into consideration. With motors’ faults treated as the constraints of actuators, FTC is integrated. For validation, the proposed allocation strategy is simulated in co-simulation environment based on Carsim and Matlab/Simulink.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 389

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