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Viewing 1 to 30 of 323
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Ashish Singh, Dhruv Gupta, Jitesh Singh Patel
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0085
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Abstract In order to reduce the smoke emission of PME/1-butanol blend by increasing the 1-butanol content, PME/1-butanol blend is tested using a DI diesel engine with jerk-type fuel injection pump. With PME/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on the start-ability and stability of the engine operation up to 60 mass% of 1-butanol. On the other hand, with gas oil/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on those up to 40 mass% of 1-butanol. The PME/1-butanol blend has longer ignition delay compared with PME due to the low cetane number of 1-butanol. With increasing 1-butanol content, the smoke emissions of PME/1-butanol blend decrease although the HC and CO emissions increase due to the longer ignition delay.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2651
Vipul Vibhanshu, Ashish Karnwal, Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar
The rising cost and limited availability of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity to look for substitute of fossil fuel. Scientists all over the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Bio origin fuels are fast becoming potential alternative resources to replace the fossil fuels. The vegetable oils, derived from oil seed crops have got 90 to 95% energy value of diesel on volume basis, comparable cetane number and can substitute upto 20% (v/v) of diesel fuel. Mahua seed oil is common ingredient of hydrogenated fat. Two-step transesterification process was employed to synthesize biodiesel from Mahua Oil (Madhuca-indica) and analysis of Physico-chemical properties as well as the combustion, performance and emission characteristics was done by taking 10, 20 and 100 % blend with diesel. The physico-chemical properties of the blends were found to be comparable to diesel.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2763
Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Peerawat Saisirirat, Komkrit Sivara, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
Abstract Formerly, the Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blended fuels has been studied by running the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and found that the higher HVO blended fuel can suppress NOX, lowering the particulate matter (PM) while improving the vehicle fuel economy. The result also shown that the 20% HVO + 5%FAME blended with diesel fuel has been proven to compatible with the advance diesel engine technology via the severe engine durability tests and fuel injection system tests. Therefore, the effects of two paraffinic diesel fuels, which are Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) and Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO), on a common-rail DI diesel engine have been mainly focused in this work. The main objective of this work was to study the relationships between fuel properties and theirs combustion characteristics by analyzing cylinder pressure data and exhaust emissions intensively.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2827
Kristin Götz, Anja Singer, Olaf Schröder, Christoph Pabst, Axel Munack, Jürgen Bünger, Jürgen Krahl
Abstract One political and economic aim in Europe is to increase the use of renewable energy resources. In the transport sector, up to 10 % of fossil diesel fuel should be replaced by biogenic fuels by 2020. This also means a reduction in crude oil dependency. In the area of diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl esters are introduced since over 20 years as biodiesel. However, biodiesel can lead to an increase of engine oil dilution in passenger cars with diesel particulate filters. During the regeneration of the particulate filters, there is an entry of fuel components in the engine oil. While most of the diesel fuel (DF) evaporates from the engine oil, biodiesel remains in the oil and can cause sludge formation in the engine. A promising approach to reduce this problem is the use of a new type of biogenic fuel, called hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). This is also produced from vegetable oil or animal fat. Like biodiesel, HVO is free of sulfur and any aromatics.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2823
Norifumi Mizushima, Daisuke Kawano, Hajime Ishii, Yutaka Takada, Susumu Sato
Abstract Widespread use of biofuels for automobiles would greatly reduce CO2 emissions and increase resource recycling, contributing to global environmental conservation. In fact, activities for expanding the production and utilization of biofuels are already proceeding throughout the world. For diesel vehicles, generally, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) made from vegetable oils is used as a biodiesel. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also become increasingly popular. In addition, biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel, which can be made from any kinds of biomass by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process, is expected to be commercialized in the future. On the other hand, emission regulations in each country have been tightened year by year. In accordance with this, diesel engines have complied with the regulations with advanced technologies such as common-rail fuel injection system, high pressure turbocharger, EGR and aftertreatment system.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2327
Ashish Kumar Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Rapid depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding an extensive research work to find out the viable alternative fuel for meeting sustainable energy demand without any environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable, sustainable, efficient, cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researchers has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcohols, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuel i.e. diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to higher emissions i.e. NOx, CO, HC and deposits due to improper combustion. Hence, there is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines for the forthcoming stringent emissions norms and the fossil depletion.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1477
Varun Pathak, Dileep Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1379
Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng, Anke Konzack
Abstract Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines and is made from agricultural co-products such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil and other natural oils. Biodiesel is a cleaner burning fuel that is biodegradable and non-toxic compared to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications and is critical for lowering US dependence on foreign oil and attain energy security. Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467 specifications. Field warranty and validation tests have shown significant concerns with use of poor quality biodiesel fuels including fuel system deposits, engine oil deterioration, and efficiency loss of the after treatment system. Maintaining good quality of biodiesel is critical for success as a commercial fuel.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1468
Dimitrios Karonis, Despina Chilari, Constantina Manou
The scope of this work is to examine the use of hydroprossed used cooking oils as substitute for automotive diesel fuel. Hydroprocessing is an alternative method for the transformation of vegetable oils into high quality transport fuels, even if the quality of the oils is low, such as used cooking oils. In the present work, the utilization of hydroprocessed used cooking oil (HUCO) as neat fuel was proved to be very difficult, due to its very poor cold flow properties; therefore, mixtures of the HUCO with low quality middle distillates (a low cetane number gasoil and a light cycle oil) were prepared and evaluated. Throughout the process the formed blends were evaluated according to the european standard EN 590. The following points were mainly recorded: The lower density of HUCO was beneficial, permitting the use of poor quality distillates, in specific concentrations, and the high cetane number of HUCO was appreciable, improving the worse behavior of the other components.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1947
Maddali Krishna, R. Chowdary
Abstract Vegetable oils are a promising substitute for diesel fuel because their properties are similar to those of diesel. They are renewable and can be easily produced. Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine that bears his name, experimented with fuels ranging from powdered coal to peanut oil. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a conventional diesel engine with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of waste fried vegetable oil in crude form and biodiesel form with varied injection timing and injector opening pressure. Raw oil, containing higher amount of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) (greater than 10 wt%) collected from local restaurants of Hyderabad was converted to biodiesel in two-stage method so as to reduce FFA to 0.52% wt%.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1469
Xiao Chen, Hejun Guo, Liqiang Zhang
Abstract In this paper, a novel biodiesel-like fuel, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether palm oil monoester was synthesized with ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and palm oil as reagents and KOH as catalyst. Transesterification reaction was conducted to approach the optimal preparation conditions. Its chemical structure was identified through analyses of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and GPC analyses. A double cylinders, 4-stroke, water-cooled, DI diesel engine was adopted to accomplish determination of power output and exhaust emissions. The results showed that Smoke, NOx, HC and CO emissions were significantly reduced in contrast with diesel fuel. The new biodiesel-like fuel also exhibited less ignition delay and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2017
Morteza Borhanipour, Preechar Karin, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Abstract The increase of air pollution and global warming is a threat for human life. Besides, the price of petroleum is increasing rapidly and the resources are diminishing. This obliged scientists and engineers to look for alternative sources of energy, which are cleaner and more sustainable. Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyls of esters from vegetable oils and animals fat, is a cleaner renewable fuel and has been considered as the best alternative for petroleum based diesel fuel hence it can be used in any compression ignition engines without any significant modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions due to their higher content of oxygen. The produce less soot and hence the feed stuck is plant it will regenerate the CO2 by the photosynthesis which ensures the renewability and reduces global warming.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2813
Sundarapandian S
Diesel engines dominate the field of commercial transportation and agricultural machinery on account of its superior fuel efficiency. Cost and limited reserves of conventional fossil fuels have intensified the search for alternative fuels for use in internal combustion engines. A possible alternative engine fuel is vegetable oil because it is clean burning, renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environmetally friendly transportation fuel. It can be used in neat form without any modification of the engine. They can be produced from the plants grown in rural areas. Vegetable oils are produced from crops such as soybean, peanut, sunflower, cotton, jatropha, mahua, neem, coconut, linseed, mustard, karanja, rape and castor. Evaluate the performance characteristics and combustion parameters of vegetable oil esters like Jatropha, Mahua and Neem for the various injection pressure and they are compared to diesel fuel. The diesel fuel results were compared with vegetable oil ester.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2664
Raghvendra Gautam, Naveen Kumar, Pritam Sharma
India possesses only 0.3% of world petroleum reserves and hence heavily dependent upon petroleum derived fuels to feed its rapidly growing economy. Diesel Engines due to their superior performance have wide application in India, however, they also pollute environment significantly. Research is underway in India and elsewhere to explore the potential of variety of alternative fuels which could substitute diesel in a holistic manner. And in this context, non-edible vegetable oils are very promising as India has a large area of degraded land where such crops could be raised without compromising food security. Large number of studies have suggested that vegetable oils are not suitable in neat form as a fuel in diesel engine and should be trans-esterified using either methanol or ethanol to form esters to bring their properties similar to diesel fuel.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2684
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Vipul Vibhanshu, Ashish Singh
Diesel Engines are widely used in transportation, industrial and agriculture sectors worldwide due to their versatility and ruggedness. However, they also emit harmful emissions detrimental to human health and environment. Apart from environmental degradation, the perturbation in international crude oil prices is also mandating use of renewable fuels. In this context, vegetable oils such as Jatropha Curcas due to their carbon neutral nature and widespread availability, seems to present a promising alternative to the mineral diesel. Straight vegetable oils (SVO) are not recommended for direct diesel engine application due to their higher viscosity, poor volatility etc. and dilution of straight vegetable oil may effectively enable its direct application in unmodified diesel engines. In the present study, Jatropha oil was diluted with n-Butanol to improve the fuel properties of the blend.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2475
Taizo Shimada, Mitsuo Notomi, Junya Tanaka, Koji Korematsu
In recent years, trans-esterified vegetable oils have been widely applied to diesel engine in order to suppress greenhouse gas emissions. However, “neat” vegetable oils are expected to be directly used to resolve some difficulties faced in their use, such high viscosity and slightly high fuel consumption. In this study neat linseed oil has been investigated as a neat vegetable oil. It was found to show higher fuel consumption than diesel fuel, however at the same time it showed lower indicated fuel consumption than diesel fuel. These results suggest some increase in engine friction loss in a neat biofuel diesel engine. Studies have been extensively investigated the difference in friction loss and a newly developed “improved deceleration method” has been applied.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0171
Amar Deep, Ashish Singh, Vipul Vibhanshu, Anubhav Khandelwal, Naveen Kumar
The rising cost and exponential depletion of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity for the researchers to evaluate the utilization and suitability of various renewable fuels. Amongst variety of alternative fuels, biofuels have the potential to mitigate the vulnerability and the adverse effects of use of fossil fuels. Vegetable/plant oil is better proposition as alternative fuel for diesel engine having much advantage over other alternative fuels. Orange oil from its peel has a huge potential and can be used as an alternate fuel at the most economical purchase rate. In the present investigation experiments were carried out to evaluate performance and emission characteristics of Orange peel oil methyl ester blends (OPOME) (10%, and 20% by volume) on unmodified diesel engine. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and European standards.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0172
Raghvendra Gautam, Naveen Kumar, Pritam Sharma
Biodiesel in has gained great momentum in last few years and has been a subject of vast research all around the globe. Bulk of the research work carried out so far has been confined to production of methyl esters of vegetable oil that is known as biodiesel in the transesterification process. In the present study, jatropha oil ethyl ester (JOEE) was prepared using transesterification process with ethanol and KOH as a catalyst. The evaluation of important physico-chemical properties was carried and the properties were found within acceptable limits of ASTM/EN standards. A small capacity diesel engine was fuelled with different blends of JOEE and diesel and various performances, emission and combustion characteristics were evaluated. The results suggested that brake thermal efficiency was increased and emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke opacity were found lower for JOEE blend confirming better combustion due to the oxygenated fuel and higher cetane rating.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0096
Apeng Zhou, Hejun Guo, Xiao Chen, Hui Wang, Shenghua Liu
Biodiesels, which are produced through the transesterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols, are promising clean alternative fuels in substitution of conventional diesel fuels. In this paper, a novel biodiesel, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether cottonseed oil monoester (TGMECOM), was developed. It was synthesized through transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME) with KOH as catalyst. Its chemical structure was characterized through FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS analyses. To investigate the engine performance of TGMECOM, tests on a two-cylinder DI diesel engine were conducted with different concentrations blended into diesel fuel. The results indicate that, compared to diesel fuel, TGMECOM has higher cetane number and oxygen content. For TGMECOM, the combustion timing of engine is advanced, ignition delay is shortened, and the combustion is improved.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0105
Vipul Vibhanshu, Naveen Kumar, Chinmaya Mishra, Sunil Sinha, Harveer Singh Pali, Sidharth Bansal
Dwindling petroleum reserves and alarming level of air pollution has been an issue of great concern in recent times and researchers across the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Within the gamut of alternative fuels, biofuels are the most promising and have the potential to mitigate climate change and lease a new life to existing IC engines. The vegetable oils are having immense potential in this context and have been used either in neat or modified form by large number of researchers. Jatropha curcus is a perennial plant and bears non edible oil. The plant is drought tolerant and has been cultivated all over the arid and semi-arid areas for reforestation. In the present study, blends of jatropha oil and ethanol have been prepared in 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v) and evaluation of important properties of blends has been carried. The results show that properties are quite similar to diesel fuel.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0867
Idris Saad, Saiful Bari
Due to depletion of crude oil and exhaust emissions associated with internal combustion engine, biodiesel, neat vegetable oil and waste cooking oil are identified as potential alternative fuels to run on diesel engines. However, the viscosities of these fuels are higher than diesel and can be grouped as higher viscous fuel (HVF). Currently, diesel engines fuelled by HVF experience problems of reduced power and torque besides increased fuel consumption and in-cylinder carbon deposit. These are mainly due to poor combustion as HVF is less prone to evaporate and mix with air. To reduce these problems, a technique to improve the air-fuel mixing in diesel engine fuelled by HVF using Guide Vane Swirl and Tumble Device (GVSTD) is presented in this paper. Validated simulation model for a diesel engine was developed using Solidworks and ANSYS-CFX before 12 GVSTD models were imposed in front of the intake runner with the vane twist angle varied from 3° to 60°.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1043
Vivek W Khond
Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) directly in the engine creates several operational and durability problems such as severe engine deposits, injector coking, piston ring sticking, gum formation and lubricating oil thickening. These problems relate to the high viscosity, poor volatility and cold flow characteristics of the vegetable oils due to large molecular weight and bulky molecular structure. Researchers have suggested different techniques for reducing the viscosity of the vegetable oils, which are dilution/blending, eating/pyrolysis, micro-emulsification and transesterification. This research paper investigates the viscosity of preheated karanj oil at various temperatures and in running a Kirloskar, twin-cylinder-type, DI diesel engine with preheated karanj oil. The karanj oil was preheated with the help of the hot exhaust gases so that its viscosity reduced and then it was injected into the engine.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1677
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Andreas F. Kolbeck, Thomas Kkoerfer, Markku Honkanen
The limited availability of fossil fuels and the increasing environmental pollution will lead to an increased demand for sustainable biofuels. The production of bio-based diesel fuels from vegetable oils is commonly accomplished using a process known as Trans-esterification. The product of Transesterification is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), commonly known as Biodiesel. An alternative process is Hydro-treatment of seed oils or animal waste fats to produce highly paraffinic renewable diesel fuel called Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Detailed investigations were carried out by the “Department of Advanced Diesel Engine Development” at FEV GmbH Aachen (Germany), to explore the potential of this biofuel compound as a candidate for future compression ignition engines.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0013
Pinkesh R. Shah, Sameer Patel, Sushrut Bhanushali, Anuradda Ganesh
Present work aims to make a comparative study of the use of fuel additives in straight vegetable oil (SVO) and preheated SVO on combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine. Two commercially available fuel additives for diesel referred as A1 and A2 were selected for this work. The physical properties of test fuels were measured and Sauter Mean diameter (SMD) is calculated to correlate atomization characteristics. The structural and chemical analysis of both additives has been done. The test results showed that peak pressure, heat release rate and NOx emission were found to be decreasing with increase in temperature for Karanj oil. The additive A1 significantly reduced NOx for both diesel and Karanj oil as fuels at all temperature condition. Both additives reduced the injector deposits drastically.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0017
Hideyuki Ogawa, Hari Setiapraja, Kosuke Hara, Gen Shibata
Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1585
Tuukka Hartikka, Markku Kuronen, Ulla Kiiski
The objective of this paper is to compile the findings of more than 40 scientific publications and provide information on the technical performance of HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines. Fuel properties, emission performance and engine behavior of HVO is evaluated in comparison to fossil diesel. Based on the studies and large field trials it can be concluded that HVO can be used as a drop-in-fuel and that it has properties beneficial for the engine and the environment. HVO has high cetane number, low density, good lubricity when treated with lubricity additives, bulk modulus comparable to fossil diesel, material compatibility similar to fossil diesel and good cold properties regardless of the feedstock. HVO is capable of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions as well as greenhouse gasses. HVO has beneficial effects to aftertreatment systems. Oil dilution with HVO is not a concern and HVO does not cause incompatibility with lubrication oil.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1581
Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Yuuta Watanabe, Koji Yamane, Chihiro Kondo, Takaaki Kanoh
The suitability of caprylic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and palmitic (C16:0) acid 2-ethylhexyls derived from palm/coconut oil in diesel engine was evaluated. The pour point of each compound was approximately 40°C lower than that of the corresponding methyl ester due to the ethyl branch in the alcohol. All compounds possessed high oxidation stability, high lubricity, and a high cetane number. Engine bench test results demonstrated that 2-ethylhexyl laurate and palmitate result in shorter ignition delays compared to gas oil. The short ignition delays suppressed initial premix-like combustion. As a result, high brake thermal efficiency with low combustion noise was achieved. Furthermore, both laurate and palmitate produced less NOx emissions and less unburned gaseous emissions.
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