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Viewing 1 to 30 of 316
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ashish Kumar Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Rapid depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding an extensive research work to find out the viable alternative fuel for meeting sustainable energy demand without any environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable, sustainable, efficient, cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researchers has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcohols, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuel i.e. diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to higher emissions i.e. NOx, CO, HC and deposits due to improper combustion. Hence, there is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines for the forthcoming stringent emissions norms and the fossil depletion. In the current exhaustive investigation CNG is used with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) in a dual fuel mode for complete combustion of charge present inside the combustion chamber, and for the reduction of emissions associated with CI engines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Maddali Krishna, R. Chowdary
Abstract Vegetable oils are a promising substitute for diesel fuel because their properties are similar to those of diesel. They are renewable and can be easily produced. Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine that bears his name, experimented with fuels ranging from powdered coal to peanut oil. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a conventional diesel engine with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of waste fried vegetable oil in crude form and biodiesel form with varied injection timing and injector opening pressure. Raw oil, containing higher amount of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) (greater than 10 wt%) collected from local restaurants of Hyderabad was converted to biodiesel in two-stage method so as to reduce FFA to 0.52% wt%. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and coolant load), exhaust emissions (particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine, while combustion characteristics (peak pressure (PP), time of occurrence of peak pressure (TOPP) and maximum rate of pressure (MRPR)) were determined at full load operation of the engine fuelled with diesel, crude vegetable oil and biodiesel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Varun Pathak, Dileep Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant. Vegetable oils are renewable raw materials that possess certain excellent frictional properties e.g. good lubricity, low volatility, high viscosity index, solvency for lubricant additives, and easy miscibility with other fluids etc.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiao Chen, Hejun Guo, Liqiang Zhang
Abstract In this paper, a novel biodiesel-like fuel, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether palm oil monoester was synthesized with ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and palm oil as reagents and KOH as catalyst. Transesterification reaction was conducted to approach the optimal preparation conditions. Its chemical structure was identified through analyses of FT-IR, 1H-NMR and GPC analyses. A double cylinders, 4-stroke, water-cooled, DI diesel engine was adopted to accomplish determination of power output and exhaust emissions. The results showed that Smoke, NOx, HC and CO emissions were significantly reduced in contrast with diesel fuel. The new biodiesel-like fuel also exhibited less ignition delay and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng, Anke Konzack
Abstract Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines and is made from agricultural co-products such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil and other natural oils. Biodiesel is a cleaner burning fuel that is biodegradable and non-toxic compared to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications and is critical for lowering US dependence on foreign oil and attain energy security. Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467 specifications. Field warranty and validation tests have shown significant concerns with use of poor quality biodiesel fuels including fuel system deposits, engine oil deterioration, and efficiency loss of the after treatment system. Maintaining good quality of biodiesel is critical for success as a commercial fuel. This paper will summarize test results of recently collected retail biodiesel blend samples from the U.S. to provide a snap shot of the current fuel quality in the market.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dimitrios Karonis, Despina Chilari, Constantina Manou
The scope of this work is to examine the use of hydroprossed used cooking oils as substitute for automotive diesel fuel. Hydroprocessing is an alternative method for the transformation of vegetable oils into high quality transport fuels, even if the quality of the oils is low, such as used cooking oils. In the present work, the utilization of hydroprocessed used cooking oil (HUCO) as neat fuel was proved to be very difficult, due to its very poor cold flow properties; therefore, mixtures of the HUCO with low quality middle distillates (a low cetane number gasoil and a light cycle oil) were prepared and evaluated. Throughout the process the formed blends were evaluated according to the european standard EN 590. The following points were mainly recorded: The lower density of HUCO was beneficial, permitting the use of poor quality distillates, in specific concentrations, and the high cetane number of HUCO was appreciable, improving the worse behavior of the other components. On the other hand, some downsides of HUCO have been enhanced by blending, with the low quality middle distillates.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Morteza Borhanipour, Preechar Karin, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Abstract The increase of air pollution and global warming is a threat for human life. Besides, the price of petroleum is increasing rapidly and the resources are diminishing. This obliged scientists and engineers to look for alternative sources of energy, which are cleaner and more sustainable. Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyls of esters from vegetable oils and animals fat, is a cleaner renewable fuel and has been considered as the best alternative for petroleum based diesel fuel hence it can be used in any compression ignition engines without any significant modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions due to their higher content of oxygen. The produce less soot and hence the feed stuck is plant it will regenerate the CO2 by the photosynthesis which ensures the renewability and reduces global warming. But these alternative fuels have faced some obstacles while utilizing in CI engines which are due to some of their physical and chemical characteristics.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
Sundarapandian S
Diesel engines dominate the field of commercial transportation and agricultural machinery on account of its superior fuel efficiency. Cost and limited reserves of conventional fossil fuels have intensified the search for alternative fuels for use in internal combustion engines. A possible alternative engine fuel is vegetable oil because it is clean burning, renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environmetally friendly transportation fuel. It can be used in neat form without any modification of the engine. They can be produced from the plants grown in rural areas. Vegetable oils are produced from crops such as soybean, peanut, sunflower, cotton, jatropha, mahua, neem, coconut, linseed, mustard, karanja, rape and castor. Evaluate the performance characteristics and combustion parameters of vegetable oil esters like Jatropha, Mahua and Neem for the various injection pressure and they are compared to diesel fuel. The diesel fuel results were compared with vegetable oil ester. Finally it was concluded that the performance of vegetable oil esters such as Jatropha, Mahua, and Neem are much better than diesel.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Vipul Vibhanshu, Ashish Singh
Diesel Engines are widely used in transportation, industrial and agriculture sectors worldwide due to their versatility and ruggedness. However, they also emit harmful emissions detrimental to human health and environment. Apart from environmental degradation, the perturbation in international crude oil prices is also mandating use of renewable fuels. In this context, vegetable oils such as Jatropha Curcas due to their carbon neutral nature and widespread availability, seems to present a promising alternative to the mineral diesel. Straight vegetable oils (SVO) are not recommended for direct diesel engine application due to their higher viscosity, poor volatility etc. and dilution of straight vegetable oil may effectively enable its direct application in unmodified diesel engines. In the present study, Jatropha oil was diluted with n-Butanol to improve the fuel properties of the blend. Butanol was considered due to its lower viscosity, oxygenated nature and complete miscibility with Jatropha oil.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Raghvendra Gautam, Naveen Kumar, Pritam Sharma
India possesses only 0.3% of world petroleum reserves and hence heavily dependent upon petroleum derived fuels to feed its rapidly growing economy. Diesel Engines due to their superior performance have wide application in India, however, they also pollute environment significantly. Research is underway in India and elsewhere to explore the potential of variety of alternative fuels which could substitute diesel in a holistic manner. And in this context, non-edible vegetable oils are very promising as India has a large area of degraded land where such crops could be raised without compromising food security. Large number of studies have suggested that vegetable oils are not suitable in neat form as a fuel in diesel engine and should be trans-esterified using either methanol or ethanol to form esters to bring their properties similar to diesel fuel. Jatropha curcas is a very promising plant for developing country like India and non-edible oil extracted from Jatropha seed has the potential to lease a new life to millions of diesel engines.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β). Results from the preliminary study revealed that 98.2% ethyl ester yield was achieved over a catalyst sample with highest K3PO4 content.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Taizo Shimada, Mitsuo Notomi, Junya Tanaka, Koji Korematsu
In recent years, trans-esterified vegetable oils have been widely applied to diesel engine in order to suppress greenhouse gas emissions. However, “neat” vegetable oils are expected to be directly used to resolve some difficulties faced in their use, such high viscosity and slightly high fuel consumption. In this study neat linseed oil has been investigated as a neat vegetable oil. It was found to show higher fuel consumption than diesel fuel, however at the same time it showed lower indicated fuel consumption than diesel fuel. These results suggest some increase in engine friction loss in a neat biofuel diesel engine. Studies have been extensively investigated the difference in friction loss and a newly developed “improved deceleration method” has been applied. Doing so confirmed the higher fuel injection driving torque caused by the higher viscosity of neat linseed oil relative to diesel fuel and the effect of the enlarged inner diameter of the fuel injection pipe on reducing the engine friction of high-viscosity fuel.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Raghvendra Gautam, Naveen Kumar, Pritam Sharma
Biodiesel in has gained great momentum in last few years and has been a subject of vast research all around the globe. Bulk of the research work carried out so far has been confined to production of methyl esters of vegetable oil that is known as biodiesel in the transesterification process. In the present study, jatropha oil ethyl ester (JOEE) was prepared using transesterification process with ethanol and KOH as a catalyst. The evaluation of important physico-chemical properties was carried and the properties were found within acceptable limits of ASTM/EN standards. A small capacity diesel engine was fuelled with different blends of JOEE and diesel and various performances, emission and combustion characteristics were evaluated. The results suggested that brake thermal efficiency was increased and emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke opacity were found lower for JOEE blend confirming better combustion due to the oxygenated fuel and higher cetane rating. However, an upward trend was observed in case of oxides of nitrogen for ethyl ester.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Amar Deep, Ashish Singh, Vipul Vibhanshu, Anubhav Khandelwal, Naveen Kumar
The rising cost and exponential depletion of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity for the researchers to evaluate the utilization and suitability of various renewable fuels. Amongst variety of alternative fuels, biofuels have the potential to mitigate the vulnerability and the adverse effects of use of fossil fuels. Vegetable/plant oil is better proposition as alternative fuel for diesel engine having much advantage over other alternative fuels. Orange oil from its peel has a huge potential and can be used as an alternate fuel at the most economical purchase rate. In the present investigation experiments were carried out to evaluate performance and emission characteristics of Orange peel oil methyl ester blends (OPOME) (10%, and 20% by volume) on unmodified diesel engine. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and European standards. Engine performance (brake specific energy consumption, brake thermal efficiency) and emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and smoke density) were measured to evaluate the behavior of the diesel engine running on biodiesel and diesel.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Apeng Zhou, Hejun Guo, Xiao Chen, Hui Wang, Shenghua Liu
Biodiesels, which are produced through the transesterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols, are promising clean alternative fuels in substitution of conventional diesel fuels. In this paper, a novel biodiesel, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether cottonseed oil monoester (TGMECOM), was developed. It was synthesized through transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME) with KOH as catalyst. Its chemical structure was characterized through FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS analyses. To investigate the engine performance of TGMECOM, tests on a two-cylinder DI diesel engine were conducted with different concentrations blended into diesel fuel. The results indicate that, compared to diesel fuel, TGMECOM has higher cetane number and oxygen content. For TGMECOM, the combustion timing of engine is advanced, ignition delay is shortened, and the combustion is improved. As the TGMECOM fraction increased in the TGMECOM-diesel blends, the brake thermal efficiency of engine is remarkably increased and a maximal reduction of the smoke and NOx by 54.6% and 39.3%, respectively, can be reached.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Vipul Vibhanshu, Naveen Kumar, Chinmaya Mishra, Sunil Sinha, Harveer Singh Pali, Sidharth Bansal
Dwindling petroleum reserves and alarming level of air pollution has been an issue of great concern in recent times and researchers across the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Within the gamut of alternative fuels, biofuels are the most promising and have the potential to mitigate climate change and lease a new life to existing IC engines. The vegetable oils are having immense potential in this context and have been used either in neat or modified form by large number of researchers. Jatropha curcus is a perennial plant and bears non edible oil. The plant is drought tolerant and has been cultivated all over the arid and semi-arid areas for reforestation. In the present study, blends of jatropha oil and ethanol have been prepared in 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v) and evaluation of important properties of blends has been carried. The results show that properties are quite similar to diesel fuel. Performance and emission characteristics were evaluated for straight vegetable jatropha ethanol (SVJE) blends.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Vivek W Khond
Use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) directly in the engine creates several operational and durability problems such as severe engine deposits, injector coking, piston ring sticking, gum formation and lubricating oil thickening. These problems relate to the high viscosity, poor volatility and cold flow characteristics of the vegetable oils due to large molecular weight and bulky molecular structure. Researchers have suggested different techniques for reducing the viscosity of the vegetable oils, which are dilution/blending, eating/pyrolysis, micro-emulsification and transesterification. This research paper investigates the viscosity of preheated karanj oil at various temperatures and in running a Kirloskar, twin-cylinder-type, DI diesel engine with preheated karanj oil. The karanj oil was preheated with the help of the hot exhaust gases so that its viscosity reduced and then it was injected into the engine. Investigation on engine were carried out with the aim to compare the performance characteristics such as brake specific fuel consumption(BSFC), brake thermal efficiency, brake power, exhaust gas temperature, emission such as smoke opacity with diesel and preheated karanj oil.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Idris Saad, Saiful Bari
Due to depletion of crude oil and exhaust emissions associated with internal combustion engine, biodiesel, neat vegetable oil and waste cooking oil are identified as potential alternative fuels to run on diesel engines. However, the viscosities of these fuels are higher than diesel and can be grouped as higher viscous fuel (HVF). Currently, diesel engines fuelled by HVF experience problems of reduced power and torque besides increased fuel consumption and in-cylinder carbon deposit. These are mainly due to poor combustion as HVF is less prone to evaporate and mix with air. To reduce these problems, a technique to improve the air-fuel mixing in diesel engine fuelled by HVF using Guide Vane Swirl and Tumble Device (GVSTD) is presented in this paper. Validated simulation model for a diesel engine was developed using Solidworks and ANSYS-CFX before 12 GVSTD models were imposed in front of the intake runner with the vane twist angle varied from 3° to 60°. Based on simulation results, the maximum improvements were found by the GVSTD of 35° twist angle.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Andreas F. Kolbeck, Thomas Kkoerfer, Markku Honkanen
The limited availability of fossil fuels and the increasing environmental pollution will lead to an increased demand for sustainable biofuels. The production of bio-based diesel fuels from vegetable oils is commonly accomplished using a process known as Trans-esterification. The product of Transesterification is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), commonly known as Biodiesel. An alternative process is Hydro-treatment of seed oils or animal waste fats to produce highly paraffinic renewable diesel fuel called Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Detailed investigations were carried out by the “Department of Advanced Diesel Engine Development” at FEV GmbH Aachen (Germany), to explore the potential of this biofuel compound as a candidate for future compression ignition engines. Engine results of pure HVO fuel are compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (B0) and rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) at different part load and full load points with respect to combustion behavior, engine efficiency, combustion sound level (CSL) and emission performance.
Technical Paper
2013-01-09
Pinkesh R. Shah, Sameer Patel, Sushrut Bhanushali, Anuradda Ganesh
Present work aims to make a comparative study of the use of fuel additives in straight vegetable oil (SVO) and preheated SVO on combustion and emission characteristics of CI engine. Two commercially available fuel additives for diesel referred as A1 and A2 were selected for this work. The physical properties of test fuels were measured and Sauter Mean diameter (SMD) is calculated to correlate atomization characteristics. The structural and chemical analysis of both additives has been done. The test results showed that peak pressure, heat release rate and NOx emission were found to be decreasing with increase in temperature for Karanj oil. The additive A1 significantly reduced NOx for both diesel and Karanj oil as fuels at all temperature condition. Both additives reduced the injector deposits drastically.
Technical Paper
2012-10-23
Hideyuki Ogawa, Hari Setiapraja, Kosuke Hara, Gen Shibata
Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels. Also, the operation with all the blended and reference fuels with optimized pilot quantities and suitable EGR rates was investigated over a wide range of IMEP 1.0 MPa.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Yuuta Watanabe, Koji Yamane, Chihiro Kondo, Takaaki Kanoh
The suitability of caprylic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and palmitic (C16:0) acid 2-ethylhexyls derived from palm/coconut oil in diesel engine was evaluated. The pour point of each compound was approximately 40°C lower than that of the corresponding methyl ester due to the ethyl branch in the alcohol. All compounds possessed high oxidation stability, high lubricity, and a high cetane number. Engine bench test results demonstrated that 2-ethylhexyl laurate and palmitate result in shorter ignition delays compared to gas oil. The short ignition delays suppressed initial premix-like combustion. As a result, high brake thermal efficiency with low combustion noise was achieved. Furthermore, both laurate and palmitate produced less NOx emissions and less unburned gaseous emissions. The amount of soot emissions from palmitate was greater than that from gas oil despite the oxygen atoms in the fuel molecules, since air-fuel mixing during ignition delay was insufficient due to the short ignition delay and low volatility of palmitate.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Tuukka Hartikka, Markku Kuronen, Ulla Kiiski
The objective of this paper is to compile the findings of more than 40 scientific publications and provide information on the technical performance of HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines. Fuel properties, emission performance and engine behavior of HVO is evaluated in comparison to fossil diesel. Based on the studies and large field trials it can be concluded that HVO can be used as a drop-in-fuel and that it has properties beneficial for the engine and the environment. HVO has high cetane number, low density, good lubricity when treated with lubricity additives, bulk modulus comparable to fossil diesel, material compatibility similar to fossil diesel and good cold properties regardless of the feedstock. HVO is capable of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions as well as greenhouse gasses. HVO has beneficial effects to aftertreatment systems. Oil dilution with HVO is not a concern and HVO does not cause incompatibility with lubrication oil. Large field trials have shown that the fuel consumption with HVO is nearly proportional to the volumetric heating value, but in some cases the engine efficiency is slightly improved.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Jonas Galle, Joachim Demuynck, Jeroen Vancoillie, Sebastian Verhelst
The internal combustion engine with compression ignition is still the most important power plant for heavy duty transport, railway transport, marine applications and generator sets. Fuel cost and emission regulations drive manufacturers to switch to alternative fuels. The understanding and prediction of these fuels in the spray and combustion process will be very important for these issues. In the past, lot of research was done for conventional diesel fuel by optically analyzing both spray and combustion. However comparison between different groups is difficult since qualitative results and accuracies are depending in the used definitions and methods. The goal of present research is to verify the behavior pure oils compared to more standard fuels while paying lot of attention to the interpretation of the measurement results. Spray formation from a pump-line-nozzle diesel fuel injection system through a multi-hole injector, used for medium speed applications, is studied in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber using digital high speed shadowgraphy.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Matteo Imperato, Teemu Sarjovaara, Martti Larmi, Aki Tilli
The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance and the combustion of a large-bore single-cylinder medium speed engine running with hydrotreated vegetable oil. This fuel has a paraffinic chemical structure and high Cetane number. These features enable achievement of complete and clean combustion with different engine setups. The main benefits are thus lower soot and nitrogen oxides emissions compared to diesel fuel. The facility used in this study is a research engine, where the conditions upstream the machine, the valve timing and the injection parameters are fully adjustable. In fact, the boundary conditions upstream and downstream the engine are freely controlled by a separated supply air plant and by a throttle valve, located at the end of the exhaust pipe. The injection system is common-rail: rail pressure, injection timing and duration are completely adjustable. The gas exchange system consists of electro-hydraulic actuators, used for controlling the intake and exhaust valve timing.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Gopinath A, Sairam K, Sukumar Puhan, Ganesan V
Oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) content may not be an appropriate contestant for biodiesel production due to poor process yield. The high FFA content (≻1%) will cause soap formation and the separation of products will be exceedingly difficult, and as a result, it has low yield of biodiesel product. In order to increase the process yield, pretreatment setup is required. This involves additional cost and will increase overall fuel price. Hence crude vegetable oils having high FFA can be blended with diesel for effectual employment in diesel engines. In this context, Jatropha Curcas L, non-edible tree-based oil with higher FFA content, can be considered as one of the prominent blending sources for diesel. The primary objective of the present work is to analyze the effect of FFA content of crude Jatropha Curcas L oil (CJO) on performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The effect of FFA on some of the critical fuel properties was also investigated.
Technical Paper
2012-01-09
Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Chaudhury, Pravesh Chandra Shukla
Diesel engines are very efficient prime movers in their power range. Fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines are highly influenced by the fuel spray parameters and atomization of the injected fuel. As the emission regulations become stringent, it is very important to optimize the combustion in internal combustion engines for different fuels including alternative fuels. Spray visualization using optical techniques play a very important role to analyze macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behavior. In the present experimental study, an important alternative CI engine fuel, Karanja oil and its blends with diesel have been investigated for their spray parameters and fuel atomization relative to mineral diesel. These parameters are different for the two fuels because of difference in the viscosity and density of the fuels. Combustion chamber pressure is a dominant factor, which strongly influences the spray characteristics.
Technical Paper
2011-11-08
Eiji Kinoshita, Kazunori Hamasaki, Ryota Imabayashi
In order to improve the fuel properties and diesel combustion of biodiesel, waste vegetable oil methyl ester (from rapeseed and soybean oil mixture) with 5-20 mass% 1-butanol (BWME) are tested using a DI diesel engine. The viscosity and pour point of BWME decrease by blending 1-butanol. There is no problem in the startability and stability of the engine operation with BWME. Thermal efficiency of BWME is almost the same as that of the gas oil. The smoke emission decreases with increasing 1-butanol although the HC and CO emissions increase due to the longer ignition delay. It is concluded that BWME can be utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. Furthermore, to improve the ignitability and exhaust emissions of biodiesel with 1-butanol, palm oil methyl ester (PME) with high cetane number is tested as a base fuel of the 1-butanl blend. When the 1-butanol content in PME/1-butanol (BPME) is 15 mass%, BPME has almost the same ignition delay and HC and CO emissions compared with the gas oil. From the experimental results, it is concluded that PME is better than rapeseed oil methyl ester as a base fuel of the biodiesel with 1-butanol due to the better ignitability and lower exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
2011-11-08
Azwan Sapit, Sho Nagayasu, Yasunori Tsuboi, Yuzuru Nada, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
It is widely known that direct application of biomass fuels oil to DI diesel engines increases the carbon deposit in the engine. To minimize this effect, biomass fuel is subjected to transesterification process. Nevertheless, it is still desirable to use biomass fuel without transesterification. As diesel engine combustion and emissions are strongly dependent on spray characteristics and mixture formation, this study tries to clarify the spray characteristics of rape-seed oil (SVO) including spray structure, spray development, fuel evaporation, and droplets atomization. Optical observation reveals that rape-seed oil (SVO) spray forms a stick-like structure without branching structure at spray boundary and has heterogeneous density distribution in a liquid column at spray centerline. SVO spray hardly penetrates at exceedingly initial stage of injection, in particular at low injection pressure. Combination of high injection pressure and high ambient temperature lengthens spray penetration and produces branching structure and fine droplets.
Technical Paper
2011-10-06
Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Koji Yamane, Keita Mori, Masahiro Ito, Chihiro Kondo
This study focuses on deposit formation in a diesel engine fueled with straight vegetable oil (SVO) and its effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions. First, two-dimensional thickness distributions of the carbon deposits on the cylinder head were measured by a laser displacement meter after continuous engine operation on gas oil blended with SVO at 25%. The obtained results show that the carbon deposit thickness rapidly increases with SVO-blended fuel and reaches a higher level than with just gas oil. Second, the effects of fuel injector deposits on engine performance and emissions were examined. A small diesel engine was continuously operated by alternating between SVO and gas oil. Gas oil was injected for 1 hour before and after 6 hours of SVO operation to prevent the accumulation of SVO deposits inside the nozzle holes, and the process was repeated. The experimental results of 32 hours of operation, which differed from predictions, show that the fuel consumption and unburned emissions worsen sooner with gas oil/SVO/gas oil than with just SVO due to a decrease in the injection rate caused by deposits in the nozzle holes.
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