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2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0024
Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Davide Di Nunno, Alessandro Gallone
The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm-up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0015
Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano
Nowadays different technical solutions have been proposed to improve the performance of internal combustion engines, especially in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). As known, the latter has to be reduced to comply with the CO2 emissions legislation for vehicle homologation. Concerning the Spark Ignition engines, the downsizing coupled to turbocharging demonstrated a proper effectiveness to improve the fuel economy at part load. On the other hand, at high load, the above solution highly penalizes the fuel consumption mainly because of knock onset, that obliges to degrade the combustion phasing and/or enrich the air/fuel mixture. A promising technique to cope with the above drawbacks consists in the Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) concept. An optimal CR selection, in fact, allows for further improvements of the thermodynamic efficiency at part load, while at high loads, it permits to mitigate knock propensity, resulting in an enhanced fuel economy.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
The present paper is the outcome of the research activity carried out by Centro Ricerche Fiat, Politecnico di Torino, Delphi and AVL within the Gason research project of the EC (H2020 program). The overall goal of the research project is to develop CNG-only SI engines which are able to comply with post-EuroVI emission regulations and 2020+ CO2 emission targets, with reference to the new homologation cycle and real driving conditions. The work presented in this paper aimed at developing a small displacement turbocharged engine, which combines the advanced VVA MultiAir system for the air metering with the direct injection of natural gas. The activity focused on the development and fluid-dynamic characterization of the gaseous-fuel injector. Moreover, the combined use of CFD analysis and optical-access PLIF experimental techniques allowed the design of the combustion chamber to be optimized from the mixture formation point of view.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1721
Ho Teng, Ruigang Miao, Liming Cao, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Min Wu
Abstract In order to improve low speed torques, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often employ scavenging with a help of variable valve timing (VVT) controlled by the cam phasers. Scavenging improves the compressor performance at low flows and boosts low-speed-end torques of the engines. Characteristics of the engine combustion in the scavenging zone were studied with a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine experimentally. It was found that the scavenging zone was associated with the highest blowby rates on the engine map. The blowby recirculation was with heavy oil loading, causing considerable hydrocarbon fouling on the intake ports as well as on the stem and the back of the intake valves after the engine was operated in this zone for a certain period of time. The low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) events observed in the engine tests fell mainly in the scavenging zone.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0341
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Javid Moraveji, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen
Abstract In this study, a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a camshaft cap punching bench test. Stiffness results of simulated camshaft cap component are correlated with test data and used to validate the model accuracy in terms of material and boundary conditions. Next, the method is used for verification of cap design and durability performance improvement. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the finite element analysis, the punch is replaced by equivalent trigonometric distributed loads. The sensitivity of the finite element predicted strains for different trigonometric pressure distribution functions is also investigated and compared to strain gage measured values. A number of equivalent stress criteria are also used for fatigue safety factor calculations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0641
Stephen J. Charlton, Charles E. Price, Jeff Rogers, James W.G. Turner, Roshan S. Wijetunge, William Anderson
Abstract The paper describes a completely new approach to fully variable valve actuation (FVVA), which allows almost unlimited continuously variable control of intake and exhaust valve opening and closing events, and duration without the use of a camshaft. DigitalAir replaces conventional poppet valves with horizontally actuated valves located directly above the combustion deck of the cylinder head, which open and close a number of slots connecting the cylinder with the intake and exhaust ports, Figure 1. The stroke of the valves to provide the full flow area is approximately 25% of the stroke of the equivalent poppet valve, thus allowing direct electrical actuation with very low power consumption. This design arrangement also avoids the risk of poppet valve to piston collision, or the need for cut-outs in the piston crown, since the valves do not open into the cylinder.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0635
Guy Babbitt, Jeff Rogers, Kristina Weyer, Drew Cohen, Stephen Charlton
Abstract This paper provides an overview of the analysis and design of the DigitalAir™ camless valve train including the architecture and design of the valve and head; the details of the electric valve actuator, and the flow characteristics of the valves and resulting charge motion in a motoring engine. This valve train is a completely new approach to fully variable valve actuation (FVVA), which allows almost unlimited continuously variable control of intake and exhaust valve timing and duration without the use of a camshaft. This valve train replaces conventional poppet valves with horizontally actuated valves located above the combustion deck. As the valves move, they open and close a number of slots connecting the cylinder with the intake and exhaust ports. The valve stroke necessary to provide the full flow area is approximately 25% of the stroke of the equivalent poppet valve, thus allowing direct electrical actuation with very low power consumption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1069
Igor Trevas, Adm José baeta, Charles Pimenta, Heder Fernandes, Matheus Carvalho, Raphael Montemor
Abstract Variable Valve Actuation system (VVA) is a technology developed for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance mainly by reducing pumping losses. Many automakers have used VVA in their engine projects with excellent results. Usually, VVA systems are built to control the valve events in four different ways: changing the amplitude of the valve lift, the valve opening angle, the valve closing angle or a combination of those modes. A special attention at the calibration activity is needed to reach the optimum performance of this system, beyond this, it was necessary to develop a different way to calibrate, much more focused on the development of the combustion and the gas exchange process requiring an intense use of a pressure indicating system. This work presents a comparison between different way of actuation in combustion analysis of a VVA system on a spark ignition engine.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0033
Dileep Malkhede, Sudesh Jadhav, Amit Dhotre
Abstract Variable valve Actuation (VVA) systems are being increasingly used in IC engine. Recently novel valve actuation mechanism like continuous variable valve lift (CVVL) is being explored to regulate engine output without conventional throttle valve and this reduces the pumping losses especially at part load in SI engines. In this paper numerical model for the kinematic analysis of a CVVL mechanism is presented using MATLAB. It consists of eccentric shaft fitted with a series of intermediate rocker arm, which in turn control the degree of valve lift. The main characteristic of this mechanism is that it uses a general curve contact between the elements, which is determined using theory of envelope curve. The mechanism’s system of equations solving principle is based on the Newton-Raphson numerical method.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0037
Christian Zinner, Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt
Abstract The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreation vehicles the extraordinary high power density is crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke naturally aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this, the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0399
Heder Fernandes, Charles Quirino Pimenta, Wanderson Navegantes Rodrigues, Raphael Bezerra de Souza Montemor, José Eduardo Mautone Barros
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation - EGR - is a well-known technique to reduce NOx and it’s been applied on Diesel engines for a long time. Later studies and application found that other benefits can be achieved with PFI and GDI gasoline engines, such as pumping loss minimization and efficient knock control. Variable valve actuation valve-trains brought broader application possibilities as it enables full internal EGR control without external paths, high precision and response, as required on transient work modes. Comprehensive investigation on PFI and GDI Spark Ignition engines with external Hot EGR and Cooled EGR are widely available. However, variable valve actuation EGR control review on a flexfuel application is not well explored, and this paper is aimed at doing such.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2174
Reza Golzari, Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao
Abstract As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2229
Alessio Dulbecco, Stephane Richard, Olivier Laget, Philippe Aubret
Abstract Combustion in SI engines strongly depends on in-cylinder turbulence characteristics. Turbulence by definition presents three-dimensional (3D) features; accordingly, 3D approaches are mainly used to investigate the in-cylinder flow and assist the engine design. However, SI engine architectures are becoming more and more complex and the generalization of technologies such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and Direct Injection (DI) considerably increases the number of degrees of freedom to deal with. In this context, the computing resources demanded by 3D CFD codes hugely increase and car manufacturers privilege system simulation approaches in the first phases of the design process. Accordingly, it is essential that the employed 0D/1D models well capture the main physics of the system and reproduce the impact that engine control parameters have on it.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0578
Giuseppe Cicalese, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi
Abstract New SI engine generations are characterized by a simultaneous reduction of the engine displacement and an increase of the brake power; such targets are achieved through the adoption of several techniques such as turbocharging, direct fuel injection, variable valve timing and variable port lengths. This design approach, called “downsizing”, leads to a marked increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the thermal field is of primary importance in order to avoid mechanical failures. Moreover, the correct evaluation of the temperature distribution improves the prediction of pointwise abnormal combustion onset.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0565
SoDuk Lee, Charles Schenk, Joseph McDonald
Abstract As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 [1]”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0090
Patrick Barasa, Ye Tian, Stefan Hardes, Shahaboddin Owlia, Purvi Limaye, Derek Bailey, Tarun Sehgal
Abstract Increasingly advanced engines are having high degrees of flux in design, hardware, and requirement changes throughout the development process from initial design intent to production, all occurring at various points in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Boosting, downsizing, various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) schemes, variable valve timing/lift (VVT/VVL), and direct injection are part of new engine designs. These are being coupled with 6-10 speed transmission or electric motors for increasing overall efficiency while maintaining performance. Development and calibration of the control systems required to extract the best possible performance of these applied technologies is becoming a complex and resource consuming task when time, budget, and test beds become limited. Therefore, an equally rapid means to thoroughly test new engine designs, new algorithms and optimize calibrations is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0620
Zhe Wang, Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka
Abstract Accurate in-cylinder air charge estimation is important for engine torque determination, controlling air-to-fuel ratio, and ensuring high after-treatment efficiency. Spark ignition (SI) engine technologies like variable valve timing (VVT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are applied to improve fuel economy and reduce pollutant emissions, but they increase the complexity of air charge estimation. Increased air-path complexity drives the need for cost effective solutions that produce high air mass prediction accuracy while minimizing sensor cost, computational effort, and calibration time. A large number of air charge estimation techniques have been developed using a range of sensors sets combined with empirical and/or physics-based models. This paper provides a technical review of research in this area, focused on SI engines.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0477
Carmine Maria Di Sanctis, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro Gallo
Abstract New devices and control techniques have been adopted to take advantage of variable valve timing properties to improve engine performance or load control. This paper presents a study focused on engine load control strategies associated with early intake valve closing or late intake valve closing. It can be shown that these load control modes can improve the indicated thermal efficiency of the engine as compared with the conventional throttle control. These strategies are sometime called Miller cycle or Atkinson cycle, since the real compression ratio becomes smaller than the expansion ratio. A thermodynamic spark-ignition engine simulation model was employed. The advantage of a simulation model is to conduct parametric studies without the need of complex experimental apparatus. In this way, a deep understanding of the physical phenomena can be achieved and the sole effect of the desired parameter can be shown.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2501
Thomas Laible, Stefan Pischinger, Bastian Holderbaum
Abstract Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1253
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Julia Miersch
Abstract The use of Low Pressure - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is intended to allow displacement reduction in turbocharged gasoline engines and improve fuel economy. Low Pressure EGR designs have an advantage over High Pressure configurations since they interfere less with turbocharger efficiency and improve the uniformity of air-EGR mixing in the engine. In this research, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains of LP EGR over the base calibration. The main sources of the efficiency improvement are then quantified individually, focusing on part-load de-throttling of the engine, heat loss reduction, knock mitigation as well as decreased high-load fuel enrichment through exhaust temperature reduction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1748
Hrishikesh A. Saigaonkar, Mohammadreza Nazemi, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Abstract In this study, the effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on the performance of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine are analyzed by developing a computationally efficient modeling approach for the HCCI engine cycle. A full engine cycle model called Sequential Model for Residual affected HCCI (SMRH) is developed using a multi zone thermo-kinetic combustion model coupled with flow dynamic models. The SMRH utilizes CHEMKIN®-PRO and GT-POWER® software along with an in-house exhaust gas flow model. Experimental data from a single cylinder HCCI engine is used to validate the model for different operating conditions. Validation results show a good agreement with experimental data for predicting combustion phasing, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency as well as CO emission. The experimentally validated SMRH is then used to investigate the effects of intake and exhaust valve timing on residual affected HCCI engine combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1268
Tomohiro Shinagawa, Masahito Kudo, Wataru Matsubara, Takashi Kawai
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1261
J. Javier Lopez, Ricardo Novella, Jorge Valero-Marco, Gilles Coma, Frederic Justet
Abstract In the present paper, the use of a 2-stroke (2S) concept in an automotive gasoline engine is evaluated. In a first stage, the engine architecture chosen is discussed. Taking into account the requirements in gas exchange processes, a uniflow scavenging design was retained (intake ports in the cylinder, controlled by the piston; exhaust valves in the cylinder head, controlled by a Variable Valve Timing, VVT, system), performed by an external blower driven by the crankshaft. To avoid any fuel short-circuiting and to keep an acceptable cost, a direct injection (DI) air-assisted fuel injection system was selected. Since the engine behavior is much more complex compared to a classical 4-stroke engine, some complexity in the engine design needs to be added to allow engine optimization at the different operating conditions. This is the main reason why a VVT system, as well as a flexible fuel injection system were selected. In a second stage, the chosen engine concept is evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1262
Yuanping Li, Hua Zhao, Phil Stansfield, Paul Freeland
Abstract Gasoline engine downsizing has become a popular and effective approach to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. This is typically achieved in the form of a boosted direct injection gasoline engine, which are typically equipped with variable valve timing (VVT) devices on the intake and/or exhaust valves. This paper describes the synergies between valve timings and boost based on experimental investigations in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams. Two cam profiles have been tested to realize Miller cycle and compared with the standard camshaft. One cam features a long opening duration and standard valve lift for Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and the other cam has a short opening duration and low valve lift for Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0880
Masanobu Takazawa, Kiminori Komura, Toru Kitamura
Abstract Amidst the rising demand to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions in recent years, gasoline homogeneous-charge compression ignition (HCCI) has gained attention as a technology that achieves both low NOx emissions and high thermal efficiency by means of lean combustion. However, gasoline HCCI has low robustness toward intracylinder temperature variations, therefore the problems of knocking and misfiring tend to occur during transient operation. The authors verified the transient operation control of HCCI by using a 4-stroke natural aspiration (NA) gasoline engine provided with direct injection (DI) and a variable valve timing and a lift electronic control system (VTEC) for intake air and exhaust optimized for HCCI combustion. This report describes stoichiometry spark ignition (SI) to which external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was introduced, HCCI ignition switch control, and changes in the load and number of engine revolutions in the HCCI region.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2614
Kohei Kuzuoka, Tadashi Kurotani, Hiroshi Chishima, Hirotsugu Kudo
Abstract Bio-ethanol is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as “E10 gasoline”. In this study, a method was examined to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high-load performance in a high-compression-ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high-concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane. High-ethanol-concentration fuel was selectively used at high-load conditions to suppress knocking. In this system, a method to decrease ethanol consumption is necessary to cover the wide range of engine operation. Lower ethanol consumption could be achieved by Miller-cycle operation because decrease of the effective compression ratio suppresses knocking. However, high-load operation was limited due to the decrease in intake air volume with Miller-cycle operation.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2610
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson, Rana Ali, John Williams
Abstract Engine downsizing is a key approach employed by many vehicle manufacturers to help meet fleet average CO2 emissions targets. With gasoline engines in particular reducing engine swept volume while increasing specific output via technologies such as turbocharging, direct injection (DI) and variable valve timing can significantly reduce frictional and pumping losses in engine operating areas commonly encountered in legislative drive cycles. These engines have increased susceptibility to abnormal combustion phenomena such as knock due to the high brake mean effective pressures which they generate. This ultimately limits fuel efficiency benefits by demanding use of a lower geometric compression ratio and sub-optimal late combustion phasing at the higher specific loads experienced by these engines.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2878
Jonas Sjöblom
The increasing demand for improved efficiency of diesel engines requires more advanced combustion solutions. These solutions include the use of variable valve timings in combination with more traditional methods such as EGR, turbocharging and advanced injection systems. By modifying the characteristics of the charge air, further hardware optimization becomes possible. In the current investigation, the effect of late intake valve closing (LIVC) was investigated together with the effect of (external) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in a single cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. Different injection timings and injection pressures were investigated. The mass flow of oxygen was kept constant in order to show how the density and temperature of the reactant mixture affect the combustion and emission characteristics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1064
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Alfredo Gimelli, Massimiliano Muccillo
It is commonly recognized that the paths for improving fuel consumption (BSFC) in a spark-ignition engine at part-load require more advanced valve actuation strategies, which largely affect the pumping work. Since several years, many different solutions have been proposed, characterized by different levels of complexity, effectiveness, and cost. Valve systems currently available on the market allow for variable phasing (VVT - Variable Valve Timing), and/or lift (VVA - Variable Valve Actuation). Usually VVT devices are applied on intake and exhaust camshafts, in the “phased” or “unphased” configuration, as well. VVA devices are instead commonly mounted on the intake camshaft. More recent VVA systems also allow for a double intake valve lift during a single engine cycle (multi-lift), or may include a small intake pre-lift during the exhaust stroke. The latter solutions may determine further BSFC reductions. Alternatively, an external-EGR circuit can be considered, as well.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1346
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte, Nicolo Cavina, Giorgio Mancini, Vittorio Ravaglioli
Combustion phasing is crucial to achieve high performance and efficiency: for gasoline engines control variables such as Spark Advance (SA), Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR), Variable Valve Timing (VVT), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Tumble Flaps (TF) can influence the way heat is released. The optimal control setting can be chosen taking into account performance indicators, such as Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), pollutant emissions, or other indexes inherent to reliability issues, such as exhaust gas temperature, or knock intensity. Given the high number of actuations, the calibration of control parameters is becoming challenging.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 296

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