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Viewing 1 to 30 of 644
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2364
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2194
Muhsin M. Ameen, Prithwish Kundu, Sibendu Som
Abstract In this work, a turbulent combustion model is developed for large eddy simulation (LES) using a novel flamelet tabulation technique based on the framework of the multi-flamelet representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model. The overall aim is to develop a detailed model with elaborate chemistry mechanisms, LES turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of a tabulated model. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries by using the residence time instead of the progress variables is proposed. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using the tabulated turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. This model is then validated against igniting n-dodecane sprays under diesel engine conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2172
Matthieu Cordier, Olivier Laget, Florence Duffour, Xavier Gautrot, Loic De Francqueville
Abstract Increasing global efficiency of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine is nowadays one of the main concerns in automotive research. A conventional way to reduce DISI engine fuel consumption is through downsizing. This approach is well suited to the current homologation cycle as NEDC, but has the drawback to induce over-consumptions in customer real driving usage. Moreover, the driving cycles dedicated to EURO 6d and future regulations will evolve towards higher load operating conditions with higher particulate emissions. Therefore, efficiency of current DISI has to be strongly increased, for homologation cycle and real driving conditions. This implies to deeply understand and improve injection, mixing and flame propagation processes.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2236
Jann Koch, Guoqing Xu, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Abstract Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2229
Alessio Dulbecco, Stephane Richard, Olivier Laget, Philippe Aubret
Abstract Combustion in SI engines strongly depends on in-cylinder turbulence characteristics. Turbulence by definition presents three-dimensional (3D) features; accordingly, 3D approaches are mainly used to investigate the in-cylinder flow and assist the engine design. However, SI engine architectures are becoming more and more complex and the generalization of technologies such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and Direct Injection (DI) considerably increases the number of degrees of freedom to deal with. In this context, the computing resources demanded by 3D CFD codes hugely increase and car manufacturers privilege system simulation approaches in the first phases of the design process. Accordingly, it is essential that the employed 0D/1D models well capture the main physics of the system and reproduce the impact that engine control parameters have on it.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2230
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Siano, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental analysis regarding a twin-cylinder spark-ignition turbocharged engine are employed to build up an advanced 1D model, which includes the effects of cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) on the combustion process. Objective of the activity is to numerically estimate the CCV impact primarily on fuel consumption and knock behavior. To this aim, the engine is experimentally characterized in terms of average performance parameters and CCVs at high and low load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an air-to-fuel ratio (α) sweep are actuated. Acquired pressure signals are processed to estimate the rate of heat release and the main combustion events. Moreover, the Coefficient of Variation of IMEP (CoVIMEP) and of in-cylinder peak pressure (CoVpmax) are evaluated to quantify the cyclic dispersion and identify its dependency on peak pressure position.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2245
Roy Ogink, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos
Abstract This paper describes the experimental study of a tumble-flap mounted in the intake port of a single-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline engine. The research question addressed was whether an optimal tumble level could be found for the combustion system under investigation. Indicated fuel consumption was measured for a number of part-load operating points with the tumble-flap either open or closed. The experimental results were subjected to an energy balance analysis to understand which portion of the fuel energy was converted to work and how much was lost by incomplete combustion, heat losses to walls and to the exhaust gases, as well as to pumping losses. Closing the tumble-flap resulted in reduced fuel consumption only in a small area of the operating map: only at low-speed, low-load operation, a benefit could be obtained.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2237
Christopher Kim Blomberg, Lucas Zeugin, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Michele Bolla, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract This study investigates n-dodecane split injections of “Spray A” from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using two different turbulence treatments (RANS and LES) in conjunction with a Conditional Moment Closure combustion model (CMC). The two modeling approaches are first assessed in terms of vapor spray penetration evolutions of non-reacting split injections showing a clearly superior performance of the LES compared to RANS: while the former successfully reproduces the experimental results for both first and second injection events, the slipstream effect in the wake of the first injection jet is not accurately captured by RANS leading to an over-predicted spray tip penetration of the second pulse. In a second step, two reactive operating conditions with the same ambient density were investigated, namely one at a diesel-like condition (900K, 60bar) and one at a lower temperature (750K, 50bar).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2329
Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven Rogak
Abstract Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector variability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of better than one millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2234
Ahmed F. Khan, Alexey Burluka, Jens Neumeister, Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, John Mitcalf
Abstract A holistic modelling approach has been employed to predict combustion, cyclic variability and knock propensity of a turbocharged downsized SI engine fuelled with gasoline. A quasi-dimensional, thermodynamic combustion modelling approach has been coupled with chemical kinetics modelling of autoignition using reduced mechanisms for realistic gasoline surrogates. The quasi-dimensional approach allows a fast and appreciably accurate prediction of the effects of operating conditions on the burn-rate and makes it possible to evaluate engine performance. It has also provided an insight into the nature of the turbulent flame as the boost pressure and speed is varied. In order to assess the sensitivity of the end-gas chemical kinetics to cyclic variability, the in-cylinder turbulence and charge composition were perturbed according to a Gaussian distribution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8077
Guanyu Zheng
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) has become a mainstream approach to reduce diesel engine NOx emissions. Urea Water Solution (UWS) injection and interactions with mixers and exhaust gases affect the homogeneity of ammonia distribution at catalyst inlet and solid deposits formation on walls / mixer surfaces, therefore influencing SCR performance and durability. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate an EU V compliant SCR system with a dual baffle mixer for heavy duty diesel engines. The modeling procedure is carried out by a multi-dimensional CFD code CONVERGE that includes transient urea transport processes in an exhaust flow configuration, detailed spray break-up, evaporation, wall-film, turbulence, and Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) models as well as an automated mesh generation approach. Locations of urea deposits and system pressure drop are predicted and validated against measurements, providing uniformity index (UI) predictions at the catalyst inlet.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2130
Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan, Shintaro fukada, Mitsuo Fujimoto, Kenichi Kamimuki, Hideki Okada, Brent Duncan, Phuonghanh Bui, Michael Yeshiambel, Brian Brown, Alan Handyside
Abstract The Refill Friction Spot Joining (RFSJ) is an emerging solid-state spot welding technology that thermo-mechanically creates a molecular-level bond between the work-pieces. RFSJ does not consume any filler or foreign materials so that no additional weight is introduced to the assembly. As the solid-to-liquid phase transition is not involved in RFSJ in general, there is no lack of fusion or material deterioration caused by liquefaction and solidification. Unlike the conventional friction stir spot welding, RFSJ produces a spot joint with a perfectly flush surface finish without a key or exit hole. Currently, the aerospace industry employs solid rivets for fastening the primary structures as they meet the baseline requirements and have well-established standards and specifications.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8140
Devaraj Dasarathan, Ashraf Farag, Matthew Ellis
Abstract Recent regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles have prompted government agencies to standardize procedures assessing the aerodynamic performance of Class 8 tractor-trailers. The coastdown test procedure is the primary reference method employed to assess vehicle drag currently, while other valid alternatives include constant speed testing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, and wind tunnel testing. The main purpose of this paper is to compare CFD simulations with a corresponding 1/8th scale wind tunnel test. Additionally, this paper will highlight the impacts of wind tunnel testing on the total drag coefficient performance as compared to full scale open road analysis with and without real world, upstream turbulence wind conditions. All scale model testing and CFD simulations were performed on a class 8 tractor with a standard 53-foot dry-box trailer.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2022
Ajay Rao, Vivek Karan, Pradeep Kumar
Abstract Turbulence is by far the number one concern of anxious passengers and a cause for airline injuries. Apart from causing discomfort to passengers, it also results in unplanned downtime of aircrafts. Currently the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the meteorological weather charts aid the pilot in devising flight paths that avoid turbulent regions. Even with such tailored flight paths, pilots report constant encounters with turbulence. The probability of turbulence avoidance can be increased by the use of predictive models on historical and transactional data. This paper proposes the use of predictive analytics on meteorological data over the geographical area where the aircraft is intended to fly. The weather predictions are then relayed to the cloud server which can be accessed by the aircraft planned to fly in the same region. Predictive algorithms that use Time series forecasting models are discussed and their comparative performance is documented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2056
Nikolaus Thorell, Vaibhav Kumar, Narayanan Komerath
Abstract Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2043
Richard C. Millar, Thomas Mazzuchi, Haflidi Jonsson
Abstract The SPA-10 project, sponsored by U.S. National Science Foundation, is to acquire and qualify a replacement for the retired T-28 “storm penetration” aircraft previously used to acquire meteorological data to enable understanding and modelling of mid-continent thunderstorms. The National Science Foundation selected the Fairchild A-10 (bailed from the U.S. Air Force) as the platform to be adapted to perform the storm penetration mission to altitudes of eleven kilometers, and funded Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) as prime contractor. An expert panel conducted a review of the SPA-10 project in 2014 and recommended a risk analysis addressing hazards to the aircraft and pilots, such as icing, hail, turbulence and lightning. This paper presents the results of the risk analysis performed in response to this need, including recommended mitigations.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1816
Heiki Tiikoja, Fabio Auriemma, Jüri Lavrentjev
Abstract In this paper the propagation of acoustic plane waves in turbulent, fully developed flow is studied by means of an experimental investigation carried out in a straight, smooth-walled duct. The presence of a coherent perturbation, such as an acoustic wave in a turbulent confined flow, generates the oscillation of the wall shear stress. In this circumstance a shear wave is excited and superimposed on the sound wave. The turbulent shear stress is modulated by the shear wave and the wall shear stress is strongly affected by the turbulence. From the experimental point of view, it results in a measured damping strictly connected to the ratio between the thickness of the acoustic sublayer, which is frequency dependent, and the thickness of the viscous sublayer of the turbulent mean flow, the last one being dependent on the Mach number. By reducing the turbulence, the viscous sublayer thickness increases and the wave propagation is mainly dominated by convective effects.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1804
Stefan Becker, Katrin Nusser, Marco Oswald
Abstract Aim of the ongoing development of passenger cars is to predict the interior acoustics early in the development process. A significant noise component results from the flow phenomena in the area of the side window. Wind noise is a physical problem that involves the three complicated aspects each governed by different physics: The complex turbulent flow field in the wake of the a-pillar and the side mirror is characterized by velocity and pressure fluctuations. The flow field generates sound which is transmitted into the passenger cabin. In addition to that, it excites the structure, resulting in a radiation of structure-borne noise into the interior of the car. Therefore, the sound generation is governed by fluid dynamics of the air flow. The sound transmission through the structure due to vibrations is determined by structural mechanics of the body structure. The sound propagation inside the cabin is influenced by interior room acoustics.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1811
Anders Rynell, Gunilla Efraimsson, Mattias Chevalier, Mats Abom
Abstract To obtain realistic noise characteristics from CAA studies of subsonic fans, it is important to prescribe properly constructed turbulent inflow statistics. This is frequently omitted; instead it is assumed that the stochastic characteristics of turbulence, absent at the initial stage, progressively develops as the rotor inflicts the flow field over time and hence that the sound generating mechanism governed by surface pressure fluctuations are asymptotically accounted for. That assumption violates the actual interplay taking place between an ingested flow field and the surface pressure fluctuations exerted by the blades producing noise. The aim of the present study is to examine the coupling effect between synthetically ingested turbulence to sound produced from a subsonic ducted fan. The steady state inflow parameters are mapped from a precursor RANS simulation onto the inflow boundaries of a reduced domain to limit the computational cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0638
Suresh Gadekar, Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract In this study, 3D air-flow-field evolution in a single cylinder optical research engine was determined using tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (TPIV) at different engine speeds. Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle. In-cylinder air-flow characteristics were significantly affected by the engine speed. Experimental results showed that high velocities generated during the first half of the intake stroke dissipated in later stages of the intake stroke. In-cylinder flow visualization indicated that large part of flow energy dissipated during the intake stroke and energy dissipation was the maximum near the end of the intake stroke.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0557
Mohsen Mirzaeian, Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando
A 0D phenomenological turbulence model, based on the K-k and k- ɛ approaches, was coupled with a predictive turbulent combustion model using the commercial code GT-Suite, and its predictive capabilities were assessed for a downsized turbocharged SI engine. Differently from the 3D-CFD approach which is typically utilized to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow field, and which has very high computational requirements, the 0D phenomenological approach adopted in this work gives the opportunity to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and the subsequent combustion process by means of a turbulent combustion model, with a significantly reduced computational effort, thus paving the way for the simulation of the whole engine operating map.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0566
Tim Franken, Fabian Mauss
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions. The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0545
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Fabio Berni
Abstract It is widely recognized that spatial and temporal evolution of both macro- and micro- turbulent scales inside internal combustion engines affect air-fuel mixing, combustion and pollutants formation. Particularly, in spark ignition engines, tumbling macro-structure induces the generation of a proper turbulence level to sustain the development and propagation of the flame front. As known, 3D-CFD codes are able to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence fields with good accuracy, although a high computational effort is required. For this reason, only a limited set of operating conditions is usually investigated. On the other hand, thanks to a lower computational burden, 1D codes can be employed to study engine performance in the whole operating domain, despite of a less detailed description of in-cylinder processes. The integration of 1D and 3D approaches appears hence a promising path to combine the advantages of both.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0732
Jessica Dahlstrom, Oivind Andersson, Martin Tuner, Håkan Persson
Abstract Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0706
Shui Yu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract The present work investigates the efficacy of distributed electrical discharge to increase the ignition volume by means of multipole spark discharge and radio frequency (RF) corona discharge. A range of ignition strategies are implemented to evaluate the efficacy of distributed ignition. The multipole spark igniter design has multiple high-voltage electrodes in close proximity to each other. This distributed spark ignition concept has the ability to generate multiple flame kernels either simultaneously or in a staggered mode. A novel elastic breakdown ignition strategy in responsive distribution (eBIRD) high frequency discharge is also implemented via the multipole igniter. The RF corona discharge is generated through an in-house developed ignition system. A form of distributed ignition is initiated along the streamer filaments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1087
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
To achieve more stringent exhaust emission regulations will face more and more daunting challenges nowadays. It needs more new technologies to improve the IC engine performance but needing higher costs in order to meet Euro 6 and EPA standards in USA. Recently the opposed-piston engine (OPE) has been treated as the promising product to meet these new regulations but relatively lower costing. Although two-stroke OPE owning inherent thermal efficiency and power density advantages, the inefficient scavenge efficiency appears to become the main obstacle to enhance combustion efficiency whilst reducing exhaust gas emission. For the improvement of scavenge efficiency the transient gas exchange simulation was carried out for multiple Cases here, including two intake port configurations at various back pressures in exhaust system and two port timings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0694
Tetsuo Omura, Koichi Nakata, Yasushi Yoshihara, Daishi Takahashi
Abstract Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0693
Daishi Takahashi, Koichi Nakata, Yasushi Yoshihara, Tetsuo Omura
Abstract Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0556
Kenji Hiraoka, Kazutoshi Nomura, Akihiro Yuuki, Yuji Oda, Toshiyuki Kameyama
Abstract 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is widely used as a useful design tool because of its efficiency in engine development. In contrast, the computational time in 3D CFD with chemical reaction calculations is much longer than the 0D/1D CAD (Computer Aided Design) tools. Computational time reduction in engine combustion tools is necessary for more efficient engine development. The objective in this research is to develop a phenomenological 0D combustion model for a spark ignition engine. We especially focused on a spark ignition pre-chamber-type gas engine which has a spark plug in the pre-chamber. The combustion process in a pre-chambertype gas engine is complicated and difficult to be modeled. Therefore, in the presented work, the combustion process and heat release rate is analyzed in detail. The proposed methodology consists of three major processes.
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