Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 882
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0125
Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Lucas Ramos Carvalho, Marcio Calçada
Abstract In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0109
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Environmental damage and climate change, air pollution, energy efficiency, fuel consumption and emissions are subjects for studies and legislations worldwide. Brazil must therefore be prepared to follow global trends in energy optimization tests and developments, including Euro 6 equivalent emission legislation. Considering the worldwide tendency for Real Driving Condition Test for heavy vehicles, the authors, using the developed Towing Trailer Prototype provided with an electromagnetic brake, performed fuel consumption on-road tests. For measuring fuel consumption on-road or on testing tracks, the developed system allows initially measurements with an independent auxiliary tank for short distances and measurement with an auxiliary tank connected with the truck tank for long distances. The tests were performed on road in real conditions initially by maximum speeds of 75 km/h.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0080
Edinilson Alves Costa, Rogério Nalin
Abstract Although ignored by most people not directly involved with highway and off-road commercial trucks operation the accumulation of dust and mud on cabin side can become a rather annoying issue. Besides adhering to the passengers clothes dirt contamination may also compromise driver visibility constituting a safety concern. For a truck manufacturer it can revert into quality complaints and negatively influence customers’ future buying decisions. In this context, fascia air deflectors are common devices used in truck industry to control the airflow over the cabin panels and ultimately prevent contamination deposition. This paper presents a methodology to avoid dust and mud accumulation on commercial trucks cabin doors based on the predicted airflow field by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a reference flow metric defined through a simple bench test.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-7005
Lijuan Wang, Jeffrey Gonder, Eric Wood, Adam Ragatz
Abstract Fuel consumption (FC) has always been an important factor in vehicle cost. With the advent of electronically controlled engines, the controller area network (CAN) broadcasts information about engine and vehicle performance, including fuel use. However, the accuracy of the FC estimates is uncertain. In this study, the researchers first compared CAN-broadcasted FC against physically measured fuel use for three different types of trucks, which revealed the inaccuracies of CAN-broadcast fueling estimates. To match precise gravimetric fuel-scale measurements, polynomial models were developed to correct the CAN-broadcasted FC. Lastly, the robustness testing of the correction models was performed. The training cycles in this section included a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. The mean relative differences were reduced noticeably.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Abstract Engines fuelled with Liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been widely used in the heavy-duty vehicles. However, they suffer from poor combustion performance and flame instability under fuel-lean condition. In this work, experiments were performed on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (NG) and methanol. The combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), burned mass fraction (BMF), ringing/knock intensity (RI), ignition delay, centroid of HRR, and coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were analyzed under light load (brake mean effective pressure=0.3876 MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 16%, 34%, 46%). The experimental results showed that combustion phase advanced with the increase in MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol. Knock only occurred at MSR=46%, 2000 rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan Zeng, Penghao Zhang, Binyu Mei, Shiping Huang, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2462
Ruipeng Zhang, Kaichuang Meng
Abstract Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen
Abstract The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fraction (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2450
Chao Xu, Fuyuan Yang, Jinyu Zhang
Abstract Power-split configuration is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design, a rule-based control strategy and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed under ECMS algorithm. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point have been proposed and the reason of different economy performance is presented by using energy flow chart. And the simulation results show both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, under C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2350
Chalermwut Wongtaewan, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Komkrit Sivara, Ken Hashimoto, Yoichiro Nakamura
Abstract In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil was developed to meet both JASO DH-2 heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance and CNG engine oil performance. The candidate formulation was proved adequately fit for practical use regarding to thermal and anti-oxidation properties.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2364
Jiaqiang Li, Yunshan Ge, Chao He, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Zidi Li, Wei Chen, Shijie Wang
Abstract Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2491
Baskar Anthonysamy, Arun Kumar Prasad, Babasaheb Shinde
Abstract Automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whosebrake force distribution is variable. Braking force distribution has an important and serious role in thevehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking forcedistribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the virtual optimization process has beenimplemented.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2535
Yongbing Xu, Binyu Mei, Longjie Xiao, Wanyang XIA, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract The continuous braking for the brake drum will cause the brake thermal decay when the heavy truck is driving down the long slope in the mountain areas. It reduces the heavy truck’s braking performance and the braking safety. The engine braking and the hydraulic retarder braking both consume the kinetic energy of the heavy truck and can assist the truck driving in the mountain areas. This research proposes a combined hill descent braking strategy for heavy truck based on the recorded information of the slopes to ensure the braking safety of the heavy truck. The vehicle dynamic model and the brake drum temperature rising model are established to analyze the drum’s temperature variation during the downhill progress of the heavy truck. Then based on the slope information, the combined braking temperature variation is analyzed considering the characteristics of the engine braking, the drum braking and the hydraulic retarder braking.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0112
Guanyu Zheng
Abstract Urea injection is required to meet EU IV to EU VI emission regulations as a main stream technical route to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). In heavy and medium duty trucks, compressed air at 3-5 bar is often available, therefore can assist urea injection by mixing with urea, forming liquid droplets, and releasing mixed fluid into the exhaust gases. The development of air assisted urea pump and injectors, or the assembly, seemingly simpler than airless counterparts, however poses multiple challenges. One challenge is to properly mix urea in the mixing chamber inside pump with the compressed air, leaving no residual deposits while achieving high mixing efficiency. Another is to maintain good spray quality for a given length of delivery pipe as the liquid phase and gas phase tend to coalesce as they propagate along the pipe flow direction. In addition, the urea pump and injector need to provide robust and reliable performance under stringent road conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0095
Zbynek Syrovatka, Michal Takats, Jiri Vavra
Abstract An ongoing research and development activities on the scavenged pre-chamber ignition system for an automotive natural gas fueled engine is presented in this paper. The experimental works have been performed in engine laboratory at steady state conditions on a gas engine with 102 mm bore and 120 mm stroke, converted to a single cylinder engine. The in-house designed scavenged pre-chamber is equipped with a spark plug, fuel supply and a miniature pressure sensor for detailed combustion diagnostics. The engine was operated at constant speed, fully open throttle valve and four different fueling modes with or without spark discharge. A partly motored mode allowed direct evaluation of the pre-chamber heat release. The experimental data acquired in this research served as a validation data for the numerical simulations. The performed tests of prototypes and calculations have recently been expanded to include 3-D flow calculations in the Ansys Fluent software.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0018
Nikiforos Zacharof, Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Dimitrios Savvidis, Oscar Delgado, J. Felipe Rodriguez
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-7001
Johannes Haff, Mattias Jönsson, Sigfried Loose, Claus Wagner
Abstract The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1947
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Kamal Rohilla, Naveen Sukumar, Kunal Kamal
Abstract A propeller shaft is a mechanical component of drive train that connects transmission to drive wheels/axle with the goal to transfer rotation and torque. It is used when the direct connection between transmission and drive axle is not possible due to large distance between their respective assigned design spaces. In commercial vehicles especially in heavy duty (GVW/GCW>15 tons) a single piece propeller shaft is seldom used due to its inherent disadvantages and therefore, most if not all, of the setups consists of multiple pieces of propeller shaft which are directly mounted on to frame cross members with the help of mounting brackets. As such the mounting bracket assembly undergoes various dynamic and static loading conditions and should be able to withstand these loads. This paper will focus on the FEA analysis of propeller shaft mounting assembly system.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1945
Jyotirmoy Barman, Himanshu Gambhir, Rizwan Khan
Abstract During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the mass is not necessarily correct, because it might well be that not the mass but the number of particles and the characteristics of them (size, composition) have a higher impact on health. During the diesel engine combustion process, soot particles are produced which is very harmful for the atmosphere. Particulate matter is composed of much organic and inorganic composition which was analyzed after the optimization of SCR and EGR engine out.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1837
Paul R. Donavan, Carrie Janello
Abstract Acoustic beamforming was used to localize noise sources on heavy trucks operating on highways in California and North Carolina at a total of 20 sites. Over 1,200 trucks were measured under a variety of operating conditions, including cruise on level highways, on upgrades, down degrades, low speed acceleration, and for various speeds and pavements. The contours produced by the beamforming measurements were used to identify specific source contributions under these conditions and for a variety of heavy trucks. Consistently, the highest noise levels were seen at the tire-pavement interface, with lesser additional noise radiated from the engine compartment. Noise from elevated exhaust stacks was only documented for less than 5% of the trucks measured. The results were further reduced to produce vertical profiles of noise levels versus height above the roadway. The profiles were normalized to the highest noise level at ground level.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1833
Bonan Qin, Jue Yang, Xinxin Zhao
Abstract Articulated engineering vehicle travels on complex road, its working condition is bad and because of the non-rigid connection between the front and rear body, additional DOF is brought in and the transverse stiffness is relatively weak. When the articulated vehicle runs in a high speed along a straight line, it is easy to cause the transverse swing and the poor handling stability. If it is serious enough, it will lead to "snakelike" instability phenomenon. This kind of instability will increase driving resistance and tire wear, the lateral dynamic load and aggravate the damage of the parts. The vehicle will have a lateral migration of center of gravity (CG) when steering, which will lead a higher probability of rollover accident. A dynamic mathematical model for a 35t articulated truck with four motor-driven wheels was established in this paper, to study the condition for its stable driving and the influence of the vehicle structural parameters.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1858
James Haylett, Andrew Polte
Abstract Truck and construction seats offer a number of different challenges compared to automotive seats in the identification and characterization of Buzz, Squeak, and Rattle (BSR) noises. These seats typically have a separate air or mechanical suspension and usually a larger number and variety of mechanical adjustments and isolators. Associated vibration excitation tend to have lower frequencies with larger amplitudes. In order to test these seats for both BSR and vibration isolation a low-noise shaker with the ability to test to a minimum frequency of 1 Hz was employed. Slowly swept sine excitation was used to visualize the seat mode shapes and identify nonlinearities at low frequencies. A sample set of seat BSR sounds are described in terms of time and frequency characteristics, then analyzed using sound quality metrics.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1909
Joel Bruns, Jason Dreyer
Abstract The application of hydraulic body mounts between a pickup truck frame and cab to reduce freeway hop and smooth road shake has been documented in literature and realized in production vehicles. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of these devices, often through iterative prototype evaluation. Component dynamic characterization has also shown that these devices exhibit significant dependence to preload and dynamic amplitude; however, analysis of these devices has not addressed these dependences. This paper aims to understand the amplitude and preload dependence on the spectrally-varying properties of a production hydraulic body mount. This double-pumping, three-spring mount construction has a shared compliant element between the two fluid-filled chambers.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1775
Mark A. Gehringer, Robert Considine, David Schankin
Abstract This paper describes recently developed test methods and instrumentation to address the specific noise and vibration measurement challenges posed by large-diameter single-piece tubular aluminum propeller (prop) shafts with high modal density. The prop shaft application described in this paper is a light duty truck, although the methods described are applicable to any rotating shaft with similar dynamic properties. To provide a practical example of the newly developed methods and instrumentation, impact FRF data were acquired in-situ for two typical prop shafts of significantly different diameter, in both rotating and stationary conditions. The example data exhibit features that are uniquely characteristic of large diameter single-piece tubular shafts with high modal density, including the particular effect of shaft rotation on the measurements.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1931
Christian Ballarin, Martin Zeilinger
Due to the continuous increasing highway transport and the decreasing investments into infrastructure a better usage of the installed infrastructure is indispensable. Therefore the operation and interoperation of assistance and telematics systems become more and more necessary. Regarding these facts Highway Pilot was developed at Daimler Trucks. The Highway Pilot System moves the truck highly automated and independent from other road users within the allowed speed range and the required security distance. Daimler Trucks owns diverse permissions in Germany and the USA for testing these technologies on public roads. Next generation is the Highway Pilot Connect System that connects three highly automated driving trucks. The connection is established via Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication (V2V).
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1921
Ron Borsboom
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities in the truck industry and especially the efforts of DAF Trucks N.V. in improving traffic safety and the environmental impact related to trucks. Proposals regarding legislation, new technologies and the approach to be followed, in order to reach the desired goals, are presented. Various new technologies investigated in DAF Trucks N.V., like platooning are explained, to show the open perspective of the company towards finding solutions and the commitment to invest in this effort. As a significant message this paper wants to convey, is the need for all the stakeholders to work together in an joint effort to achieve the best possible results.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1937
Heimo Schreier, Burak Aliefendioglu, Roger Perthen, Jürgen Tochtermann
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 882