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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3773
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu
The tunnel exit is easily blocked with a large traffic. One reason is that when the driver out of the tunnel, the added ramp resistance leads to the speed drop, but the driver is imperceptible. The present solutions are more concentrated in the transport sector, regulations are applied to all vehicles through the tunnel, easily distract the driver attention and disturb the operator accelerating away from the tunnel. In this paper, when the system judges the speed drop is due to driver's unconscious behavior through the road and external illumination changes ,then the system gives the driver accelerated reminder. Firstly, establish the vehicle driving dynamic model. With the road tunnel design standards for a reference, build the tunnel road model. Secondly, based on the dynamic model and the tunnel model, study the relationship between the throttle opening and the duration with the speed change and study the relationship between the engine braking with the speed and the ramp change.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Gangfeng Tan
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the highway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more responsible time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The highway exit speed limit sigh (ESLS) is an effect reminder for the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the Color Variable ESLS system, whose installation point is placed considering the vehicle dynamic difference, the traffic condition and the highway geometric design. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit requirement in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change between the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0082
Yazhe Hu, Tomonari Furukawa
This paper presents a system designed to develop a high-resolution map of public roads by capturing high-resolution surface images. Unlike conventional system, the proposed system applies a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to synchronize camera, strobe light, IMU, and GPS by using FPGA’s high clock frequency and flexibility to multiple devices. The proposed system, which can be mounted on a regular vehicle, contains a Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS) camera which can achieve 0.006 ms shutter speed and 150 fps frame rate. This camera’s high shutter speed and high frame rate can help capturing images with overlapping region at fast driving speed so that no area is missing from road surface image capturing. The images collected by the proposed system contain clear patterns without motion blur, and feature points on images and feature matching can be found by using existing algorithm like Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) between any two consecutive images.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Today, automated and autonomous vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, Ford is currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X based applications like Electronic Emergency Brake Light (EEBL), Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW) and Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC) in the 5.9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, the novel application Intersection Priority Management (IPM) is part of the research project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0094
Soodeh Dadras
In recent years, navigation and guidance of autonomous vehicles get daily increasing attention from people in both research and manufacturing department. Leading automotive companies are looking for algorithms and control designs for vehicles to follow desired path. We proposed a novel control for autonomous vehicle where the classical extremum seeking scheme is modified to address the problem of path tracking of an autonomous ground vehicle. This technique utilizes a Fractional Order extremum seeking controller to control a non-holonomic autonomous ground vehicle to track the behavior of the predefined reference path. The designed FO-ESC controller has shown the significant capability of the autonomous ground vehicle to track the desired path. We show the performances of fractional order and integer order controller through simulation results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0089
Antonio D'Amato, Fabrizio Donatantonio, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Road topography has a remarkable impact on vehicle fuel con- sumption for both passenger and heavy duty vehicles. In addi- tion, erroneous or non-optimized scheduling of both velocity set-point and gear shifting may be detrimental for fuel consumption and performance. Recent technologies have made road data, such as elevation or slope, either available or measurable on board, thus making possible the exploitation of this additional information in innovative controllers. The aim of this paper is the development of a smart, fuel economy oriented controller that adapts cruising speed and engaged gear to current road load (i.e. local slope). Unlike traditional cruise controllers, the velocity set-point is not constant, but it is set depending on the current slope and the mission time duration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou
Mountainous roads have complex terrain. Traditional vehicle active safety system, such as ABS, only play a role when there's an emergency situation, and the loading rate is not high in the heavy vehicle. So the traffic accident rate is still high in the mountainous area. Researches show that if drivers react before the accident 2-3 s there could be 90% reduction in the accident rate. This safety speed warning system is combined with the digital map, which makes the drivers see the mountainous road information beyond the horizon. Compared to the road standard speed limit, the system combination with the road information and characteristics of heavy vehicle itself can provide a more accurate and more useful safety warning speed limit. It can effectively reduce the incidence of accidents.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang
Mountain road winding and bumpy,traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present Curve warning system research are based on CCD, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map. Braking based on vehicle dynamics before entering the curve is used to identify the road. The critical safety speed which do not occur side-slip is calculated with the radius of curvature , side friction factor and so on using the vehicle lateral dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0111
Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0093
Balachander Dhanavanthan
Radio Frequency (RF) propagation in vehicular environments exhibit major transformations from indoor, outdoor and farmland multipath environments. The innovative advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has made it necessary to recognise and predict the RF propagation losses for WSNs in vehicular environments. Very few models exist for network planning and deployment in vehicular environments. All of these models need an extensive statistical estimations and an in-depth knowledge of the vehicular environment. In this paper a different approach has been pursued and as a first step is to evaluate the factors which affect RF propagation in vehicular environments and how these factors affect each other while predicting propagation losses in vehicular environments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1296
David Charles Weber, Yimin Liu, Perry MacNeille
The future of sustainable transportation is to use as much electric power as possible that is derived from sustainable sources (e.g. solar, wind, hydro). This paper evaluates the benefits of trains of vehicles that are mechanically connected together for long distance travel as a means to the attainment of coast-to-coast travel using only electric power. The technical challenges are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized space of regulatory rules, vehicles and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring and active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have a digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters into the engine room and sometimes reaches to the position of air inlet duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion routes. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to be narrower and the undercover tends to be larger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine room becomes higher and causes to increase the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is giving a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of water level prediction method while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multi body and fluid dynamics analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0083
Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
Infrastructural urban traffic monitoring plays an important role in the present traffic system as it constantly provides reliable traffic data to regulatory organization and individual drivers. Although a number of commercial systems already exist for such purposes, many of them have various issues including expensive installation and operation, power supply constraint and unreliable performance. Therefore, the present traffic system will need a low-cost and reliable solution for infrastructural traffic monitoring. This paper presents a novel design of infrastructural traffic monitoring sensor system that is self-powered, maintenance-free, easy to install and of low-cost operation. The system consists of an infrared camera, a time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finders, and a processing unit to perform vehicle counts, traffic flow speed estimation, and classifications. Using the two types of sensors, the system implements three approaches for traffic monitoring.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. This paper presents simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces using an implementation of a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. The approach uses an unstructured mesh allowing complex geometries to be modelled and includes a range of dynamic contact angle models as the boundary conditions for the VOF and LS at the surface. The methodology has been validated against a number of test cases such as drop behaviour impacting on a solid surface in previous work.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
A variety of vehicle control systems – from active safety to power management – greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust estimation of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a vehicle mass and road grade estimation scheme, termed parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation, and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiating the undriven wheel speeds, while mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1137
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu
With respect to the stepped automatic transmission (SAT) having a fixed number of gears, gearshift schedule is crucial to improve the comprehensive performance of vehicle that takes into account power performance, fuel economy, and driver’s performance expectation together, as it determines the timing when a SAT should be shifted from a certain gear position to another one. To optimize and individualize the gearshift schedule, our previous work proposed a multi-performance gearshift schedule optimization method and an improved performance evaluation approach, which are effective in terms of reflecting the driver's expectation on different vehicle performance by assigning different value to the weights in the performance evaluation function. However, the proposed optimization method does not consider the influence of road slope on the gearshift performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0087
Jiaqi Ma, Erin Clausing, Yimin Liu
It is estimated that up to 30% of traffic in cities is due to drivers looking for parking. Research suggests that drivers spend an average of 6-14 minutes looking for an available space in London. This increases individuals stress levels as well as congestion and pollution. Intelligent transportation system wants to provide an effective way to address these challenges by making parking easier and less stressful. Parking Guidance Systems are an important component in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), which reduces search time for parking by presenting drivers with dynamic information on parking. An accurate prediction and recommendation analytics algorithm is the key part of the parking guidance system, which combines real time cloud-based analytics and historical data trends, and can be integrated into a smart parking user App.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0104
Maryam Moosaei, Simon Smith, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali, Yi Zhang, Ashley Micks
Traffic light detection is critical for safe behavior in a world where technology on vehicles is growing more complex. In this work we outline a deep learning based solution for traffic light detection that leverages virtual data for affordable and efficient supervised learning. Using Unreal Engine, we generated a virtual dataset by moving a virtual camera through a variety of intersection scenes while varying parameters such as lighting, camera position and angle. Using the automatically generated bounding boxes around the illuminated traffic lights themselves, we trained an 8-layer deep neural network (DNN), without pre-training, for classification of traffic light signals (green, amber, red). After training on virtual data, we tested the network on real world data collected from a forward facing camera on a vehicle. Using color space conversion and contour extraction, we identified candidate regions by filtering based on color, shape and size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0086
Matteo Muratori, Jacob Holden, Michael Lammert, Adam Duran, Stanley Young, Jeffrey Gonder
Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption – and related emissions – while also providing addition benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that allows for significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. We propose a rigorous statistical analysis based on a large collection of real-world U.S. class 8 truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary and secondary coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. Additionally, coupling coefficient is required to be utilized in real time optimization algorithms, such as impedance matching to improve the stability and transient response of this wireless charger. Furthermore, maintaining a minimum coupling coefficient is a prerequisite for starting charging process in these hands free chargers in order to prevent excessive stresses on electronic components. Estimation of the coupling coefficient can be determined by using a mathematical model of the resonant network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0103
Thomas Beyerl, Bernard Ibru, Charvi Popat, Deborah Ojo, Alexander Bakus, Jessica Elder, Valentin Soloiu
Non-standard intersections, which do not follow a simple orthogonal three or four way configuration, present a navigational challenge to autonomous vehicles. Conventional navigation systems which gather data from the surrounding area then plan a path through the collected data require faultless and complex analysis of extremely unstructured environments. The vehicle must then avoid obstacles as well as successfully navigate the intersection with extremely low tolerance for error. Computer decision making challenges can arise from this method of navigation, especially when interacting with non-autonomous vehicles. This research presents a computational method of optimizing navigation through intersections based on pre-planned routing data. The static nature of roadways enabled detailed path planning, using a series of lines and arcs, which reduced, even the most complex intersections, into simply navigable splines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are to be tested. Having a 3D virtual environment to enable testing many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or on a cluster reduces the amount of required road tests significantly. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, with potential applications to level 2 active safety systems as well, a shared memory interface between MATLAB/Simulink and Unreal Engine 4, such that perception and/or control algorithms running within or interfacing with MATLAB/Simulink can receive virtual sensor data generated in an Unreal Engine 3D virtual environment, and send information such as vehicle control signals back to the virtual environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
In this work, DSRC capabilities combined with autonomous vehicles' on-board sensors (camera) are used to trigger an Automated Emergency Brake (AEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve AEB in two phases, the comfortable brake and the full stop emergency brake. The comfortable brake is applied first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop emergency brake. On the automated vehicle, the content of the received SPaT/MAP is parsed and communicated through UDP packets to the central processing unit that runs the camera-based TLD software for traffic light state matching and distance calculation.
2017-03-14
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-01-19
Article
Ten transmission ratios feel ideal in Ford's full-size pickup equipped with the 3.5-L V6 and the new 10R80 planetary automatic.
2017-01-17
Article
Caterpillar plans to showcase 40 machines at ConExpo-Con/Agg 2017 in March, one being its new 14M3 motor grader that features a larger engine, increased power to ground, and a host of integrated technology solutions such as the newly patented Stable Blade anti-bounce system, to increase operator efficiency and boost productivity levels.
2017-01-13
Article
Working with Utah-based technology provider Autonomous Solutions Inc., CNH Industrial’s Innovation Group developed autonomous technology and demonstrated it via tractor concepts based on the existing Case IH Magnum and New Holland T8 high-horsepower conventional tractors.
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