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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0086
Matteo Muratori, Jacob Holden, Michael Lammert, Adam Duran, Stanley Young, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as a means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption – and related emissions – while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, which are currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1721
Wachira Nilprapunt, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract Urban Mobility is one of the most critical issues at the present. Public transport in connection with feeder bus system is proposed to be one of the main solution. Chulalongkorn University has a fleet of electric feeder bus in operation for a few years now. The fleet service is, however, to be improved because of current limitations in battery energy capacity and long battery charging time. This paper aims to examine the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the electric feeder buses using various types of energy storage. The results on the sensitivity analysis highlight the major parameters that exert strong influence in the TCOs. The fast charging system using supercapacitor battery bus shows the lowest TCO for the present bus fleet. The travel distance (km/year) and operational years were illustrated to be the top two parameters that exert major influence towards the TCO.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1718
Thitipat Thitacharee, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract The utility of energy efficiency and zero-emission of electric vehicles leads the way to electrify the urban public transport bus networks in many cities around the world. The purpose of this paper is to study the operational feasibility of transition the existing conventional combustion bus fleet to Electric bus fleet. The analysis is based on the data of the bus operation in Bangkok, Thailand. Traffic congestion as occurred in Bangkok is considered in the analysis. This research is focused on Fast charging technology of Electric vehicles. Instead of slow-charging overnight, Fast-charging is used during the regular layover time of the bus operation which is called Opportunity charging. The opportunity charging allows to extend the driving range of the electric buses which is a prominent problem of electric vehicles.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0252
Aravind Vadiraj
Abstract This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2897
Rick Mihelic, Jeff Smith, Matthew Ellis
Abstract Modern aerodynamic Class 8 freight tractors can improve vehicle freight efficiency and fuel economy versus older traditional style tractors when pulling Canadian style A- or B-Train double trailer long combination vehicles (LCV's) at highway speeds. This paper compares the aerodynamic performance of a current generation aerodynamic tractor with several freight hauling configurations through computational fluid dynamics evaluations using the Lattice-Boltzmann methodology. The configurations investigated include the tractor hauling a standard 53′ trailer, a platooning configuration with a 30′ separation distance, and an A-Train configuration including two 48′ trailers connected with a dolly converter. The study demonstrates CFD's capability of evaluating extremely long vehicle combinations that might be difficult to accomplish in traditional wind tunnels due to size limitations.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2895
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang
Abstract This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2896
Matthew Ellis, Joaquin Ivan Gargoloff, Raja Sengupta
Abstract The increasing importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the ongoing evolution of vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity technologies have generated significant interest in platooning for commercial vehicles, where two or more vehicles travel in same traffic lane in relatively close proximity. This paper examines the effect of platooning on four increasingly aerodynamic tractor-trailer configurations, using a Lattice Boltzmann based CFD solver. Each platoon consisted of three identical tractor-trailer configurations traveling in the same lane at 65mph. Two different vehicle to vehicle gaps were studied, 5m and 9m, in addition to singleton (solitary) vehicles, representing an effectively infinite gap. Aerodynamic drag for the lead, middle, and trailing vehicle in the platooning configurations were compared to the corresponding single vehicle tractor-trailer configuration.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0357
Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Ricardo Moreira Vaz, Kleber Nogueira Hodel, Paschoal Federico Neto, Armando Laganá, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka
Abstract The several problems and bottlenecks faced users public transport users in big cities are a common knowledge. Among them agencies responsible for public transport recognize the lack of centralized control, the under and over supply, the lack of information to users and the non-compliance of scheduled trips. In order to work identified problems improving cities like Recife and São Paulo are testing systems named as embedded technology that integrate the use of GPS, cameras, centralized monitoring among others, retarding a deeper coverage compared to systems previously used. The main objectives are the comfort and safety increase of users and the freight logistics improvement. This paper presents the technologies being tested in Brazil through successful models applied in countries as Spain and Colombia, as well as the scope of bids and proposals for improvement of public transport.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0050
Shane Richardson, John McIver
Abstract Mining operations which utilise Haul Trucks to move product or overburden have to also build and maintain a network of roads which the Haul Truck can operate on. As the development of the mine progress typically the road network changes and the maintenance of a mining road can influence the productivity of the mine and specifically the Haul Truck fuel consumption on the mine. The current class of Ultra class Haul Trucks can have a Gross mass from 450t to 590t with 60lt to 90lt engines developing 1,830kW to 2,800kW. By managing the roughness of the mining road network the rolling resistance of the Haul Trucks can be controlled/managed within a defined band and hence the mine can control part of the Haul Truck fuel consumption. Conversely constantly maintaining mine roads affects the productivity of the mine. Typically the decision to conduct maintenance work on a Haul Road is made subjectively, based on the feel of how rough the roads are getting.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0031
Jung-Ok (Jo) Kuys, Gavin Melles, Scott Thompson-Whiteside, Ajay Kapoor
Abstract The Malaysia National Automotive Policy (NAP 2014) focuses on the systemic changes needed for the country to develop a competitive and sustainable automotive manufacturing sector. Alternative electric vehicles (EV) -including the public transport sector, in particular buses - forms part of this strategy. This also features in the Transport Scenarios for the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan for 2020. Kuala Lumpur's population is expected to reach 10 million by 2020, the current public transport system is beset by problems, e.g. route congestion, a growing trend of private car ownership among a rising middle-class, and a range of environmental and infrastructure issues which must be challenged. A human-centred design approach to public transport focuses on developing (future) scenarios to accommodate the 2020 economic, environmental and social considerations building on Design for Sustainability (DfS), user needs, behaviour change and inclusivity principles.
2014-10-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9030
Sermet Yucel, Melinda Moran Lucking, Jon Magnuson, Germana Paterlini, Benjamin Worel
Fuel economy and performance vary significantly with the vehicle design and configuration, road profile, and payload. The variation is more pronounced for heavy-duty trucks and understanding its origin is critical to maximizing fleet profitability. In this paper we demonstrate a method to continuously estimate fuel consumption breakdown over resistive forces while the vehicle is driven on a public highway. The method is fast, cost-effective, and capable of analyzing trip segments as short as one second. The method utilizes a non-linear Kalman filter and a vehicle dynamical model that has a coupled longitudinal and vertical motion. The paper presents the breakdown of fuel consumption and an estimate of road grade profile obtained by driving a heavy-duty vehicle at the MnROAD research facility in Albertville MN.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0205
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract The growing concentration of population in world metropolis caused by increasing urbanization rates has pushed the demand for high capacity and efficient public transport systems. At the same time, environmental concerns have led to increasingly stricter emission standards. In this context, transit authorities have become strongly focused on making their bus fleets more efficient and cleaner, by incorporating new alternative fuels and clean propulsion technologies. This has led to increased interest in electric driven technologies, with their intrinsic efficient, quiet and environment friendly features. Trolleybuses, a well proven mature electric technology already adopted in some cities, although efficient and clean, are burdened by high infrastructure costs and operational inflexibility.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2012-05-16
Technical Paper
2012-36-0034
Pablo Yugo Yoshiura Kubo, Alan Eduardo Lan, Marcel Yoshimi Nemoto, Percival do Rosario Branco, Esequiel Biasi Rodrigues, Cassio Eduardo Lima de Paiva, Fabio Andreassa Guedes Cezar, Armando Marcelo Rivero de Stefani
The main objective of this paper is to present the different methods of pavement dimensioning, applied on the Brazilian roads, in order to compare the loads used in the calculation with a real application. It has been used a 4×2 vehicle with the maximum load distribution allowed in Brazil (6 tons in the front axle / 10 tons in the rear axle). It has been instrumented the rear axle with strain gauges to simulate it as a load cell. Measurements were done on a real urban application (Curitiba city - Brazil). Results showed significant differences between the load used in the Brazilian pavement dimensioning methodology and the dynamic vertical load, which could have a direct impact on the pavement lifetime. This paper was supported by three different agency / companies: UNICAMP, Volvo do Brasil and Meritor do Brasil Sistemas Automotivos Ltda.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0067
Arghya Sardar, Sajid Mubashir
Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0499
Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang
The Taipei Metro is one of the major transportation systems in the Taipei area. Noticeable noise and vibration caught attention during the train turning on a rail with a large angle. The initial investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets which are located between the body and chassis systems. A study was conducted to identify the root causes. A lab test to duplicate the reported problem observed on the train was established, and a set of experiments were performed in the lab to identify the root causes. Under certain contact conditions, unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. To further identify and understand the root causes. An ADAMS multibody dynamic model which included the slew bearing and friction set was build to perform the train turn motion, and to verify the lab test. Different friction materials were also included in the simulation.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0293
Luciano P. Lukacs, João Vitor Batisti, Luiz Carlos Simões Soares Júnior, Iuri Muniz Pepe
The cargo transportation in Brazil is predominantly done by road, instead of any other means of transportation. It represented more than 35% of the total amount of money spent on goods transportation on that South American country during 2005. Several factors should be taken in consideration in the final cost of this service. We can highlight, for example: poor road quality, cargo robbery, theft of tires, fuel stealing, road accidents, etc. These costs are always reassigned to the final customers. Among that list, one of main factors for increasing transport costs in Brazil is the illicit fuel deviation. In order to reduce this problem, entrepreneurs have adopted several strategies; so far, none of them could come up with an efficient proposal. This paper presents a new tool to assist preventing the fuel stealing issue. It can detect the tank violation, notifying the company when it happened and how much fuel was diverted.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2658
Tim Juan
Efficient thermal management of an engine cooling system and its surrounding components has been one of the most frequently visited topics in automotive industry. Especially, modern diesel truck engines have to deal with more heat rejection than ever to meet the rigorous emission and efficiency standards. As the maximum heat dissipated by a cooling system is limited to available inlet area to radiator, which is constrained by cab configuration, it is crucial to maximize the cooling airflow availability under given conditions. To be able to do so means to avoid additional development cost accompanying an altered cab configuration. At the same time, truck manufacturers have to deal with reduced product life cycles and develop reliable products economically.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2657
Amit B. Shah, Craig M. Cless, John S. Curlee, Jeremy Edmondson
This paper summarizes investigation into the strategies, methods, and best practices for achieving low HVAC load on two existing vehicles programs. Decreasing the load required from the HVAC system will help improve the fuel economy of the truck resulting in a cost savings to the customer. A thermal analysis was performed on two truck cabin interiors to calculate the amount of energy necessary to maintain a desirable internal cabin air temperature while under certain environmental conditions. In order to quantify how much cost is associated with running the HVAC system with its current design, the thermal analysis was coupled with a computational fluid dynamics simulation to understand the complicated flow patterns inside the cab while the HVAC system is operational. The load on the HVAC system was calculated for each scenario using the thermal model and the results were compared to the benchmark.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2649
Chris Hedges, Doug Welk
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is an initiative of the US Department of Transportation to provide communications among vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure in order to increase the safety and productivity of transportation systems. It makes use of but is not restricted to the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) spectrum. There are 3 major categories of applications for VII - Highway Safety, Vehicular Mobility, and Consumer & Commercial Services. There are currently approximately 42,000 traffic fatalities a year in the United States. Reducing deaths, injuries and property damage is of the highest priority in the development of VII applications. Electronic Brake Warning, Signal Phase and Timing, and Collision Detection are among the applications dedicated to improving highway safety. Increasing traffic volume is outpacing the addition of new roadway capacity, resulting in increasing delays, congestion and frustration.
2008-10-07
Journal Article
2008-01-2659
Andrea Lorenz, Martin Kozek
Abstract. For the estimation of life expectancy and dynamic fatigue of a machine, the overall load configuration of the typical application is of major importance. Regarding commercial vehicles, the load spectrum differs with the variation of machine parameters which requires costly measurements for analysis of damage. This article presents robust methods for the computation of characteristic values for the damage to a certain component. The methods are based on a hypermodel, which represents the relation between different machine configurations and the resulting characteristic values. Therefore, fewer typical machine configurations have to be measured. The statistical models of load and damage are made using the Rainflow counting algorithm and an extended version of Miner's Law. After the condensation into characteristic damage values, hypermodels for the relationship between these scalar values and the machine parameters are developed using Neural Networks.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3541
Carl P. Evans, Robert J. Watts
Abstract In September 2005 the United States Army's Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) instituted a ground mobility, robotics systems integration and evaluation laboratory: the TARDEC Robotics Skunk Works. The goal of this laboratory is to integrate and assess new and developing unmanned systems technologies to support efficient transitioning of the technologies to ATO and PM/PEO programs. The first unmanned system to enter the TARDEC Robotics Skunk Works will be the Tactical Amphibious Ground Support System - Common eXperimental (TAGS-CX). Key development design requirements for this modified COTS platform, which weighs less than 2 tons, include modularity and interoperability of ground robot systems and mission payloads.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3540
Roy McCann, Son Nguyen
The increasing numbers of paved roadways throughout the world have motivated the development of automated methods of assessing road pavement conditions. A method of developing an automated profiling vehicle that can rapidly acquire and accurately determine road roughness levels is presented. It is shown that it is important to compensate for the chassis dynamics in order to minimize the effects of suspension system interactions when computing the road roughness level. Experimental results from a prototype vehicle are detailed where the effectiveness of the vehicle design method is demonstrated.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3486
Kouichi Okamoto, Toshiki Ezoe, Shuuji Narada, Ichinose Naosi, Masahiko Hirano, Koichi Fujita
In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3497
Markus Plankensteiner, Kjeld Buus-Jensen, Finn Visgaard-Nielsen, Tomislav Lovric, Wolfgang Mickisch, Peter Rech, Christiana Seethaler
The development of Steer-by-Wire (SbW) systems for on-road use is a challenging task. In a joint industry effort several companies have teamed up in the TTA-Group SbW Working Group to develop an architectural cookbook for SbW. The working group started with the development of a concept document. It adopts IEC 61508 for the development of a reference SbW architecture for on-road use. The main focus of the working group will be achieved in a second step where common parts of the electronic architecture will be developed.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3495
Dejun Zhuang, Fan Yu, Daofei Li
For the purposes of on-line control, e.g., in an automatic driving system, or of closed-loop directional control simulation, an optimal preview artificial neural network (ANN) driver model based on error elimination algorithm(EEA) is built. Then the optimal preview times are discussed in high frequency range in this system. The simulation results of optimal preview ANN driver model and Error Elimination Algorithm driver model are compared under the condition of different vehicle speeds and paths, which shows that the proposed approach is efficient and reliable enough, particularly for driver-vehicle closed-loop system.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3638
Stéphane Bilodeau
In severe - hot and humid - climates, Vehicles Air Conditioning Systems (AC systems) in use today suffers from a lack of performance and on a difficulty to efficiently meet the cooling load without causing a significant reduction in the performance of the internal combustion engine. This is especially true in applications where vehicles have long idling period and a lot of passengers, such as buses and passenger shuttles. An integrated cooling system has been implemented and tested in an Airport Passenger shuttle in order to improve fuel economy and cooling effectiveness in severe environment (up to 120 °F). The cooling system integrates a high-efficiency thermal storage technology (based on phase change materials) coupled to high performance compressors. Comprehensive performance analyses and testing of the high-performance system have highlighted many benefits of using the technology in such applications.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 136