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2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2303
Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Michele Trancossi, Dean Vucinic
The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2697
Claude Le Tallec, Antoine Joulia, Moshe Harel
The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks. The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0162
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0550
Aleksandras Jagniatinskas, Oleksandr Zaporozhets, Oleg Kartyshev, Boris Fiks
For assessment of the aircrafts noise impact on the community near to airports the acoustic calculations and measurements may be used. Obtained measurements results show ~1 dBA for LAeq coincidence with calculations results and allow to prepare correct database for practical use under ECAC method. While results of LAmax estimation still remain under investigation. These requirements are important first of all for aircraft, which are designed in FSU, Russian Federation and Ukraine. Their contribution to the aircraft noise impact in airports of FSU countries is still dominant, so their correct input data is still necessary.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0517
P. B. Salazar, T. A. Heleno, J. G. Slama
The objective of this paper is to present a method of determination of airport noise levels and environment noise using computer simulation, thus reducing the need for physical measurements in the areas affected by airport noise. Through the simulations, the hourly airport noise was characterized for a wide range of critical receivers. Levels for airport and environment noise had been calculated, considering that environment noise is generated mostly by the flow of motor vehicles on the nearby roads. From the results of these simulations it was possible to choose points where continuous noise measurements are made. Using the simulated values, we hope to determine a safe and precise way of predicting the noise generated from airports throughout the country minimizing the needs of conducting physical measurements to obtain the noise curves.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0522
Dominique Collin
The X-NOISE Coordination Action, through its network structure and comprehensive workplan involving expert groups, scientific workshops, stakeholder seminars and a common information system, addresses the aircraft noise challenges set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. To this end, X-Noise undertakes the elaboration and coordination of research strategies, the dissemination of results and the integration of European research activities in the field of air transport related to noise. Over 4 years, the project has involved strong participation from European Union-based organizations as well as significant contribution from international partners, combining the complementary skills and expertise of industry, SMEs, universities and research establishments to cover the whole field of interest.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0520
Delia Dimitriu, Dragos Munteanu, Octavian Pleter
This paper is assessing two methods that can be used in assessing the airport noise capacity when new operational practices are implemented at a certain airport. The example given is CDA-continuous descent approach implemented at Bucharest Henri Coanda International airport in Romania. A review of the main operational practices related to CDO (Continuous Descent Operations) with relevance for noise and emissions reduction, shows the importance of working in a team when implementing new operational practices, as well as the need to access data either through FDR (flight data recorder) or from measurements. - The example selected explains the difficulties one can have to extract FDR data. Although the authors of this paper benefitted from FDR from TAROM, the Romanian national airline, it was difficult to be extracted, so the assessment of the airport noise capacity focused on monitoring and measurements undertaken under the flight path.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0528
T. A. Heleno, P. B. Salazar, J. G. Slama
With the growth of urban areas, the areas adjacent to airports are becoming densely inhabited, causing a big problem known as encroachment. The encroachment occurs when a significant portion of the population is submitted to the adverse effects of noise, even outside the areas of restricted use established by the airport zoning. The metric used for the airport zoning in many countries and in Brazil is the DNL (Day Night Level). This metric is associated to the average sound energy produced by all aeronautical events during a period of 24 hours, with weighting of 10 dB(A) during the night. However, the use of DNL for airport zoning can lead to different results for noise levels, daytime and nighttime, depending on the seasonality of airport activity in those periods. The paper proposes a study of alternatives for the airport zoning based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT/NBR 10151.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3115
Mingyan Li, Casey Fung, Tim Mitchell
{Next-generation network enabled (eEnabled) airplanes will digitally communicate with ground systems continuously at airport, for collection, distribution and loading of airplane data and software parts. Wireless technologies further bring the opportunity of pervasive connection with eEnabled airplane anywhere at airports. However, safety critical airplane information assets mandate secure solutions for eEnabled airplane applications. In this paper, we address the issue of securing wireless eEnabled airplane applications at airports for reliable and safe airplane operation. We identify the special challenges and present research results by comparing the state-of-the-art technologies and proposing the strategy of “defense in depth.”}
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1288
Christian Lundquist, Thomas B. Schön
There are more and more systems emerging making use of measurements from a forward looking radar and a forward looking camera. It is by now well known how to exploit this data in order to compute estimates of the road geometry, tracking leading vehicles, etc. However, there is valuable information present in the radar concerning stationary objects, that is typically not used. The present work shows how radar measurements of stationary objects can be used to obtain a reliable estimate of the free space in front of a moving vehicle. The approach has been evaluated on real data from highways and rural roads in Sweden.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2860
Anita Teo, Kaushik Rajashekara, Jason Hill, Brian Simmers
The potential benefits offered by alternative aircraft taxiing methods without the use of the aircraft's main engines have attracted substantial interest in recent years from the aviation industry as well as the general public. Amongst the proposed aircraft taxiing methods, the electric wheel-drive concept has received the most media attention. As part of ongoing research and development into the More Electric Aircraft (MEA), a study has been conducted to examine the technical feasibility of an electric wheel-drive taxiing system using publicly available aircraft and runway coefficient data. The study shows the potential for overall mission fuel burn reductions, particularly for short haul aircraft with a relatively long taxi time.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0570
Fernanda Valim, Jules Slama
Aircraft noise is considered to be one of the most difficult environmental problems to be mitigated from the airport operations. The ICAO study group has presented an approach with four proposals to manage this problem at each site – the “Guidance on the Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management” –, but even with this document, the airport managers still have to do their plan of action to address the most problematic ones (cases where there is more than one airport under the same administration). In this way, this paper attempts to propose a methodology to help to identify what would be the equivalent aircraft movement in a month for each site. The hypothesis is that this indicator number will express how close the airport operation is to the Balanced Approach proposals. And to calculate it, this methodology uses the number of movements identified by Chapter 2 or Chapter 3 and by day or night for a given period.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0569
Renata de Brito Rocha, Jules Ghislain Slama, null
The airport noise is the origin of many adverse effects on the human's health and/or his well-being. The most frequent effects, noise annoyance and interference on sleep, have a few noise metrics associated to them. The DNL, LAD and LAN metrics are related to noise annoyance. Also there is, related to DNL metric, the percent of people highly annoyed. Interference on sleep is associated to SEL metric. So, the objective of this research is to develop the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool to help airport sound impact assessment through the evaluation of noise annoyance and the interference on sleep of the Brasilia's Airport.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0585
Nico van Oosten
This paper gives an overview of ways to assess the noise situation at airports and how action plans may be established in order to improve the noise climate. In addition new developments are presented regarding impact assessment and interdependencies with other environmental aspects. Although this paper is focussed on the situation in the European Union, the findings are applicable to airports worldwide.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3351
Jarl Øvstedal, Bente Wejden
Oslo Airport Gardermoen is located on the largest unconfined groundwater aquifer in Norway and acts upon strict governmental regulations concerning groundwater balance and contamination of groundwater and surface waters. In the cold Norwegian winter climate, de-icing of aircrafts and runway systems is necessary for safety reasons. The aircraft de-icing fluids (type 1 and type 2) are based on propylene glycol (PG). Potassium Formate (PF) is used for de-icing of runways and taxiways. Aircraft de-icing takes place on remote de-icing platforms. At each platform there is a system for drainage of excess de-icing fluid, but some is passively dispersed from the aircraft body to the area along the runways and mix with snow. During melting, release of de-icers to the ground occurs. In such events the chemicals need to be biologically degraded in the unsaturated zone to meet the governmental requirements.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3350
Mona Weideborg
Discharge of oxygen demanding substances like glycol, formate, acetate or ammonium may give anaerobic conditions, water with unpleasant odour/taste and appearance, as well as bacterial growth. Fish and bottom fauna may be negatively affected. Formate has the lowest oxygen demand, and will therefore be the most environmental friendly runway de-icing agent. Additives in de-icing agents may have a negative effect on the organisms living in the recipients. The only additive of environmental concern in the de-icing products used at Oslo Airport is an alcohol ethoxylate. This substance is ready biodegradable, probably not bioaccumulating, but is very toxic to aquatic organisms. An environmental risk assessment of the discharge water from the Oslo Airport concluded that the discharge would not be acute toxic for algae or crustacean in the water recipient.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3349
Lars J. Hem, Bjørn Rusten, Jostein Skjefstad
Oslo Airport Gardermoen (OSL) is situated over a ground water reservoir, and collection and handling of spent de-icing fluids is therefore of major importance. OSL have chosen to handle low- and medium strength spent fluids in cooperation with a nearby municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Medium strength fluid is used as a carbon source for nitrogen removal, and thus used as a resource. Low strength fluid is pre-treated in an aerobic biofilm reactor before it is routed to the plant inlet. Prior to the choice of solution for disposal of the fluids, investigations were performed in laboratory and pilot scale. The efficiency of the fluid as a carbon source for denitrification was studied in parallel with ethanol and methanol as well documented carbon sources. The achieved denitrification rates were comparable with those achieved with methanol, while the necessary addition of carbon source was slightly higher for spent de-icing fluid than for methanol.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3806
Georgios Doulgeris, Sunil Mistry, J. P. Fielding, P. Pilidis
This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1104
Steve Hsu, Abbas Rafii, David Hirvonen
This paper describes a high frame rate focal-plane-array range camera module, based on optical time-of-flight measurement, along with machine vision algorithms that take advantage of the real-time 3D information. The utility of such technology is demonstrated in an advanced backup safety system. This system detects obstacles lying on the ground as well as tracks moving objects. Using dual detection criteria, the system outperforms existing backup proximity sensors. Based on 3D imagery collected from a rear-viewing camera configuration, we evaluate the detection and tracking accuracy for varying object sizes and ranges. Operational experience shows that our time-of-flight range camera can be a cost-effective and reliable component of intelligent automotive safety and driver assist systems.
2006-08-30
Technical Paper
2006-01-2429
Mark D. Moore
Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
2006-08-30
Technical Paper
2006-01-2430
Andrew S. Hahn
Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2093
Brienne D. Shkedi
Water transferred from the Space Shuttle to the International Space Station (ISS) is generated as a by-product from the Shuttle fuel cells, and is generally preferred over the Progress which has to launch water from the ground. However, launch mass and volume are still required for the transfer and storage hardware. Some of these up-mass requirements have been reduced since ISS assembly began due to changes in the storage hardware (CWC). This paper analyzes the launch mass and volume required to transfer water from the Shuttle and analyzes the up-mass savings due to modifications in the CWC. Suggestions for improving the launch mass and volume are also provided.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0810
Pär Degerman, Jochen Pohl, Magnus Sethson
This paper describes a system for supporting the driver of a passenger car in different parking situations. Todays cars are getting larger in size and the drivers view in both forward and rearward direction is becoming more limited. This fact calls for a system of sensors and algorithms capable of supporting the driver through the parking maneuvre in a safe and smooth way. The paper presents the development of some of the subsystems in a fully automatic parallel parking system, utilizing ultrasonic ranging sensors for environment mapping. In contrast to existing passive parking aid systems, the ultrasonic range sensors need to have a narrower aperture to be able to map the surroundings properly. This can be accomplished by either increased sensor size or by a higher number of sensors. The emphasis of the paper is the signal conditioning in the parking system. The Hough-transform along with a statistical CUSUM test are used to find the properties of the target parking space.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3416
Koji Yoshioka, Akira Sone, Arata Masuda, Hiroya Yamashita
When an aircraft wheel touches the stationary runway at high speed, great force from the forward direction suddenly pushes on the tires and landing gear. The widely used vertical shock absorber, known as an oleo strut, is unable to buffer this forward shock. This results in smoking and severe wear of aircraft tires on landing. Therefore, in contrast to automobiles, expensive aircraft tires need to be replaced frequently, adding considerably to maintenance and transportation costs. We first presented new technology for solving this problem during the international conference 2001WAC, and in further detail in 2003WAC. We proposed a new type of landing gear that uses a crank element to absorb horizontal shock from the forward direction. The next focus of attention was the problem of increased weight, resulting from introduction of the crank element. Computer simulations using a basic model of the landing gear showed a 62.1% decrease in the maximum bending moment.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3384
Todd J. Callantine, Paul U. Lee, Joey Mercer, Thomas Prevôt, Everett Palmer
Controller and pilot decision support tools for operations with airborne spacing in the terminal area were evaluated in a simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies project Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management element. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and may help reduce go-arounds. Controller workload is acceptable and spacing clearances containing lead aircraft callsigns are clear. Expected operational benefits depend on traffic flow coordination and predictable spacing guidance and support tool behavior.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3200
Matthew Peperak, Jacob Burns
The air traffic system in this country currently suffers from increased delays. A return in passenger traffic to pre-9/11 levels leaves airports approaching their saturation points. With the industry struggling to meet current expectations, the projected passenger growth of 2.8% per year could prove disastrous for the future of air travel. In response to these growing problems NASA has begun exploring a technology research activity to investigate an aircraft with Extreme Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) capabilities. An ESTOL vehicle would alleviate some of these dilemmas by utilizing existing infrastructure to provide significant improvement in the area of delay reduction as well as enhance maximum throughput. This study highlights research for developing the technologies necessary for the ESTOL passenger transport and presents initial operational and economic analyses that will demonstrate the viability of such an aircraft.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3145
John Zuk, Douglas A. Wardwell
NASA is exploring a research activity to identify the technologies that will enable an Extreme Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) aircraft. ESTOL aircraft have the potential to offer a viable solution to airport congestion, delay, capacity, and community noise concerns. This can be achieved by efficiently operating in the underutilized or unused airport ground and airspace infrastructure, while operating simultaneously, but not interfering with, conventional air traffic takeoffs and landings. Concurrently, the Air Force is exploring ESTOL vehicle solutions in the same general performance class as the NASA ESTOL vehicle to meet a number of Advanced Air Mobility missions. The capability goals of both the military and civil vehicles suggests synergistic technology development benefits. This paper presents a summary of the activities being supported by the NASA ESTOL Vehicle Sector.
2004-04-20
Technical Paper
2004-01-1805
Mario Asselin, Mike Hinson, Brent Storrer
Flight certification for steep approach and landing at the increasingly popular London City Airport (LCY) offers commercial advantages for a business aircraft. The combined requirements of demonstrating 7.5° approach angle with a sink rate of less than 3 feet per second at touch down and the short runway present a special challenge to the certification team. Learjet's efforts to certify the M45 to the JAA NPA25-267 are described. It is shown that the M45 can meet the stringent requirements of the NPA with simple changes in the operational procedures, no aerodynamic modification, and increased level of safety compared to the more common approach seen with other business jets of landing with spoilers deployed. Suggestions on harmonization of steep approach guidance between the JAA/EASA, FAA, and TCCA are also provided.
2003-06-16
Technical Paper
2003-01-2145
D. Derwin, P. Booth, P. Zaleski, W. Marsey, W. Flood
During the winter months, poor runway conditions are commonplace at many airports. When ice and snow form on the runway, activity at the airport comes to a halt causing a great deal of inconvenience and expense. For passengers it may mean a delayed or canceled flight. For the airport operator it means additional costs for aircraft delays and removal equipment, its operation and man – hours. A unique pavement Snowfree® has been successfully tested by the FAA and installed in a taxiway at O'Hare International airport which may eliminate the problems of snowy and icy runways. Snowfree® (electrically conductive asphalt pavement system) formulated by Superior Graphite Co., with cooperation of the FAA and Flood Testing Laboratories, uses a unique blend of graphite's, asphalt and electricity to heat the runway surface to melt snow and ice.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 286