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Viewing 181 to 210 of 1647
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0202
Dongho Shin, Sungbo Sim, Jaehoon Ryu, Jaekwan Lee, Insik Lee
This paper describes an automated path following system using vision sensor. Lateral control law for path following is especially underlined which is developed by using the backstepping control design methodology. To establish the proposed control system, the lateral offset to the reference path, the heading angle of vehicle relative to tangent line to the path, and path curvature are required. Those inputs to the controller have been calculated through Kalman filter which is frequently adopted for the purpose. The lane mark detection has been achieved in an ECU (Electric Control Unit) platform with vision sensor. The yaw rate and side-slip angle also needed in the controller are estimated by Kalman estimator. To show the performance of the proposed controller under different speeds, experiment has been conducted on a proving ground having straight and curve sections with the curvature of about 260m.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0201
Jon Froehlich, John Krumm
This paper develops and tests algorithms for predicting the end-to-end route of a vehicle based on GPS observations of the vehicle's past trips. We show that a large portion a typical driver's trips are repeated. Our algorithms exploit this fact for prediction by matching the first part of a driver's current trip with one of the set of previously observed trips. Rather than predicting upcoming road segments, our focus is on making long term predictions of the route. We evaluate our algorithms using a large corpus of real world GPS driving data acquired from observing over 250 drivers for an average of 15.1 days per subject. Our results show how often and how accurately we can predict a driver's route as a function of the distance already driven.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0196
Ulrich Bueker, Ruediger Schmidt, Tristan Eickhoff
This paper deals with the use of biometric methods of driver identification in the vehicle. It compares different methods and evaluates their possible uses in the vehicle. The methods of fingerprint, iris recognition and face recognition are dealt with in particular. The second part of the paper describes the implementation of a face recognition system in the vehicle. Important system components are a camera, preferably mounted in the instrument cluster or on the steering column, IR lighting and a computer unit that implements the necessary algorithm. The system observes the driver as he or she enters the vehicle, chooses the images suitable for identification from the image sequence and is able to re-recognize a person it has “seen” before. This paper focuses on integration in the vehicle with regard to the vehicle-specific environment and connection to the vehicle-specific procedures and requirements.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0195
John Krumm
This paper describes an algorithm for making short-term route predictions for vehicle drivers. It uses a simple Markov model to make probabilistic predictions by looking at a driver's just-driven path. The model is trained from the driver's long term trip history from GPS data. We envision applications including driver warnings, anticipatory information delivery, and various automatic vehicle behaviors. The algorithm is based on discrete road segments, whose average length is 237.5 meters. In one instantiation, the algorithm can predict the next road segment with 90% accuracy. We explore variations of the algorithm and find one that is both simple and accurate.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1256
Xun Dai, Anton Kummert, Su-Birm Park, Uri Iurgel
Automotive radar application is a focus in active traffic safety research activities. And accurate lateral position estimation from the leading target vehicle through radar is of great interest. This paper presents a method based on the regression tree, which estimates the rear centroid of leading target vehicle with a long range FLR (Forward Looking Radar) of limited resolution with multiple radar detections distributed on the target vehicle. Hours of radar log data together with reference value of leading vehicle's lateral offset are utilized both as training data and test data as well. A ten-fold cross validation is applied to evaluate the performance of the generated regression trees together with fused decision forest for each percentage of the training data.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1252
Guanglin Ma, Anton Kummert, Su-Birm Park, Stefan Müller-Schneiders, Alexander Loffe
In this paper we present a fast symmetry search and filtering algorithm for monocular vision based pedestrian candidate detection application. First the ROI of symmetry search is focused on the pedestrian leg region, where the background is relatively simple ground plane. Afterward, the search region is divided into 2 × 4 sub blocks and symmetry density and distribution of each sub block is calculated. Finally, by comparing the symmetry density and distribution of the sub blocks, the correct symmetry axis of the pedestrian candidate is search and also some no-pedestrian candidates are filtered out. The results shown in this method are fast, cost effective and well suited for real-time vision applications.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1254
Mark Krage, Laci Jalics, Siddharth H. D'Silva, Francis Szczublewski
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1259
Rene Sosa, Gerardo Velazquez
Developments in electronics and mechanics have improved performance of vehicles in collision, especially during and after the crash, producing injuries and an economical impact to the owner of the vehicle. Lately several projects focused on preventing collision have raised as Active Safety Systems or so called in Europe, Advanced Driving Assistance Systems which have been developed facing the challenge of avoiding collisions. The goal of this project is to design, build and install a system capable of detecting and warning the driver about dangerous obstacles. In case the driver does not react on time the system will slow down the vehicle in order to decrease the collision velocity, or even avoid it. After a careful analysis of different LIDAR and non-vision passive infrared sensors are implemented and explored. This paper proposes a decision model using the combinations of some simple models of the driver, the vehicle, the control unit, and obstacle detection.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1260
Richard L. Ponziani
Documented safety improvements and widespread acceptance of Lane Departure Warning (LDW) Systems have exceeded most safety performance estimates and projections, particularly in the long-hauler fleet truck market. However, current LDW systems have a common weakness relating to interactions with the turn signal. The mechanical turn signal on/off status is the “gatekeeper” to determine if the LDW alerts the driver or not. Incorporating Smart Turn Signals (STS) that use existing vehicle sensors and bus networks in place of the traditional trip mechanism not only improves turn signal performance, but also augments the LDW system to improve its accuracy and performance as well. Although a simple and straightforward concept, the combination of LDW and STS further improves vehicle safety.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1250
Zoran Nikolic, Brooke Williams
One of the challenges driver assistance or active safety algorithm developers face is the use of general purpose processors during a majority of the development cycle that results in an arduous task of porting the algorithm to an embedded processor late in the development process. Once ported, the algorithm needs to be re-optimized and re-tested using the target platform and processor. This paper describes a digital signal processor (DSP)-based tool that allows for the development and optimization of algorithms using the target embedded processor earlier in the design process, thus minimizing the need for late development porting and re-testing on the target embedded platform. The system will be able to record uncompressed digital video from mono or stereo CMOS sensors while being processed in-vehicle and will allow the playback and processing of the same data set in the lab for further analysis and optimization.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1249
Rabah Abdessamie, Denis Gingras
Proliferation of real time inter-vehicular communications provides new sources for exploitable positioning data. Vehicles can, under numerous situations, have GPS satellite shortages but there will always be vehicles in their vicinity, with a different set of satellites, to provide them with useful navigation information. In this paper, we propose a cooperative positioning technique making use of reliable positions of some vehicles to enhance positioning estimates of some others. We will exploit the useful inter-vehicle data flow to extract good position measurements from vehicles with good GPS satellite LOS (line of sight), in order to enhance low positioning accuracy of other vehicles, in the neighborhood. The integration of such information will be done using geometric data fusion approach.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0673
Anne Prieur, Frédérique Bouvart, Benoît Gabrielle, Simon Lehuger
The recent development of biofuel production worldwide is closely linked to GHG savings objectives and to regional agricultural policies. Many existing studies intend to evaluate the net non renewable energy and GHG savings associated to the various biofuel production pathways. However, there is no consensus on the results of those studies. The main explanations of variations among the results are the following: energy consumption and GHG emissions of the reference fossil pathway, data used for the representation of farming processes and biofuel production processes, accounting for carbon storage in agricultural soils, reference use of the land, choice of an allocation method in case of coproduction. There is a strong drive in the European Union for a certification on the sustainability of biofuel pathways.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0689
Linda F. Nazar, Si Hyoung Oh
Traditional electrode materials for lithium-ion storage cells are typically crystalline layered structures such as metal oxides, and graphitic carbons. These materials power billions of portable electronic devices in today's society. However, large-scale, high-capacity storage devices capable of powering hybrid electric vehicles (HEV″s) or their plug-in versions (PHEV's) have much more demanding requirements with respect to safety, cost, and the power they must deliver. Recently, nanostructured solid state materials, which are comprised of two more compositional or structural phases, have been found to show exciting possibilities to meet these criteria.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0561
Jing Zhou, Huei Peng, Timothy J. Gordon
The characterization of human drivers' performance is of great significance for highway design, driver state monitoring, and the development of automotive active safety systems. Many earlier studies are restricted by experimental scope, the number and diversity of human subjects, and the accuracy and extent of measured variables. In this work, driver lateral control performance on limited-access highways is quantified by utilizing a comprehensive naturalistic driving database, with the emphasis on measures of vehicle lateral position and time to lane crossing (TLC). Normative values at various speed ranges are reported. The results represent a statistical view of baseline on-road naturalistic driving performance, and can be used for quantitative studies such as driver impairment and alertness monitoring, the triggering of lane departure warning systems, and highway design.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0570
Fernanda Valim, Jules Slama
Aircraft noise is considered to be one of the most difficult environmental problems to be mitigated from the airport operations. The ICAO study group has presented an approach with four proposals to manage this problem at each site – the “Guidance on the Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management” –, but even with this document, the airport managers still have to do their plan of action to address the most problematic ones (cases where there is more than one airport under the same administration). In this way, this paper attempts to propose a methodology to help to identify what would be the equivalent aircraft movement in a month for each site. The hypothesis is that this indicator number will express how close the airport operation is to the Balanced Approach proposals. And to calculate it, this methodology uses the number of movements identified by Chapter 2 or Chapter 3 and by day or night for a given period.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0569
Renata de Brito Rocha, Jules Ghislain Slama, null
The airport noise is the origin of many adverse effects on the human's health and/or his well-being. The most frequent effects, noise annoyance and interference on sleep, have a few noise metrics associated to them. The DNL, LAD and LAN metrics are related to noise annoyance. Also there is, related to DNL metric, the percent of people highly annoyed. Interference on sleep is associated to SEL metric. So, the objective of this research is to develop the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool to help airport sound impact assessment through the evaluation of noise annoyance and the interference on sleep of the Brasilia's Airport.
2008-03-30
Technical Paper
2008-36-0585
Nico van Oosten
This paper gives an overview of ways to assess the noise situation at airports and how action plans may be established in order to improve the noise climate. In addition new developments are presented regarding impact assessment and interdependencies with other environmental aspects. Although this paper is focussed on the situation in the European Union, the findings are applicable to airports worldwide.
2008-01-09
Technical Paper
2008-28-0079
Pinaki Mondal, S. Dalela, N. Balasubramanian, G.K. Sharma, Rajesh Singh
Road traffic crashes kill 1.2 million people each year and injure 50 million worldwide. Nearly 8.5% of total fatal accidents per year takes place in India. This issue is creating a huge socio-economic toll globally. Various studies revealed that the total number of people killed in road crashes in regions of the third world countries continued to increase, whereas in the developed nations there has been a steady decrease for the last two decades. This paper aims to critically discuss the road accidents in view of the cause, effect and mitigation means with special emphasis on some technical interventions in the vehicles. Exhaustive review of weather and wet road related crashes have also been carried out as part of the study. Authors commented on the global estimation of the socio-economic impact of road crashes.
2007-11-28
Technical Paper
2007-01-2740
Cleber Willian Gomes, Paulo Eduardo Santos
This article proposes the application of probabilistic Bayesian Net methodology applied on vehicle diagnostic with FMEA
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3351
Jarl Øvstedal, Bente Wejden
Oslo Airport Gardermoen is located on the largest unconfined groundwater aquifer in Norway and acts upon strict governmental regulations concerning groundwater balance and contamination of groundwater and surface waters. In the cold Norwegian winter climate, de-icing of aircrafts and runway systems is necessary for safety reasons. The aircraft de-icing fluids (type 1 and type 2) are based on propylene glycol (PG). Potassium Formate (PF) is used for de-icing of runways and taxiways. Aircraft de-icing takes place on remote de-icing platforms. At each platform there is a system for drainage of excess de-icing fluid, but some is passively dispersed from the aircraft body to the area along the runways and mix with snow. During melting, release of de-icers to the ground occurs. In such events the chemicals need to be biologically degraded in the unsaturated zone to meet the governmental requirements.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3350
Mona Weideborg
Discharge of oxygen demanding substances like glycol, formate, acetate or ammonium may give anaerobic conditions, water with unpleasant odour/taste and appearance, as well as bacterial growth. Fish and bottom fauna may be negatively affected. Formate has the lowest oxygen demand, and will therefore be the most environmental friendly runway de-icing agent. Additives in de-icing agents may have a negative effect on the organisms living in the recipients. The only additive of environmental concern in the de-icing products used at Oslo Airport is an alcohol ethoxylate. This substance is ready biodegradable, probably not bioaccumulating, but is very toxic to aquatic organisms. An environmental risk assessment of the discharge water from the Oslo Airport concluded that the discharge would not be acute toxic for algae or crustacean in the water recipient.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3349
Lars J. Hem, Bjørn Rusten, Jostein Skjefstad
Oslo Airport Gardermoen (OSL) is situated over a ground water reservoir, and collection and handling of spent de-icing fluids is therefore of major importance. OSL have chosen to handle low- and medium strength spent fluids in cooperation with a nearby municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Medium strength fluid is used as a carbon source for nitrogen removal, and thus used as a resource. Low strength fluid is pre-treated in an aerobic biofilm reactor before it is routed to the plant inlet. Prior to the choice of solution for disposal of the fluids, investigations were performed in laboratory and pilot scale. The efficiency of the fluid as a carbon source for denitrification was studied in parallel with ethanol and methanol as well documented carbon sources. The achieved denitrification rates were comparable with those achieved with methanol, while the necessary addition of carbon source was slightly higher for spent de-icing fluid than for methanol.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3806
Georgios Doulgeris, Sunil Mistry, J. P. Fielding, P. Pilidis
This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0073
R.L. Evans
For fuelling road transportation in the future, particularly light-duty vehicles, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen and fuel cells to provide electrical power to an all-electric drive train. An alternative powertrain would use a simple battery to store electricity directly, using power from the electrical grid to charge the battery when the vehicle is not in use. The energy efficiency of these two different approaches has been compared, using a complete “energy conversion chain analysis”. The successful development and introduction into the marketplace of grid-connected hybrid vehicles could eliminate the need for road vehicles to use petroleum fuels, at least for the majority of miles traveled. If electricity were to be generated primarily from sustainable primary energy sources, then road transportation would also become sustainable, resulting in an “Electricity Economy”, rather than a “Hydrogen Economy.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0099
Alessandro Agostini, Maria Lelli, Emanuele Negrenti, Borja Beltran, Stefano Carrese, Antonio Parenti
The new version of TEE model (Transport Energy Environment) has been developed in the frame of the FP5 ISHTAR and HEARTS Projects with several features for better analyzing transport related direct impacts, taking into account vehicles kinematics, cold start emissions distribution and parking processes. Specific efforts were dedicated to the modeling of the effects of vehicles kinematics on hot emissions, where the software calculates link emissions by adopting average speed based functions, instantaneous emissions, or the innovative ‘kinematics correction functions’ model, and the modeling of parking processes which are relevant for cold start and evaporative emissions.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3648
Maotao Zhu, Bing Han
Aluminum disc wheels have to pass impact test before going into production. Impact test of “15×6J” wheel is analyzed with CAE technology, representing the application of finite element method on simulation of impact problems. In numerical simulation of wheel impact test, integrated finite element model is established, including impact block, wheel, tyre and bracket. The whole process of impact is simulated, and velocity and displacement curves of impact block and wheel stress distribution are obtained. The analysis results indicate the wheel can pass the impact test, which is validated by the physical experimentation.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3647
David R. Mikesell, Anmol S. Sidhu, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, Ronald A. Bixel
Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3652
Yang Shengbing, Den Chunan, Ji Xuewu, Chen Kuiyuan
A steer-by-wire system has many benefits over conventional steering system for no mechanical link existing between the steering wheel and the road wheels. Road feeling has been being one of the most important vehicle characteristics reflecting vehicle directional control and stability. Besides the steering angle, road wheels reactive torque and vehicle dynamical behavior are considered in this paper. A control strategy with road wheels force feedback and steering wheel angle feedback was developed. The vehicle dynamic states are taken into account for road feeling simulation. Simulation shows that the control strategy achieves desired road feeling, and the second control strategy can improve the road feeling dynamically.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3650
Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong, Tianjun Zhu, Chengwei Tian
Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) system is a kind of active control brake systems of automobile, the pedal from the calipers actuation separated and no longer limited by conventional hardware. The system may come together with ABS, ESP, and ASR function, also the communication with other systems is done via the CAN network. EHB system may be classified a “stepping stone” technology to full brake-by-wire and brings huge transform for the performance of braking system. In this paper, vehicle dynamic models were established and accomplished the control strategy for vehicle stability control with EHB system which can adjust wheel and vehicle motion, improve the lateral and longitudinal vehicle stability. This result was verified by simulation which shows that the controller is effective on improving the vehicle stability.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 1647