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Viewing 151 to 180 of 1647
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0067
Hiroshi Yokohama, Robert B. Randall
Tread-road friction was investigated with respect to road surface roughness using FEA. The surface roughness can be evaluated by the statistical parameters and functions such as standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and power spectral density, which could be obtained from the real surfaces. The roughness effect on rubber friction was verified by means of FEA with the application of the Gaussian/non-Gaussian surfaces, which comprise the given statistical parameters. At the same time the contact analysis is discussed with respect to the different types of rubber, the normal pressure, sliding speed and friction coefficient.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0168
Eric C. Sauck
At the forefront of intelligent vehicle technologies are vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). Their capabilities can be added to currently-available systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), to drastically decrease the number and severity of collisions, to ease traffic flow, and to consequently improve fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. There has been extensive government, industry, and academic involvement in developing these technologies. This paper explores the capabilities and challenges of vehicle-based technology and examines ways that policymakers can foster implementation at the federal, state, and local levels.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2860
Anita Teo, Kaushik Rajashekara, Jason Hill, Brian Simmers
The potential benefits offered by alternative aircraft taxiing methods without the use of the aircraft's main engines have attracted substantial interest in recent years from the aviation industry as well as the general public. Amongst the proposed aircraft taxiing methods, the electric wheel-drive concept has received the most media attention. As part of ongoing research and development into the More Electric Aircraft (MEA), a study has been conducted to examine the technical feasibility of an electric wheel-drive taxiing system using publicly available aircraft and runway coefficient data. The study shows the potential for overall mission fuel burn reductions, particularly for short haul aircraft with a relatively long taxi time.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0005
Ralph Bruder, Bettina Abendroth, Muriel Didier, Michael Schreiber, Margeritta von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
As a consequence of the integration of additional systems to support and entertain drivers and passengers the interactions with those systems become more and more time consuming and distracting. It is therefore a basic requirement for the design of Human Machine-Interfaces to minimize the distraction from driving when interacting with those new assistance and entertainment systems. Whereas the safety is a Must-be for the design of HMI for automobiles the joy-of-use is an important aspect for the excitement of drivers. To fulfil the sometimes conflicting demands for safety and pleasure a human centred design approach for HMI design is needed.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0004
Gert-Dieter Tuzar
Multimedia systems, GPS navigation, entertainment, and communication (infotainment) have become increasingly popular in today's cars. On one hand, these systems offer a desirable amount of comfort and convenience. On the other, the representation of information on displays and navigation through these virtual worlds leads to increased driver distraction within a constantly changing environment that could be dangerous to road safety. For this reason, Human-Machine-Interaction (HMI) Design needs to be addressed. This paper will present a problem-driven, user-centered cognitive approach. It also shows how HMI Design transfers research findings into efficient product development. There is a very complex relationship between the user, the interface and the traffic environment. Psychological factors, the driving situation, and interface properties affect drivers' behavior. Design parameters for interaction concepts will be shown.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0003
Yukinobu Nakamura
The paper describes the main topics of the new guideline, which we call “3.0 version”. We executed the road tests to analyze driver's workload of various operations to the navigation system. As a result, the guideline regulated the upper limit of the Total Glance Time (TGT) 8 seconds. And we proposed a bench test which is called the Occlusion method using a LCD shutter goggle instead of road tests. In the occlusion method, 7.5 seconds of the Total Shutter Open Time (TSOT) corresponds to 8 seconds of the TGT. This is the first step of JAMA in achieving numerical criteria for in-Vehicle Display Systems. JAMA will continue to work towards the optimal guideline.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0002
Paul Green
This paper describes (1) the telematics distraction/overload problem, (2) what distraction and overload are and how they differ, (3) the standards and guidelines that apply to the design and evaluation of driver interfaces/human-machine interfaces (HMI) for telematics (and their strengths and weaknesses), and (4) what standards and research are needed to support the development of driver interfaces. Most of the paper is a detailed discussion of evaluation standards, in particular SAE Recommended Practices J2364 (Task Time and Occlusion Tests) and J2365 (Task Time Estimation), ISO Standards 16673 (Occlusion Test) and 26022 (Lane-Change Test), and the AAM Driver Focus Guideline.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0009
David D. Henry
The Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Proof Of Concept program is described. The overall VII system is outlined, and the key individual hardware and software elements are described as implemented in the POC. The POC applications are summarized together with the tests planned for the POC.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0010
James A. Misener
The VII California testbed and proof of concept development is an emerging collaborative testbed with partners drawn from public, private and academic sectors. The goals are multiple and evolving: first, to inform Statewide and regional stakeholders and research participants on the value of Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) mobility and safety applications in the San Francisco Bay Area context, then progressively, to serve as a VII Development Test Environment (DTE) for unique elements of the Proof of Concept (POC) experiments for the viability assessment and finally, to serve as a launching point for applications development and testing for selected VII services. A consistent goal, however, is use of the testbed to develop and eventually enact safety services using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC).
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0011
Masao Fukushima
In order to reduce traffic accidents and ease traffic congestion utilizing ITS (Intelligent Transportation System), a large-scale FOT (Field Operational Test) involving 2,000 ordinary drivers was launched in October 2006 in the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa, Japan. The test is slated to continue through March 2009. Target applications include Intersection Collision Avoidance using V-I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication, ISA (Intelligent Speed Advisory) using digital maps in the vehicle navigation system, and the probe system, which provides detailed traffic information. In this paper, the progress of this FOT will be introduced.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0019
Gerulf Kinkelin, Alain Gilberg, Bertrand Delord, Harald Heinecke, Simon Fürst, Juergen Moessinger, Andreas Lapp, Ulrich Virnich, Stefan Bunzel, Thomas Weber, Noë Spinner, Lennart Lundh, Daniel Svensson, Peter Heitkämper, Fredrik Mattsson, Kenji Nishikawa, Hiroyuki Hirano, Klaus Lange, Bernd Kunkel
The AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) Development Partnership has published early 2008 the specifications Release 3.0 [1], with a prime focus on the overall architecture, basic software, run time environment, communication stacks and methodology. Heavy developments have taken place in the OEM and supplier community to deliver AUTOSAR loaded cars on the streets starting 2008 [2]. The 2008 achievements have been: Improving the specifications in order to secure the exploitation for body, chassis and powertrain applications Adding major features: safety related functionalities, OBD II and Telematics application interfaces.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0031
Toyohei (Tony) Nakajima
As demand for an accident free society intensifies, people have come to look to new technologies for solutions. This has facilitated development of a variety of advanced driver assist systems (ADAS). However, despite existing technologies, due to lack of standardizations and inability to asses the value of a system which cannot be understood without test driving, customers are left unable to make appropriate decisions when determining what kind of features to purchase. Furthermore, not all vehicles offer the same options. If we are to tackle the challenges from the customer's point of view, we must establish a standardized performance criterion that will help customers and furthermore challenge the auto industry to healthy competition by establishing clear playing fields. This paper will discuss possible solutions and suggestions for the industry to create an accident free society.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0032
William B. Hanna, Glenn R. Widmann
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0034
Peter E. Rieth, James Remfrey
Networking of active and passive safety is the fundamental basis for comprehensive vehicle safety. Situation-relevant information relating to driver reactions, vehicle behavior and traffic environment are fed into a crash probability calculator, which continually assesses the current crash risk and intervenes when necessary with appropriate measures to avoid a crash and reduce potential injuries. This provides effective protection not only for vehicle occupants but also for other, vulnerable road users. As this functionality up till now only relates to the vehicle itself, the next logical step is enhancement leading to the ultimate goal in safety performance, telematics. The integration of this embedded, in-vehicle wireless communication system allows Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) functionality for, e.g. hazard warning. This is an integral element of the cascaded ContiGuard® protection measures.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0050
Patrick Curley
Market forces are in place for widespread inclusion of features that make automobiles more aware of their surroundings, and take various degrees of action depending upon the situation, to become common in the next five to ten years. Technology is in place: digital maps with slope, curvature, and lane information; sensors and cameras found on more and more vehicles and on more and more roadways; and the demands of consumers themselves, grappling with high fuel prices, traffic congestion and high accident rates, are beginning to realize the role technology can play to make both them and the vehicle better aware of their surroundings, and how that information can contribute to both safety and fuel efficiency.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2658
Tim Juan
Efficient thermal management of an engine cooling system and its surrounding components has been one of the most frequently visited topics in automotive industry. Especially, modern diesel truck engines have to deal with more heat rejection than ever to meet the rigorous emission and efficiency standards. As the maximum heat dissipated by a cooling system is limited to available inlet area to radiator, which is constrained by cab configuration, it is crucial to maximize the cooling airflow availability under given conditions. To be able to do so means to avoid additional development cost accompanying an altered cab configuration. At the same time, truck manufacturers have to deal with reduced product life cycles and develop reliable products economically.
2008-10-07
Journal Article
2008-01-2659
Andrea Lorenz, Martin Kozek
Abstract. For the estimation of life expectancy and dynamic fatigue of a machine, the overall load configuration of the typical application is of major importance. Regarding commercial vehicles, the load spectrum differs with the variation of machine parameters which requires costly measurements for analysis of damage. This article presents robust methods for the computation of characteristic values for the damage to a certain component. The methods are based on a hypermodel, which represents the relation between different machine configurations and the resulting characteristic values. Therefore, fewer typical machine configurations have to be measured. The statistical models of load and damage are made using the Rainflow counting algorithm and an extended version of Miner's Law. After the condensation into characteristic damage values, hypermodels for the relationship between these scalar values and the machine parameters are developed using Neural Networks.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2657
Amit B. Shah, Craig M. Cless, John S. Curlee, Jeremy Edmondson
This paper summarizes investigation into the strategies, methods, and best practices for achieving low HVAC load on two existing vehicles programs. Decreasing the load required from the HVAC system will help improve the fuel economy of the truck resulting in a cost savings to the customer. A thermal analysis was performed on two truck cabin interiors to calculate the amount of energy necessary to maintain a desirable internal cabin air temperature while under certain environmental conditions. In order to quantify how much cost is associated with running the HVAC system with its current design, the thermal analysis was coupled with a computational fluid dynamics simulation to understand the complicated flow patterns inside the cab while the HVAC system is operational. The load on the HVAC system was calculated for each scenario using the thermal model and the results were compared to the benchmark.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2649
Chris Hedges, Doug Welk
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is an initiative of the US Department of Transportation to provide communications among vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure in order to increase the safety and productivity of transportation systems. It makes use of but is not restricted to the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) spectrum. There are 3 major categories of applications for VII - Highway Safety, Vehicular Mobility, and Consumer & Commercial Services. There are currently approximately 42,000 traffic fatalities a year in the United States. Reducing deaths, injuries and property damage is of the highest priority in the development of VII applications. Electronic Brake Warning, Signal Phase and Timing, and Collision Detection are among the applications dedicated to improving highway safety. Increasing traffic volume is outpacing the addition of new roadway capacity, resulting in increasing delays, congestion and frustration.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0088
Mauricio Micoski, Leopoldo R. Yoshioka, Renato D. Costa, Antonio S. Teixeira, Landulfo Silveira
The Magnetic Guidance System - MGS - is a control system, developed in Brazil, for use in urban bus corridors known as “BRT - Bus Rapid Transit Corridors”. MGS technology can be applied to any kind of vehicle and aims to minimize the lane width (thus diminishing the expropriate costs and urban space impact), to raise the transport capacity (through the increase of the average speed) and to improve passenger accessibility (because the MGS stops in a uniform and small distance from the bus platform in a repetitive fashion during all the operation time, procedure known as “Precision Docking”). In the actual stage MGS does the lateral guidance of the vehicle and the human driver controls the speed using the conventional accelerator and brake pedals. When the lateral automatic guidance is active, MGS controls the steering system of the vehicle using a magnetic track as reference (the magnetic track is a sequence of discrete magnets spaced from 1m to 2m in the pavement).
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0079
Alexander E. Smith
An innovative program is described to improve emergency vehicle deployment by automatically alerting all other nearby vehicles on the road as to the presence and intention of the emergency vehicle. Since the use of audible sirens has somewhat marked effectiveness nowadays, in selecting the most practical automated method to notify most drivers a review is given of the various data-links that are available today, including plans for new standards. The research presented concludes that use of today’s newer vehicle data-links is currently ineffective due to the fragmentation and, in many cases, low adoption rates, including satellite radio, HD and conventional radio, automatic cruise control radar, and vehicle telematics.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1615
Yong Li, Haijie Chen, Tian Tian
A general deterministic hydrodynamic lubrication model [1] was modified to study the interaction between a Twin Land Oil Control Ring (TLOCR) and a liner with cross-hatch liner finish. Efforts were made to customize the general model to simulate the particular sliding condition of TLOCR/liner interaction with proper boundary conditions. The results show that model is consistent, robust, and efficient. The lubricant mass conservation was justified and discussed. Then analysis was conducted on the lubricant transport between the deep grooves/valleys and plateau part of the surface to illustrate the importance of deep grooves in oil supply to the plateau part and hydrodynamic pressure generation. Furthermore, since the TLOCR land running surface is completely flat and parallel to the nominal liner axis, the liner finish micro geometry is fully responsible for the hydrodynamic pressure rise, which was found to be sufficient to support significant portion of the total ring radial load.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1899
Russell Marshall, Steve Summerskill, Mark Porter, Keith Case, Ruth Sims, Diane Gyi, Peter Davis
This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0205
Ho Gi Jung, Yun Hee Lee, Pal Joo Yoon, Jaihie Kim
This paper discusses the market trends and advantages of a safety system integrating LKS (Lane Keeping System) and ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), referred to as the LKS+ACC system, and proposes a method utilizing the range data from ACC for the sake of lane detection. The overall structure of lane detection is the same as the conventional method using monocular vision: EDF (Edge Distribution Function)-based initialization, sub-ROI (Region Of Interest) for left/right and distance-based layers, steerable filter-based feature extraction, and model fitting in each sub-ROI. The proposed method adds only the system for confining lane detection ROI to free space that is established by range data. Experimental results indicate that such a simple adaptive ROI can overcome occlusion of lane markings and disturbance of neighboring vehicles.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0200
Francis Dance, Damon Gawley, Robert Hein, Ronald Kates
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0199
M. G. Mehrabi
This paper deals with controller design for path tracking control of intelligent vehicle systems. A two degrees of freedom (DOF) model is developed to represent the motion of a vehicle which is used to formulate the path tracking problem of vehicles. By using optimal control theory, the structure of a controller is obtained for vehicles with front and rear steering systems. In designing the controller, a quadratic measure of performance consisting of the integral of the errors (in position and orientation of the vehicle) and the input (front and rear wheel steering angles) are minimized. This controller is implemented to an experimental vehicle and the experimental results of its path following are presented.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0198
Guozhen Zhao, Changxu Wu, Bo Ou, Jing Li, Xianghong Sun
Navigation systems have been recently introduced into vehicles in China, one of the world's largest in-vehicle system markets in the next few years. However, existing Chinese navigation systems either simply translate the system language from other languages to Chinese or do not have intelligent functions which consider the characteristics of Chinese users, their language, or geographic features of mainland China. To solve this problem, this study first reviewed the characteristics of Chinese language (textual part) including its visual (words orientation: horizontal vs. vertical), words simplification, and auditory formats (e.g., dialects) which are different from western languages.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0197
Anne Carlsson, Hans-Christian Reuss, Gerd Baumann
In this paper it will be shown how a database containing information of the road characteristics of a frequently driven route can be automatically generated and continually updated in a vehicle during each drive. The contained information can be used as foresight information in predictive driving strategies. By using only drive train information, standard sensors (e.g. from ESC and ABS), and a GPS relevant road characteristics (curves, slopes, speed limits, etc) can be identified during the drive, stored in an on-board database, and used to optimize fuel consumption or driving comfort in subsequent trips along the route. The system is verified using a driving simulator with a 3D surround graphics system.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0204
Zvi Shiller, Rajan Prasanna, Jeremy Salinger
A unified approach to collision warning due to in-lane and neighboring traffic is presented. It is based on the concept of velocity obstacles, and is designed to alert the driver of a potential front collision and against attempting a dangerous lane change maneuver. The velocity obstacle represents the set of the host velocities that would result in collision with the respective static or moving vehicle. Potential collisions are simply determined when the velocity vector of the host vehicle penetrates the velocity obstacle of a neighboring vehicle. The generality of the velocity obstacle and its simplicity make it an attractive alternative to competing warning algorithms, and a powerful tool for generating collision avoidance maneuvers. The velocity obstacle-based warning algorithm was successfully tested in simulations using real sensor data collected during the Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (ACAS FOT) [10].
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0203
Vassilis Charissis, Stylianos Papanastasiou, George Vlachos
Often the level of the driver's control over the vehicle is qualitatively compromised due to the plethora and the ineffectiveness of driving interface designs. This research effort focuses on the development of a prototype Head-Up Display (HUD) interface that can complement the driver's decision-making process rather than replace it, and decrease response times under adverse weather and traffic conditions. The evaluation of the proposed system was conducted over 40 user trials using a driving simulator. In this paper we present a succinct overview of the HUD system and comment on the headway results derived from a comparative study between the HUD and a contemporary instrumentation panel.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 1647