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Viewing 121 to 150 of 1645
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0517
P. B. Salazar, T. A. Heleno, J. G. Slama
The objective of this paper is to present a method of determination of airport noise levels and environment noise using computer simulation, thus reducing the need for physical measurements in the areas affected by airport noise. Through the simulations, the hourly airport noise was characterized for a wide range of critical receivers. Levels for airport and environment noise had been calculated, considering that environment noise is generated mostly by the flow of motor vehicles on the nearby roads. From the results of these simulations it was possible to choose points where continuous noise measurements are made. Using the simulated values, we hope to determine a safe and precise way of predicting the noise generated from airports throughout the country minimizing the needs of conducting physical measurements to obtain the noise curves.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0520
Delia Dimitriu, Dragos Munteanu, Octavian Pleter
This paper is assessing two methods that can be used in assessing the airport noise capacity when new operational practices are implemented at a certain airport. The example given is CDA-continuous descent approach implemented at Bucharest Henri Coanda International airport in Romania. A review of the main operational practices related to CDO (Continuous Descent Operations) with relevance for noise and emissions reduction, shows the importance of working in a team when implementing new operational practices, as well as the need to access data either through FDR (flight data recorder) or from measurements. - The example selected explains the difficulties one can have to extract FDR data. Although the authors of this paper benefitted from FDR from TAROM, the Romanian national airline, it was difficult to be extracted, so the assessment of the airport noise capacity focused on monitoring and measurements undertaken under the flight path.
2010-10-05
Journal Article
2010-01-2005
Rachana Ashok Gupta, Wesley Snyder, W Shepherd Pitts
This paper develops a novel integrated navigational system for autonomous vehicle motion control. Vehicle control is defined in terms of the required vehicle steering angle, rate of steering change and speed. This paper proposes predictive control in the image plane. The proposed predictive control enables the navigation on the desired path, reduces the control complexity and increases the application space for multiple types of vehicles. The paper investigates vehicle control stability; especially in scenarios containing varying curvature turns and variable vehicle speeds. The primary emphasis of this paper is on vehicle control rather than scene analysis. To demonstrate the proposed vehicle control, a computer vision based multi-lane detection algorithm is introduced. The control strategy is applied such that the vehicle maintains position within the lane boundaries. Stability of the control algorithm is tested and demonstrated in multiple scenarios using 3-D simulation results.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0756
Bradley D. Duncan, Satheesh Kandasamy, Khaled Sbeih, Todd H. Lounsberry, Mark E. Gleason
In an environment of tougher engineering constraints to deliver tomorrow's aerodynamic vehicles, evaluation of aerodynamics early in the design process using digital prototypes and simulation tools has become more crucial for meeting cost and performance targets. Engineering needs have increased the demands on simulation software to provide robust solutions under a range of operating conditions and with detailed geometry representation. In this paper the application of simulation tools to wheel design in on-road operating conditions is explored. Typically, wheel and wheel cover design is investigated using physical tests very late in the development process, and requires costly testing of many sets of wheels in an on-road testing environment (either coast-down testing or a moving-ground wind-tunnel).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0066
Wade Bartlett, William Wright
It has been observed that locked-wheel skidding friction values are essentially vehicle- and tire-independent. It has been tacitly assumed by most crash reconstructionists that any ABS-equipped vehicle would also decelerate at nearly the same rate as any other ABS-equipped vehicle. This paper will review literature with relevant straight-line test results on paved roadways and gravel, and present additional results from recent tests generated with four modern vehicles built by three manufacturers. Results from the recent testing showed that locked-wheel skidding values on a concrete roadway were similar for all four vehicles, but the ABS-improvement on the same roadway varied. On gravel, ABS was always less effective than locked-wheel skidding. ABS and locked-wheel results on gravel had less car-to-car variation than tests conducted on concrete.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3115
Mingyan Li, Casey Fung, Tim Mitchell
{Next-generation network enabled (eEnabled) airplanes will digitally communicate with ground systems continuously at airport, for collection, distribution and loading of airplane data and software parts. Wireless technologies further bring the opportunity of pervasive connection with eEnabled airplane anywhere at airports. However, safety critical airplane information assets mandate secure solutions for eEnabled airplane applications. In this paper, we address the issue of securing wireless eEnabled airplane applications at airports for reliable and safe airplane operation. We identify the special challenges and present research results by comparing the state-of-the-art technologies and proposing the strategy of “defense in depth.”}
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2766
S. Kent Hoekman, A. W. Gertler, A. Broch, C. Robbins, Mani Natarajan
Biodistillate transportation fuels include biodiesel (produced via transesterification of animal fats and vegetable oils) and renewable diesel (produced via catalytic hydroprocessing of the same feedstocks). Production and use of biodistillates are increasing dramatically, both in the U.S. and globally. This paper describes the policy drivers prompting growth of biodistillate fuels in the U.S., Europe, and selected other countries. Trends in fuel production volumes and feedstocks supplies are presented for these fuels. Current feedstocks are dominated by soybean oil in the U.S. and rapeseed oil in Europe. However, there is much interest in developing alternative, non-edible feedstocks such as jatropha and microalgae. Currently, biodiesel is the dominant biodistillate in use, though interest in renewable diesel is increasing. This paper describes different conversion processes used to manufacture these fuels, and discusses the pros and cons of each.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0293
Luciano P. Lukacs, João Vitor Batisti, Luiz Carlos Simões Soares Júnior, Iuri Muniz Pepe
The cargo transportation in Brazil is predominantly done by road, instead of any other means of transportation. It represented more than 35% of the total amount of money spent on goods transportation on that South American country during 2005. Several factors should be taken in consideration in the final cost of this service. We can highlight, for example: poor road quality, cargo robbery, theft of tires, fuel stealing, road accidents, etc. These costs are always reassigned to the final customers. Among that list, one of main factors for increasing transport costs in Brazil is the illicit fuel deviation. In order to reduce this problem, entrepreneurs have adopted several strategies; so far, none of them could come up with an efficient proposal. This paper presents a new tool to assist preventing the fuel stealing issue. It can detect the tank violation, notifying the company when it happened and how much fuel was diverted.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2108
Paul R. Donavan
There is a growing interest in using a standard reference tire for both assessing changes in test track pavement over time and rank ordering of the performance of different highway pavements. Because of longer-term availability, the ASTM Standard Reference Test Tire (SRTT) is the primary candidate for these applications. Issues of concern for the SRTT include tire-to-tire variation, the relation of the SRTT to other tires currently in use, and the “break-in” period required for stable test tires. To address tire-to-tire variability, seven SRTT’s were tested on variety of asphalt concrete (AC) and Portland cement concrete (PCC) surfaces on two occasions. These included five new tires and two that had been in use for some time. Two of the new tires were re-tested with increasing use to examine any break-in period effect.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1481
Gao Zhenhai, Guo Jian, Deng Guohui
Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1479
Tae-Kyung Moon, Jun-Nam Oh, Hyuck-Min Na, Pal-Joo Yoon
In this paper, we present the integration of C2C communication into IAV. Traditional IAV detects target vehicles only they are in visible area; however this integration makes IAV to sense target vehicles even they are blocked by obstacles. In this system, C2C ECU keeps monitoring the target vehicles on the road and sends a warning to IAV controller when it detects any event or risky situation. Finally IAV avoids the collision with the target vehicle by reducing the moving speed or generating a new path.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1480
Danny Gangapersaud
Car navigation systems are evolving to support a host of new functions, including vehicle location and navigation capabilities, and are fast becoming the brain of the car, where entertainment, safety and autonomous driving converge. Increased functionalities require higher- performance processors—and studies have shown that as operating frequency increases to provide higher performance, power consumption drastically increases. Further, as semiconductor technologies move to smaller process nodes to achieve higher performance, operating and leakage power also increase due to the low voltage-threshold (VT) transistors and high operating voltages. As a result, the need for thermal dissipation becomes a bottleneck in high-frequency silicon designs. To support the requirements of these emerging navigational hubs, OEMs are requiring electronic components that offer greater functionality while consuming little power.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1290
Azim Eskandarian, Damoon Soudbakhsh, Johann Moreau, Julien Karcher
An active torque control steering system is developed and implemented in a car simulator. The simulator has a comprehensive and accurate full vehicle dynamics and road/environment models. A simple model of the driving simulator’s vehicle was developed and a PID controller, which uses the vehicle’s yaw angle, and position, was designed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller is then integrated with the driving simulator program, emulating the real world conditions. The developed system was tested in various obstacle avoidance and lane change scenarios in the car simulator, and the vehicle was able to avoid the stationary obstacles autonomously.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1288
Christian Lundquist, Thomas B. Schön
There are more and more systems emerging making use of measurements from a forward looking radar and a forward looking camera. It is by now well known how to exploit this data in order to compute estimates of the road geometry, tracking leading vehicles, etc. However, there is valuable information present in the radar concerning stationary objects, that is typically not used. The present work shows how radar measurements of stationary objects can be used to obtain a reliable estimate of the free space in front of a moving vehicle. The approach has been evaluated on real data from highways and rural roads in Sweden.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1291
Shunji Miyahara, Kenneth Freeman, Anatoli Koulinitch, Kevin Tiedje
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1286
Yilu Zhang, William C. Lin, Yuen-Kwok Steve Chin
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1287
King Tin Leung, James Whidborne, David Purdy, Alain Dunoyer
This paper uses data from a GPS/INS integrated device to investigate the feasibility of estimating vehicle states using a consumer grade GPS and INS. The GPS data is sampled at 1Hz to represent a consumer grade GPS. This data is then fused with INS data in a dual Kinematic Kalman Filter (KKF). The first KKF (yaw KKF) predicts heading angle, bias in gyroscope and sideslip angle. The second KKF (velocity KKF) predicts longitudinal and lateral velocities as well as the accelerometer biases. Due to the multirate sampling, discontinuities in the estimated states occur, hence, a line interpolation algorithm of two different orders (i.e. linear and quadratic) are implemented into the KKF. Results show that the algorithm is able to reduce the discontinuities in the velocity predictions but with an increase in error when the sideslip saturates.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1478
Keiko Katsuragawa, Daisuke Saitoh, Takeshi Oono, Minoru Tomikashi
Natural speech contains a wide variety of expressions, making it much more difficult to recognize than specified verbal commands. We have developed a method using a language model template to generate language models capable of recognizing manifold expressions. This template method is designed on the basis of the modification structure of keywords. The evaluation results for a language model generated with this method showed that it allowed 630,000 command patterns with a high recognition rate of 96%. The results also revealed that the processing speed and memory used for speech recognition with this language model were at a practical level.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0168
Eric C. Sauck
At the forefront of intelligent vehicle technologies are vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). Their capabilities can be added to currently-available systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), to drastically decrease the number and severity of collisions, to ease traffic flow, and to consequently improve fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. There has been extensive government, industry, and academic involvement in developing these technologies. This paper explores the capabilities and challenges of vehicle-based technology and examines ways that policymakers can foster implementation at the federal, state, and local levels.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1482
Gao Zhenhai, Wang Bing
Vehicle lane keeping system is becoming a new research focus of drive assistant system except adaptive cruise control system. As we all known, vehicle lateral dynamics show strong nonlinear and time-varying with the variety of longitudinal velocity, especially tire’s mechanics characteristic will change from linear characteristic under low speed to strong nonlinear under high speed. For this reason, the traditional PID controller and even self-tuning PID controller, which need to know a precise vehicle lateral dynamics model to adjust the control parameter, are too difficult to get enough accuracy and the ideal control quality. Based on neural network’s ability of self-learning, adaptive and approximate to any nonlinear function, an adaptive PID control algorithm with BP neural network self-tuning online was proposed for vehicle lane keeping.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0067
Hiroshi Yokohama, Robert B. Randall
Tread-road friction was investigated with respect to road surface roughness using FEA. The surface roughness can be evaluated by the statistical parameters and functions such as standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and power spectral density, which could be obtained from the real surfaces. The roughness effect on rubber friction was verified by means of FEA with the application of the Gaussian/non-Gaussian surfaces, which comprise the given statistical parameters. At the same time the contact analysis is discussed with respect to the different types of rubber, the normal pressure, sliding speed and friction coefficient.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0068
Charles Gagliano, Matt Tondra, Bruce Fouts, Theo Geluk
As vehicle development timelines continue to shorten and more emphasis is put on simulating vehicle dynamic phenomena; the importance of having physically correct inputs increases. For modeling the road noise phenomena, there are some methods used in the industry such as application of experimental spindle forces or vertical displacements applied to the tire patch. Each of these has limitations with respect to absolute accuracy or dependency of the input on suspension characteristics. For accurate evaluation of new designs, an invariant input which can reproduce measured vehicle cabin response is beneficial. Specifically, it is desired that significant improvement can be made over the spindle force method. To this end, a tire model derived from experimental data has been developed, along with three degree of freedom tire patch input displacements.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1477
Alexander E. Smith
An innovative program is described to improve emergency vehicle deployment by automatically alerting all other nearby vehicles on the road as to the presence and intention of the emergency vehicle. Since the use of audible sirens has somewhat marked effectiveness nowadays, in selecting the most practical automated method to notify most drivers a review is given of the various data-links that are available today, including plans for new standards. The research presented concludes that use of today’s newer vehicle data-links is currently ineffective due to the fragmentation and, in many cases, low adoption rates, including satellite radio, HD and conventional radio, automatic cruise control radar, and vehicle telematics.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0429
David A. Coovert, Gary J. Heydinger, Ronald A. Bixel, Dale Andreatta, Dennis A. Guenther, Anmol S. Sidhu, David R. Mikesell
This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0888
Gene Dixon
This paper compares the follower profiles of transportation industry personnel with other industry groups, principally engineers and DOD personnel. In compiling the comparison, Chaleff’s courageous follower behaviors are used to identify the profiles and identify similarities and diversities. In addition, the paper reports on comparative analysis for follower behaviors, locus of control and the Big Five personality factors from a pilot study.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1544
Alan F. Asay, Ronald L. Woolley
Three full-size sedans were towed to highway speeds along a section of a remote rural highway. Upon release, an automated steering controller steered the vehicles through a series of maneuvers intended to result in rollover. Repeated attempts to roll each vehicle were made until rollover resulted. Non-rollover attempts produced cornering tire marks by the out-of-control vehicle. Out of numerous runs, 3 rollover and 2 non-rollover tests were selected for documentation and analysis. One additional steer-induced rollover test is presented that was conducted along a simulated road section at a closed test-track facility. All six tests presented are instrumented real-world type tests that were later reconstructed based upon the data obtained from on-board instrumentation, videotape, survey measurements, and still photographs obtained of each respective test.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0464
Eric Deyerl, Louis Cheng
This study examines through computer simulation the vehicle dynamics regime of vehicle entry into a travel lane via traversal of a vertical change in pavement elevation. A three-dimensional vehicle dynamics software package is used to model a vehicle as a six degree-of-freedom sprung mass with up to five degrees-of-freedom for each unsprung mass for each axle. The parameters of the simulator’s radial and sidewall tire force models are determined through correlation with full-scale vehicle traversal tests. The correlation parameters include vehicle speed, heading, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. The simulation is first calibrated by successfully modeling vehicle traversal of a pavement edge at shallow angles.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2860
Anita Teo, Kaushik Rajashekara, Jason Hill, Brian Simmers
The potential benefits offered by alternative aircraft taxiing methods without the use of the aircraft's main engines have attracted substantial interest in recent years from the aviation industry as well as the general public. Amongst the proposed aircraft taxiing methods, the electric wheel-drive concept has received the most media attention. As part of ongoing research and development into the More Electric Aircraft (MEA), a study has been conducted to examine the technical feasibility of an electric wheel-drive taxiing system using publicly available aircraft and runway coefficient data. The study shows the potential for overall mission fuel burn reductions, particularly for short haul aircraft with a relatively long taxi time.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0031
Toyohei (Tony) Nakajima
As demand for an accident free society intensifies, people have come to look to new technologies for solutions. This has facilitated development of a variety of advanced driver assist systems (ADAS). However, despite existing technologies, due to lack of standardizations and inability to asses the value of a system which cannot be understood without test driving, customers are left unable to make appropriate decisions when determining what kind of features to purchase. Furthermore, not all vehicles offer the same options. If we are to tackle the challenges from the customer's point of view, we must establish a standardized performance criterion that will help customers and furthermore challenge the auto industry to healthy competition by establishing clear playing fields. This paper will discuss possible solutions and suggestions for the industry to create an accident free society.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 1645