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Viewing 91 to 120 of 1650
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2303
Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Michele Trancossi, Dean Vucinic
The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1962
Robert Otto Rasmussen
Pavements complying with the ISO 10844 standard are an important component of vehicle and tire noise testing. In 2011, a new version of this standard was published, which includes many important changes compared to the 1994 version. As a result, some tracks that complied with the 1994 standard are now nonconforming with the 2011 version. Many tracks are in the process of being resurfaced, particularly before regulations are adopted that require conformance with the new version of the standard. While repaving is costly, it can also lead to opportunity. Pavement engineering encompasses pavement design, materials selection and proportioning, and the selection of construction techniques. Pavement life is also an important engineering criterion. In the case of test tracks, life is most often defined by functional performance including changes in friction, rolling resistance, ride, and in this instance, noise.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0621
Hidetoshi Imaizumi, Koji Sengoku
This paper clarifies influence rate of traffic-flow and eco-driving factors that have effect on on-road fuel economy and a case study was conducted to estimate the CO₂ reduction potential due to traffic-flow smoothing and eco-driving promotion by analyzing floating car data from throughout Japan. The data employed in the study was obtained from hybrid vehicles equipped with an Eco Assist system. Previous research has reported that repeated use of these vehicles enhances fuel economy by approximately 10%. First, multiple regression analysis was performed on the subject floating car data to obtain a polynomial with fuel economy as the explained variable and items related to traffic flow and eco-driving as the explanatory variables. Average travel speed was found to have the greatest effect on fuel economy.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0617
Jan-Mou Li, Zhiming Gao
It is rare for an attempt towards optimization at the fleet-level when consideration is given to the sheer number of seemingly unpredictable interactions among vehicles and infrastructure in congested urban areas. To close the gap, we introduce a simulation based framework to explore the impact of speed synchronization on fuel economy improvement for fleets in traffic. The framework consists of traffic and vehicle modules. The traffic module is used to simulate driver behavior in urban traffic; and the vehicle module is employed to estimate fuel economy. Driving schedule is the linkage between these two modules. To explore the impact, a connected vehicle technology sharing vehicle speed information is used for better fuel economy of a fleet including six vehicles. In all scenarios analyzed, the leading vehicle operates under the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), while the other five vehicles follow the leader consecutively.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0989
Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Youssef Bazzi, Oliver Cordes, Nizar Alholou, Malok alamir
Vehicles equipped with wireless communication technology, “Dedicated Short Range Communication” are a promising field for fuel optimization navigation applications. This paper presents a vehicle routing methodology modeled as a Petri Net (PN) for optimizing travel time and vehicle emission in a connected roadway network with minimal total traffic capacity to route vehicle in a dynamically changing traffic environment, and in an optimal and predictive manner. The novel unfolded PN model presented in this paper incorporates the essential features in Dynamic Programming (DP) to solve the stochastic traffic routing problem. The effectiveness of the proposed eco-friendly navigation methodology is validated by comparing the performance with conventional travel time based navigation methods.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0987
Tang Xinpeng
Two vehicles non-cooperation differential game model of the vehicle automatic tracking was established and the corresponding optimization control algorithm was proposed using the differential game's theory. Based on this method, the simulation was carried out with high speed ISO Lane Change, Sine Steer and low speed circular motion. The preliminary study result indicated that applied differential game's theory in the vehicles automatic tracking's research was completely feasible; the computation accuracy was also satisfying.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0728
Hadj Hamma Tadjine, Benedikt Schonlau, Robert Schwaiger, Klaus Krumbiegel
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0099
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanchai Dechanupaprittha
Normally, the energy conversion efficiency in road vehicle was presented in term of amount of unit fuel per distance within specific condition where it could not be comparable in practice that the variations of dynamic traffic condition and driver behavior were impacted. To minimized energy consumption, the both traffic conditions and driver behavior needs to be managed. The traffic conditions improves as infrastructure development, but the driver behavior needs personal training with equipment In this study, the alternative practical indicator was proposed with applying specific positive kinetic energy concept to indicate the level of vehicle dynamic behavior which relate to the level of fuel consumption rate. Furthermore, the experimental were taken place in Pahonyothin Rd. (Bangkok, Thailand) including urban, sub-urban and highway with various traffic congestion level.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0064
Pallavi Kharade, Krishnan Kutty
Traffic information is very useful in planning and designing of road transport, ensuring efficient administration of road traffic, transportation agencies as well as for the convenience of road users. Traffic can be measured in terms of speed, density and flow. In this paper, we propose two different methods to measure traffic in terms of density and flow. The set up for the proposed traffic monitoring system includes a camera placed at a height from ground looking downward on the road, such that its field of view is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the traffic. The images of the road are continuously captured by the camera and processed to determine the traffic. The first method uses Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) to detect vehicles. Density is calculated in terms of area occupied by the vehicles on the road. Another method of measuring the traffic flow is proposed that is based on calculation of edge points on a horizontal line drawn in the image.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0142
Arturo Davila, Eduardo del Pozo, Enric Aramburu, Alex Freixas
Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE), a research project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, has developed the technology and the strategy to create fully functional road trains that allow vehicle platoons to operate in public highways. The project intends to establish important concepts to show why platooning systems are a good way to increase safety and reduce pollution on tomorrow's highways. As part of the activities within the project, the authors performed fuel consumption simulations to estimate the fuel consumption reduction of the platoon due to the aerodynamics improvement. Dynamic simulations of the platoon behaviour in certain normal and emergency situations were also performed. Fuel consumption tests were also performed in companies proving grounds. These tests were performed using two trucks and three cars. Different platoon configurations were used, involving some or all the vehicles.
2012-11-25
Technical Paper
2012-36-0645
Ulf Sandberg
This paper summarizes a presentation that attempts to describe what has recently been done and is planned to be done to relieve the problem of traffic noise, with focus on tire/road noise emission. The paper shows that there is at the moment in Europe, Japan and in countries accepting ECE Regulations a quite intensive development aiming at reduction of road traffic noise, but with initial high ambition often ruined when it comes to the political process. The author thinks that it is likely that many Asian countries under fast development will adopt similar policies as Europe and Japan, although actual implementation may be slower than formal policies would suggest. This positive development applies to exterior noise from light vehicle power units, from car tires and from pavement properties. The exception is trucks and buses and their tires, which are left without significant improvement in the foreseeable future and thus may have an effect on the future perception of truck traffic.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9016
Robert W. Heller, Arun Krishnamurthy
The State of Florida initiated the SunGuide® Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) software development program in October 2003; that software is deployed in over 15 Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) throughout the major cities in Florida. One of SunGuide's biggest strengths is a software architecture that allows for short development times for new functionality. This paper describes the system design, implementation, and lessons learned from the development of the SunGuide Connected Vehicle Subsystem (CVS). The SunGuide CVS receives real-time speed, location, and heading data from instrumented vehicles and uses that data in a manner similar to its use of traffic detector data to provide information to the TMC. In addition to the vehicle providing data to the TMC, the TMC may create and publish Traveler Advisory Messages to the vehicle as part of the SunGuide Event Management response plans.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9018
Alberto Broggi
Many successful implementations of intelligent vehicles are using laser based technology to perceive the area around the vehicle, providing a dense 3D point cloud covering an extended range. However, such technology is still too expensive to be a candidate for series production, and its integration requirements are hardly compatible with cost and style constraints dictated by the mainstream automotive market. On the other hand computer vision is reaching close enough results in terms of sensing performance to be a viable alternative. Vision also brings additional advantages such as a much lower price and straighforward integration options. This paper presents a comparison of these two technologies.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9019
Eric Chan
Vehicles are increasingly being sold with partially automated systems in order to improve fuel consumption, safety or driver convenience. The SARTRE project is an EU FP7 project which brings together seven companies to explore how road trains, or platoons, can continue the trend of automation to bring benefits to fuel consumption, safety, congestion and driver convenience. In order to enable the introduction of such systems in the near future, the project is assuming that no changes to the road infrastructure will be required, and that any systems added to the vehicles are either already in production or are close to being in production. This paper provides an overview of the project and presents some of the preliminary results.
2012-05-16
Technical Paper
2012-36-0034
Pablo Yugo Yoshiura Kubo, Alan Eduardo Lan, Marcel Yoshimi Nemoto, Percival do Rosario Branco, Esequiel Biasi Rodrigues, Cassio Eduardo Lima de Paiva, Fabio Andreassa Guedes Cezar, Armando Marcelo Rivero de Stefani
The main objective of this paper is to present the different methods of pavement dimensioning, applied on the Brazilian roads, in order to compare the loads used in the calculation with a real application. It has been used a 4×2 vehicle with the maximum load distribution allowed in Brazil (6 tons in the front axle / 10 tons in the rear axle). It has been instrumented the rear axle with strain gauges to simulate it as a load cell. Measurements were done on a real urban application (Curitiba city - Brazil). Results showed significant differences between the load used in the Brazilian pavement dimensioning methodology and the dynamic vertical load, which could have a direct impact on the pavement lifetime. This paper was supported by three different agency / companies: UNICAMP, Volvo do Brasil and Meritor do Brasil Sistemas Automotivos Ltda.
2012-05-16
Technical Paper
2012-36-0003
Luiz A. Munari, Luan Fontanella, Leonardo Hoss, Rogerio J. Marczak
Transient dynamic analysis of vehicles riding pavements has became a reliable and important tool - whenever well carried out, in the durability and fatigue life evaluation of mechanical sub-components. Since a given vehicle or accessory is designed to operate on distinct types of terrain/roads, a detailed knowledge of these excitations is necessary for a realistic characterization of its effects over the structural parts. The most common form to obtain terrain profile is throughout profilometers installed on special vehicles. The amplitude vs. time signature of any terrain could then be used directly as the excitation applied to dynamic models, but this would restrict the analysis only to those terrains already measured and catalogued. The objective of the present work is to revist the generation of power spectrum density (PSD) functions aiming their usage as excitation on numerical dynamic models of vehicles.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0079
Sungjun Yoo
In this paper, the analysis has been made on the effect of the reduction of traffic accident following the installation of the red light camera. The survey was based on 2004 when the red light camera started on 13 signal intersections in 3 areas to analyze the number of accident occurrences for 2003 as pre-installation and 2005 to 2007 as the post-installation. Before and after installing the red light camera at each point, the on-site survey was made at the similar points of installed point and un-installed point, and as a result, the average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate would be shown to decline at the installed point compared to the un-installed point compared to the pre-installation of the red light camera for average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0292
Reza Azimi, Gaurav Bhatia, Raj Rajkumar, Priyantha Mudalige
Driving through intersections can be potentially dangerous because nearly 23 percent of the total automotive related fatalities and almost 1 million injury-causing crashes occur at or within intersections every year [1]. The impact of traffic intersections on trip delays also leads to waste of human and natural resources. Our goal is to increase the safety and throughput of traffic intersections using co-operative driving. In earlier work [2], we have proposed a family of vehicular network protocols, which use Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) technologies to manage a vehicle's movement at intersections Specifically, we have provided a collision detection algorithm at intersections (CDAI) to avoid potential crashes at or near intersections and improve safety. We have shown that vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications can be used to significantly decrease the trip delays introduced by traffic lights and stop signs.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0487
Isaac Olumide Coker
The Human Sensor Vehicle Traffic Control with In-vehicle Notification is a vehicle traffic preemption system that employs the Microsoft's Kinect technology to implement a real-time human controlled traffic override system through use of body gestures to control traffic light systems by a traffic warden and at the same time, broadcasts traffic control data right into vehicles equipped with appropriate receiving devices. This system is designed for use in both Fixed-Time and Dynamic controlled traffic systems. Basically, the present technology serves three purposes to wit: 1 Emergency Vehicle Traffic Preemption for Fire engines and Ambulances2 Alteration of traffic light systems based on varying traffic conditions such as time of day or for special circumstances such as major events or any other circumstances causing unusual traffic demands.3 Broadcast of traffic conditions to drivers right inside the vehicles.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0603
Duane R. Meyers, Timothy P. Austin
The importance of friction applications in the field of collision reconstruction is well recognized in published research. However, tire-road frictional drag values (μ-values) are partially dependent on the surface on which the tire is travelling. One such variable may be the intentional presence of sand upon a particular roadway. Sand is sometimes applied to dry pavement in an effort to absorb liquid debris that may have been accidentally spilled onto the surface. Once the sand has been applied, it may be left for a measureable time until the fluid has been absorbed. If a collision were to occur on that particular surface while the sand is in place, it may be difficult to determine an appropriate μ-value for the given scenario. In an attempt to examine the extent of friction reduction for both a passenger vehicle and a commercial truck on such a surface, testing was performed in a like condition.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0521
Bhaskar Chaturvedi, Timothy Gordon, Steven Karamihas
Suspension design is influenced by many factors, especially by vehicle dynamics performance in ride, handling and durability. In the global automotive industry it is common to “customize” or tune suspension parameters so that a vehicle is more acceptable to a different customer base and in a different driving environment. This paper seeks to objectively quantify certain aspects of tuning via ride optimization, taking account of market differences in road surface spectral properties and loading conditions. A computationally efficient methodology for suspension optimization is developed using stochastic techniques. A small (B-class) vehicle is chosen for the study and the following main suspension parameters are selected for optimization - spring stiffness, damping rate and vertical tire stiffness. The road is characterized as a stationary random process, using scaling and shaping filters representative of comparable roads in India and the USA.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2697
Claude Le Tallec, Antoine Joulia, Moshe Harel
The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks. The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0067
Arghya Sardar, Sajid Mubashir
Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0035
Takanori Yoshizawa, Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak, Masao Nagai
Highly-precise ego-localization and mapping techniques from the road shape features are key elements in order to realize an autonomous driving system for vehicle in urban area which has complex environments. The objective of this study is to develop an autonomous driving system based on mapping and ego-localization using a LIDAR. To handle curved path tracking scenario, this paper proposes a desired steering angle generator considering a constructed map using the LIDAR in real time combined with the feedback control of the preview lateral deviation. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified by simulation and test drives using the autonomous path tracking control system.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0060
Arturo Dávila, Mario Nombela
The SARTRE Project is an FP7 European collaborative project funded by the EC with the participation of 7 entities from 4 countries. The SARTRE project focuses on the design, set up, evaluation and validation of road train systems that do not require modification to the actual road infrastructure, making use of available technologies for in-vehicle applied systems. The SARTRE project will define a set of acceptable platooning strategies that will allow road trains to operate on public highways without changes to the road and roadside infrastructure therefore enhancing, developing and integrating technologies for a prototype platooning system such that the defined strategies can be assessed under real world scenarios. Also, the project will show how the use of platoons can lead to environmental, safety and congestion improvements.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0162
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1983
Kazuo Takeuchi, Peer Pfeilmaier, Yasuo Esaki, Eugine Choi
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1582
Paul R. Donavan, Alan Parrett, Dave Nielubowicz, Jinshuo Zhu
Developing common methods of noise evaluation and facilities can present a number of challenges in the area of tire/pavement noise. Some of the issues involved include the design and construction of pavements globally, the change in pavement over time, and variation in the noise produced with standard test tires used as references. To help understand and address these issues for airborne tire/pavement noise, acoustic intensity measurement methods based on the On-board Sound Intensity (OBSI) technique have been used. Initial evaluations have included measurements conducted at several different proving grounds. Also included were measurements taken on a 3m diameter tire noise dynamometer with surfaces replicating test track pavements. Variation between facilities appears to be a function of both design/construction and pavement age. Consistent with trends in the literature, for smooth asphalt surfaces, the newest surface produced levels lower than older surfaces.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 1650