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Viewing 271 to 300 of 1647
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1104
Steve Hsu, Abbas Rafii, David Hirvonen
This paper describes a high frame rate focal-plane-array range camera module, based on optical time-of-flight measurement, along with machine vision algorithms that take advantage of the real-time 3D information. The utility of such technology is demonstrated in an advanced backup safety system. This system detects obstacles lying on the ground as well as tracks moving objects. Using dual detection criteria, the system outperforms existing backup proximity sensors. Based on 3D imagery collected from a rear-viewing camera configuration, we evaluate the detection and tracking accuracy for varying object sizes and ranges. Operational experience shows that our time-of-flight range camera can be a cost-effective and reliable component of intelligent automotive safety and driver assist systems.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1103
Pär Degerman, Jochen Pohl, Magnus Sethson
The performance of a parking system is dependent on many factors. One is the placement of the sensors. In this paper a system which uses ultrasonic ranging sensors is considered. The mounting of a ultrasonic sensor on a passenger vehicle is restricted by, among other factors, design, assembly process, enclosure cost and reliability. All of which must be considered when choosing optimal mounting locations. The basis of this work includes a ray-trace based simulation environment which is used to capture the physical properties of sound traveling through air. The simulation environment together with sensor models, is used to evaluate the effect of different mounting positions on the accuracy of the detection of the parking space. The Hough transform is used here, as well as in the real system, in order to extract the confining lines of the parking space from the sensor measurements. The strength of these lines are then used to compare different sensor mounting locations.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1109
Yang Yi, Gu Zhengqi
In this paper, it is established the numerical model of federal Kalman filtering based on vehicle GPS/DR integrated location system. In order to resolve the shortcoming of the traditional federal Kalman filtering, a new method is presented in which the fuzzy logic system is combined with the traditional Kalman technology. This method can modify the statistical characteristic of noises on real time. It can not only modify the local filter but also bring forward a bran-new information fusion arithmetic which is applied to central filter. A fuzzy logic system is built to obtain different weights of the all states estimate values that are based on the actual circumstance and fuse these values. The acquisition of control rules and membership function of fuzzy controller usually rely to a great extent on empirical and heuristic knowledge. In this paper, genetic algorithm is used to optimize fuzzy logic controller and obtain the optimal or sub-optimal control rules.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1108
Guopei Liu, Denis Gingras
In positioning navigation systems, at any time, any of the sensors can break down or stop sending information, temporarily or permanently. To ensure a practical solution for use in guidance and navigation systems, faulty sensors must be detected and isolated such that their erroneous data will not corrupt the global position estimates. It is well known that Kalman filter is usually being used for data fusion applications. An interesting novel alternative is to use it for fault detection architecture as well. This paper describes the research conducted to evaluate the potential of combining fault detection and data fusion into a single architecture to make a robust positioning navigation system.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1107
Dengyue Li, Shengrui Wang, Wentao Cai, Zhen Mei
Searching the Location-Based Service (LBS) on the Internet, such as Yellow Pages, has the advantage to have the most updated information, for free (at least for the moment). Due to a number of limitations, mobile users still encounter many troubles when they use wireless device to perform online LBS searching. Providing a convenient access to the online LBS information for those wireless users is a challenging problem and also a business opportunity. In this paper, we focus on building intelligent agents to provide online LBS via wireless Internet accessing. Such an agent, based on address identification, can analyze the content of certain Web pages (ex. Yellow Pages) to search desired LBS information. We propose an ontology-based conceptual information retrieval approach combined with tree structure matching and the nearest neighbor methods to perform this task.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0736
George J. Hall, John Painter
Mining operations utilize haul trucks to transport raw earth materials for processing or disposal. When loaded haul trucks travel on or across a public roadway, some spillage of their load may occur. Clay soils, rock crusher dust, lime powder, or other such fine-grained earth materials that are hauled from mining operations, may contaminate a paved roadway and reduce the friction available to a braking vehicle. Skid tests using accelerometer-instrumented vehicles were conducted at 2 sites in separate states where surface mining operations had contaminated the road surface with fine-grained materials. At one site, representative material from the mining operation was spread on a section of pavement, wetted, tested 6 times, cleaned from the pavement by scraping with a front-end loader, then wetted and tested twice more. At the other site, the contaminated surface was tested in place during both wet and dry days.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0402
Jun Tsuchida, Setsuo Tokoro, Hiroaki Fujinami, Masayuki Usami
An obstacle recognition algorithm for the Pre-Crash Safety system has been newly developed with a stereo vision system and a millimeter wave radar with additional functions. This algorithm uses the merits of both the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system, and has two main features. One feature utilizes the merits of the stereo vision system detection with the detection results from the millimeter wave radar allowing for a more detailed horizontal position and width of the obstacle. This enables the equipment to operate at an earlier stage according to how well the relationship between the vehicle and the obstacle is understood. Another feature fuses detection from the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system. This system has succeeded in enhancing the detection performance of pedestrians who have been more difficult to detect than reflective objects such as cars.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0405
Masayuki Usami, Kenichi Ohue, Hideo Ikai, Mitsuhiko Ohta, Tomoyasu Tamaoki
In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1486
Simon Brewerton, Rolf Schneider, Denis Eberhard
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1488
Rolf Schneider, Manfred Kalhammer, Denis Eberhard, Simon Brewerton
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1498
André Peine, Matthias Schütz, Michael Armbruster, Eduard Zimmer, Matthias Lehmann, Henning Tjaden
Active assistance systems, which actively intervene before dangerous situations occur, make highest demands on the central control platform regarding reliability. The conflict of goals between required integrity of the data and availability of the control unit cannot be solved with state-of-the-art approaches in automotive electronics. The presented adaptation of well established fly-by-wire concepts to the needs of the automotive industry seems to be a very promising approach. The new type of redundancy management, high computational power, standardized HW-SW interfaces, as well as a flexible design for different applications and a “close to production” degree of maturity, make the presented controller truly a central control platform for all kind of active accident avoiding vehicles.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1317
Sunil G. Kakaye, Govind Kumar Binani, Jitendra S Mahajan
This paper describes a micro controller based electronic unit that senses the vehicle motion and controls the headlamp operation in low beam condition. It automatically switches “OFF” the headlights if vehicle is not in motion for more than the specified time. When vehicle starts moving, controller automatically switches “ON” the headlights again. Controller controls the operation of low beam of the headlight. Controller with the help of parking, ignition & RPM signal derives all the safe operating conditions Normally during night time in traffic junctions (Signals) or in other heavy traffic situations the headlights of the vehicle would be continuously “ON” even though the vehicle is not moving. This leads to unnecessary electrical load on engine in vehicle idling conditions and hence unnecessary consumption of fuel due to headlight “ON” condition.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1316
V. B. Pavlov, A. V. Popov, S. P. Gladyshev
In this paper we consider the questions of increasing the between-charge mileage (range) of electric vehicles and other vehicles with independent electrochemical power supplies. These are classified as hybrid vehicles, and can have various combinations of energy sources installed, such as: storage battery and electrical generator, driven by the engine, storage battery and solar panel, capacitor and electrical generator with engine, and others. The priorities for the development of the combined power supplies used now are considered and analyzed. On the basis of the power analysis of the combined power supply of the hybrid electro-mobile with a solar battery - of which the basic source of energy is the storage battery - the technique of defining the length of between-charge mileage of the vehicle is developed, depending on a combination of a set of parameters: both the components of the combined power supply, and the parameters of the electrical vehicle.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1315
Charles Desjardins, Pierre-Luc Grégoire, Julien Laumônier, Brahim Chaib-draa
Today's automotive transportation problems, mainly the poor efficiency of traffic and safety issues, are caused by the lack of collaboration between actors on the road. Those problems could be solved by helping drivers collaborate to make better decisions. The use of inter-vehicle communication could enable drivers to obtain more information about their local environment and about the intentions of other vehicles and thus could promote and enhance collaboration on the road. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) systems extend current work in vehicle control with communication and offer a promising solution centered on vehicle interactions. Still, due to the important number of possible interactions that need to be addressed, the design of a complete CACC system is a complex problem. As a solution, we present a CACC system based on a multi-layered architecture and centered on inter-vehicle communications.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1778
Young Woo Choi, Nam Kwon Jung, Jun Seok Choi, Kyong Won Moon
Telematics is about delivering electronic services to “connected” devices. This includes more than showing web content in a browser: It should be able to download and upgrade new services in a wireless environment. To this end, auto makers have applied an “open architecture software platform” in a car so that hopefully fast-moving software can be supplied to customers and a new business model can be created after a car release. WIPI (Wireless Internet Platform for Interoperability) is a set of standard specifications for the mobile platform made by the Mobile Platform Special Subcommittee of the Korea Wireless Internet Standardization Forum (KWISF). These are standardized for providing an environment for mounting and implementing application programs downloaded via the wireless Internet on the mobile communication terminal. These features make it possible for WIPI to be a solution for the telematics software platform.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1322
Ulrich Bueker, Ruediger Schmidt, Stefan Wiesner
This paper discusses an interior camera system, monitoring the driver's state, to extend the comfort as well as the safety of future vehicles. The system consists of a CMOS-based camera, illumination units in the near infrared spectrum, and a control unit. The software is able to measure head position and orientation and thereby calculates the field of view of the driver. In addition, it measures the driver's eyelid opening and is able to detect micro-sleep events and to estimate the driver's state of vigilance. While detection of drowsiness and distraction are safety related issues, the system is also able to enhance the convenience of the vehicle. Head position and orientation are used to automatically adjust the headrest and to dynamically adjust the mirrors to ensure an optimal view for the driver.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1318
Christoph Mayser, Joachim Steinle
Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) like e.g. distance control systems are more and more evolving in a variety of cars, and the goal is mainly to support the driver in his driving task in order to improve convenience. The strategic approach to DAS at BMW is outlined and resulting system functions are explained. The paper shows the specific design and implementation of systems that interact with the vehicle dynamics on the same level as the driver. Special emphasis is given to their interaction with the driver. Therefore the Human Machine Interaction is one of the focus points within the development process. BMW ensures the mode awareness of the driver by presenting the relevant information in optimized displays within the vehicle.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1319
Maxime Flament, Matthias Schulze, Tapani Mäkinen, Joachim Irion
The integrated project PReVENT takes a first comprehensive step towards realising the vision of a safety zone around vehicles by means of complementary safety functions. The foundation for requirements are laid in the analysis of driver behaviour and accidents, followed by a definition of functions needed from a vehicle to prevent the accident from happening or mitigating its consequences. As a result, the most critical accident scenarios are covered by the applications developed. Furthermore, a requirements database is created and requirements are classified into six main categories. A common PReVENT architecture is presented and highlighted by a sub-project focusing on lateral safety applications. Finally, the approach to further integrate individual preventive safety functions on a common platform is outlined.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1320
Shunji Miyahara
A method, which determines the range and lateral position of a preceding vehicle on the road by a single image, had been proposed. It is based on the Range-Window algorithm (RWA) and Pattern Matching (PM). The RWA estimates the range by using multiple virtual windows of fixed physical size at different distances. The size ratio between the windows and a preceding vehicle determines the best window. The associated range of the window will be the range of the vehicle. The PM complementarily estimates the range by using a template obtained through the RWA. It works especially well when an occlusion occurs due to shadows of road side objects. The range estimation is based on the use of horizontally-modified patterns of the template. Namely this PM can perform the range estimation as well as the object extraction. Here, for the real time operation, the calculation time of this method was evaluated after coding the RWA and PM into C-language (16 bit calculation) from Matlab (64 bit).
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1321
Riaz Sayed, Pierre Delaigue, Jeremy Blum, Ali Mortazavi, Azim Eskandarian
According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) speed-related traffic fatalities accounted for 31% of total fatalities on U.S. roadways in 2003. Traditional speed control methods suffer from significant shortcomings. Adaptation (ISA) systems hold the promise of safer roadways through improving driver compliance with speed limits. This paper describes the development of a new multi-modal speed adaptation system to be tested in the CISR car-driving simulator. The system is capable of adapting to the driver's driving style and provides appropriate warning for over speeding based on the vehicle speed, speed limit, driver individual preferences, and risk factor. A hierarchical manager module determines the warning strategy. The adequate warning strategy is specific to driving situations and individual characteristics. Modes of warnings being considered include VISUAL, and HAPTIC.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1707
Iain J. Smith, Daniel D. R. Lord
Friction Stir Welding (FSW), invented and patented by TWI in 1991, has given rise to a very large number of related patent filings. Over 1650 filings exist, although not all have succeeded in obtaining a patent. On the surface, it appears that lawyers, attorneys and government patent offices have benefited more from this invention than industry. The filings made cover the application of FSW to particular circumstances, new tooling ideas, products made by FSW, and improvements to the process. This paper reviews the growth in interest in FSW measured by both the real applications in industry and the distribution of related patent filings by time and geography. The key prior art documents and sources are also identified. Some case studies are presented of the most commonly occurring themes. Recommendations are made to help both the new and experienced users of FSW steer their way through the IP forest.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1711
Stephan Brummund, Christian Steup, Uwe Kiencke
In this paper two new approaches are presented how to partition an amount of functions distributed in automotive electronic systems. In contrast to common partitioning algorithms as Kernighan-Lin, Best-Gain-First, Simulated-Annealing, a.s.o., these algorithms are real multi-partitioning ones. With respect to ECU (electronic control unit) characteristics, the software functions to be partitioned will be allocated automatically onto the available hardware. Main motivation is the reduction of the resulting bus-load which is provoked by the communication between such functions. Moreover these algorithms optimize the final partitioning solution to achieve a reduced number of ECUs. Reducing bus-load and the number of ECUs can lead to significant cost reduction. In order to validate partitioning results, a CAN as well as a FlexRay model was developed in Matlab/Simulink determining the bus-load over time.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1714
Bryan Fleming, Jason Watson, Mark Pellerito, Huirong Fu
Inter-vehicle communication (IVC) is the next step in developing a coordinated vehicular transportation system. With today's concerns of security in Internet communications, it is critical that the security in IVC be considered. With its many life-depending implications it is crucial that an IVC system be tolerant of both natural and man-made interference. The goal of our research was to explore solutions to address the issues of security of IVC in spite of its vulnerability to Denial-of- Service (DoS) attacks, in which an attacker systematically or selectively jams the signals exchanged by the vehicles. We present proposed solutions to DoS attacks on IVC, as well as introduce additional concepts and ideas that help address this important problem.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0112
Shinichi Nakano, Tadao Shimada, Akira Nakaya, Mikio Dohmoto, Katsuhisa Nagata
In an effort to improve the technology of motorcycle safety, we have developed an advanced motorcycle using electronic control and information communication technologies. The Motorcycle AFS (Adaptive Front-lighting System) measures the bank angle and rotates the headlight to the rolling direction. As a result, the AFS improves the visibility of a motorcycle that is cornering at nighttime. The Motorcycle Night Vision System early detects pedestrians ahead at nighttime by using an infrared camera. This system captures infrared camera images that are not visible to the naked eye, extracts the figure of pedestrians by image processing, and provides the rider with the information on the presence of detected pedestrians.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3541
Carl P. Evans, Robert J. Watts
Abstract In September 2005 the United States Army's Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) instituted a ground mobility, robotics systems integration and evaluation laboratory: the TARDEC Robotics Skunk Works. The goal of this laboratory is to integrate and assess new and developing unmanned systems technologies to support efficient transitioning of the technologies to ATO and PM/PEO programs. The first unmanned system to enter the TARDEC Robotics Skunk Works will be the Tactical Amphibious Ground Support System - Common eXperimental (TAGS-CX). Key development design requirements for this modified COTS platform, which weighs less than 2 tons, include modularity and interoperability of ground robot systems and mission payloads.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3540
Roy McCann, Son Nguyen
The increasing numbers of paved roadways throughout the world have motivated the development of automated methods of assessing road pavement conditions. A method of developing an automated profiling vehicle that can rapidly acquire and accurately determine road roughness levels is presented. It is shown that it is important to compensate for the chassis dynamics in order to minimize the effects of suspension system interactions when computing the road roughness level. Experimental results from a prototype vehicle are detailed where the effectiveness of the vehicle design method is demonstrated.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3486
Kouichi Okamoto, Toshiki Ezoe, Shuuji Narada, Ichinose Naosi, Masahiko Hirano, Koichi Fujita
In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-21-0084
Utayba Mohammad, Nizar Al-Holou, Rami Baroody
Over 42,000 deaths have occurred on highways in the United States during calendar year 2002 [1]. One way to achieve a safe highway environment is using a communication system that allows all vehicles on the highway or road to share their data so they can warn each other about dangerous situations and plan for safe driving activities. One problem to be addressed in such a system is dividing the vehicles on the highway into groups-of-interest, where vehicles that may need cooperation among each other to perform safe driving maneuvers comprise a group-of-interest. This paper proposes a location matrix-based algorithm to define the peer space (group-of-interest); that is, vehicles on the highway are encapsulated in matrices, and all maneuvers are planned in a cellular fashion using the Dynamic Service Discovery (DSD) -based Jini protocol as an ad-hoc network communication protocol.
2006-08-30
Technical Paper
2006-01-2429
Mark D. Moore
Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
2006-08-30
Technical Paper
2006-01-2430
Andrew S. Hahn
Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 1647