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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1647
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1901
Christian Glandier, Stefanie Grollius
Abstract This paper presents the application to full vehicle finite element simulation of a steady state rolling tire/wheel/cavity finite element model developed in previous work and validated at the subsystem level. Its originality consists in presenting validation results not only for a wheel on a test bench, but for a full vehicle on the road. The excitation is based on measured road data. Two methods are considered: enforced displacement on the patch centerline and enforced displacement on a 2D patch mesh. Finally the importance of taking the rotation of the tire into account is highlighted. Numerical results and test track measurements are compared in the 20-300 Hz frequency range showing good agreement for wheel hub vibration as well as for acoustic pressure at the occupant’s ears.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1890
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Manchuang Zhang, Sanbao Hu
Abstract H-Bahn ("hanging railway") refers to the suspended, unmanned urban railway transportation system. Through the reasonable platform layout, H-Bahn can be easily integrated into the existing urban transit system. With the development of urban roads, the associated rail facilities can be conveniently disassembled, moved and expanded. The track beam, circuits, communication equipment, and sound insulation screen are all installed in a box-type track beam so that the system can achieve a high level of integration and intelligence. The carriage of the modern H-banh vehicle is connected with the bogies by two hanging devices. The vehicle is always running in the box-type track beam; therefore there are less possibilities of derailment. Consequently, the key work focuses on the running stability evaluation and curve negotiation performance analysis.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1863
Bhaskar Avutapalli, Mayuresh Pathak, Shalini Solipuram, Ken Buczek, Aaron Lock
Abstract Road noise and speech intelligibility are becoming ever more important, irrespective of the vehicle size, due to vehicle refinement as well as connectivity with mobile communication equipment. With better aerodynamic designs, development of refined powertrains, and a tectonic shift from I.C. engine to electric motors, road noise and wind noise will become more apparent to the customer and hence will become a priority for automakers to refine their vehicles. This paper describes the efforts undertaken to identify the road noise paths and develop countermeasures for a compact SUV vehicle. A hybrid test/CAE approach was followed to improve road noise performance of this vehicle. This effort involved developing tire CAE models from physical hardware and creating synthesized road-load input from data taken on roads.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1730
Gridsada Phanomchoeng, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Nowadays, the tendency of people using bicycles as the way of transportation has increased as well as the tendency of the bicycle accidents. According to the research of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), National Survey on Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitude and Behavior, the major root causes of bicycle accidents are from the road surface condition. Thus, this work has developed the system to detect the road surface condition. The system utilizes the laser and camera to measure the height of road. Then, with the information of the road height and bicycle speed, the road surface condition can be classified into 3 categories due to severe condition of the road. For the secure road, cyclists could safely ride on it. For the warning road, cyclists need to slow down the speed. Lastly, for the dangerous road, cyclists have to stop their bicycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Abstract Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are tested. Using a 3D virtual environment to enable testing of many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or cluster significantly reduces the amount of required road tests. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, a shared memory interface between MATLAB, Simulink, and Unreal Engine 4 can send information (such as vehicle control signals) back to the virtual environment. The shared memory interface conveys arbitrary numerical data, RGB image data, and point cloud data for the simulation of LiDAR sensors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0104
Maryam Moosaei, Yi Zhang, Ashley Micks, Simon Smith, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali
Abstract In this work, we outline a process for traffic light detection in the context of autonomous vehicles and driver assistance technology features. For our approach, we leverage the automatic annotations from virtually generated data of road scenes. Using the automatically generated bounding boxes around the illuminated traffic lights themselves, we trained an 8-layer deep neural network, without pre-training, for classification of traffic light signals (green, amber, red). After training on virtual data, we tested the network on real world data collected from a forward facing camera on a vehicle. Our new region proposal technique uses color space conversion and contour extraction to identify candidate regions to feed to the deep neural network classifier. Depending on time of day, we convert our RGB images in order to more accurately extract the appropriate regions of interest and filter them based on color, shape and size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0103
Thomas Beyerl, Bernard Ibru, Charvi Popat, Deborah Ojo, Alexander Bakus, Jessica Elder, Valentin Soloiu
Abstract Autonomous vehicles must possess the capability to navigate complex intersections, which do not conform to typical models. Such intersections may have multiple roadways of different classes, highly acute angles, or unique multi-modal combinations. These may include railway grade crossings, bicycle lanes, or unique signal arrangements. Conventional navigation systems, which gather data from the surrounding area then plan a path through the collected data require faultless and complex analysis of extremely unstructured environments. The vehicle must then avoid obstacles as well as successfully navigate the intersection with extremely low tolerance for error. Computer decision making challenges can arise from this method of navigation, especially when interacting with non-autonomous vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0111
Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
Abstract As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
Abstract In this work, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) capabilities combined with classical autonomous vehicles’ on-board sensors (Camera) are used to trigger a Comfortable Emergency Brake (CEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve CEB in two phases, the Automated Comfortable Brake (ACB) and the full stop Automated Emergency Brake (AEB). The ACB is triggered first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the Camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop AEB. In the automated vehicle, the current traffic light color and duration received in the SPaT message is parsed; and compared with the TLD output for color matching.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
Abstract The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system (CPS) Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized regulatory rules, vehicles, infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring, active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users, traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0089
Antonio D'Amato, Fabrizio Donatantonio, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Abstract Road topography has a remarkable impact on vehicle fuel consumption for both passenger and heavy duty vehicles. In addition, erroneous or non-optimized scheduling of both velocity set-point and gear shifting may be detrimental for fuel consumption and performance. Recent technologies have made road data, such as elevation or slope, either available or measurable on board, thus making possible the exploitation of this additional information in innovative controllers. The aim of this paper is the development of a smart, fuel-economy oriented controller adapting cruising speed and engaged gear to current road load (i.e. local slope). Unlike traditional cruise controllers, the velocity set-point is not constant, but it is set by applying a mathematical transformation of the current slope, accounting for the mission time duration as well.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0094
Soodeh Dadras
Abstract In recent years, navigation and guidance of autonomous vehicles get daily increasing attention from people in both research and manufacturing due to its potential applications such as automated highways, urban transportation, etc. Leading automotive companies are looking for algorithms and control designs for vehicles to follow desired path. We proposed a novel control for autonomous vehicle where the classical extremum seeking scheme is modified to address the problem of path tracking of an autonomous ground vehicle. This technique utilizes a Fractional Order Extremum Seeking Controller (FO-ESC) in order to control a non-holonomic autonomous ground vehicle to track the behavior of the predefined reference path. The designed FO-ESC controller has shown the significant capability of the autonomous ground vehicle to track the desired path. We showed the performances of fractional order and integer order controller through simulation results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0093
Balachander Dhanavanthan
Abstract Radio Frequency (RF) propagation in vehicular environments exhibits major transformations from indoor, outdoor and farmland multipath environments. The innovative advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has made it necessary to recognise and predict the RF propagation losses for WSNs in vehicular environments. Very few models exist for network planning and deployment in vehicular environments. All of these models need an extensive statistical estimations and an in-depth knowledge of the vehicular environment. In this paper a different approach has been pursued and as a first step is to evaluate the factors which affect RF propagation in vehicular environments and how these factors affect each other while predicting propagation losses in vehicular environments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0082
Yazhe Hu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a system designed to develop a high-resolution map of public roads by capturing high-resolution surface images. Unlike conventional system, the proposed system applies a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to synchronize camera, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Global Positioning System (GPS) by using FPGA’s high clock frequency and flexibility to multiple devices. The proposed system, which can be mounted on a regular vehicle, contains a Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS) camera which can achieve 0.006 ms shutter speed and 150 fps frame rate. This camera’s high shutter speed and high frame rate can help capturing images with overlapping region at fast driving speed so that no area is missing from road surface image capturing.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0083
Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0086
Matteo Muratori, Jacob Holden, Michael Lammert, Adam Duran, Stanley Young, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as a means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption – and related emissions – while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, which are currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Wanyang Xia, Yahui Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Xianyao Ping, Benlong Liu
Abstract Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0087
Jiaqi Ma, Erin Clausing, Yimin Liu
Abstract It is estimated that up to 30% of traffic in cities is due to drivers searching for parking. Research suggests that drivers spend an average of 6-14 minutes looking for an available space in London. This increases individual stress levels as well as congestion and pollution. Parking Guidance Systems provide an effective way to reduce parking search time by presenting drivers with dynamic information on parking. An accurate prediction and recommendation analytics algorithm is the key part of the system combining real time cloud-based analytics and historical data trends that can be integrated into a smart parking user application. This paper develops a prediction algorithm based on transient queuing theory and Laplace transform to predict parking occupancy thus predicting open parking locations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Abstract Today, automated vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, we are currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X-based applications based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC). Moreover, the novel application intersection priority management (IPM) is part of the research project. IPM aims at automating intersections in such a way that vehicles can pass safely and even more efficiently without the use of traffic lights or signs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Yu Tang
Abstract Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0410
Aref M. A. Soliman
Abstract Although active suspension improved vehicle ride comfort, their two main drawbacks are the required high component costs and energy input levels for active suspension. The semi-active and twin accumulator suspensions are proposed which addresses these two drawbacks. Ride performances for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active are examined theoretically using half vehicle model. The power consumed in rolling resistance and power dissipation in suspension for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems are evaluated. The effect of road disturbance on the vehicle ride performance for twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems is studied. The rolling resistance power losses are also investigated. The results showed that the optimum twin accumulator suspension system over all road roughness/speed conditions would have adaptable spring stiffness and damping coefficients which could be changed depending on the road conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0415
Xingxing Feng, Peijun Xu, Penglei Fu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This work is motivated by the fact that the surface of a terrain may vary with local pavement properties and number of passes of the vehicle, which means the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain may vary in specific intervals. However, in traditional random terrain models, the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are assumed as constants. Therefore, this assumption may be not very reasonable. A novel random terrain model is presented where the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are expressed by interval numbers instead of constants. A 5-degree-of-freedom ride dynamic model of the vehicle with uncertain parameters is derived. The power spectral density (PSD) and root mean square value (RMS) of the vehicle ride responses are shown and analyzed. Analysis results indicate that the vehicle responses vary in specific intervals under the random terrain excitation with interval parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Abstract Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary (ground side) and secondary (vehicle side) coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. However, despite the requisite need for a plausible estimation algorithm, the lack of a simple, optimal and unsusceptible to noise algorithm is noticeable. In this paper, we introduce a new online optimal prediction method for IPT systems allowing a precise real time estimation of the coupling coefficient in the presence of measurement noises and system uncertainties. Using IPT system dynamics, the estimation scheme is proposed based on Kalman filter algorithm. This algorithm is optimal, tractable and robust and its estimation are promising as simulation results reveal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
Abstract A variety of vehicle controls, from active safety systems to power management algorithms, can greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust real-time estimates of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation scheme and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration as measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiation of the undriven wheel speeds. Mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1433
Enrique Bonugli, Joseph Cormier, Matthew Reilly, Lars Reinhart
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and ‘typical’ roadway surfaces. Motorcycle helmet impacts into asphalt and concrete surfaces were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impact testing. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate an off-centered oblique collision. Helmeted Hybrid III ATD head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. The study was limited to a single helmet model and impact angle (30 degrees). Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and concrete in magnitude, duration and onset.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1647