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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1473
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0463
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time. To ensure safe, efficient and equitable access to the diverse spectrum of transit riders, transit system design needs approaches that transcend existing minimum federal accessibility design standards.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2007
Arturo Davila, Adria Ferrer
Abstract In recent years, platooning emerged as a realistic configuration for semi-autonomous driving. In the SARTRE project, simulation and physical tests were performed to validate the platooning system not only in testing facilities but also in conventional highways. Five vehicles were adapted with autonomous driving systems to have platooning functionalities, enabling to perform platoon tests and assess the feasibility, safety and benefits. Although the tested system was in a prototype, it demonstrated sturdiness and good functionality, allowing performing conventional road tests. First of all the fuel consumption decreased up to 16% in some configurations and different gaps between the vehicles were tested in order to establish the most suitable for platooning in terms of safety and economy. Additionally, the platooning technology enables a new level of safety in highways. Around 85% of the accident causation is the human factor. With platooning, the human factor is reduced almost entirely, making it a more efficient and safer system.
2014-01-15
Technical Paper
2013-01-9094
Waleed Faris, Hesham Rakha, Salah A.M. Elmoselhy
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions has led to new vehicle emissions standards which in turn have led to a call for vehicle technologies to meet these standards. Modeling of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions emerged as an effective tool to help in developing and assessing such technologies, to help in predicting aggregate vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, and to complement traffic simulation models. The paper identifies the current state of the art on vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and its utilization to test the environmental impact of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)’ measures and to evaluate transportation network improvements. The study presents the relevant models to ITS in the key classifications of models in this research area. It demonstrates that the trends of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions provided by current models generally do satisfactorily replicate field data trends. It shows as well that microscopic modeling is the most accurate type of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and macroscopic modeling is most helpful in estimating aggregate emissions inventories.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0108
Carlos Bustamante, Eduard Mateu, Jesús Hernández, Álvaro Arrúe
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks. Conversely, high speed cameras for assisted and indirect vision, virtual fencing systems, cooperative machines control suites, fleet management, task control aspects integration, and real time controls, are just some of the useful functions that could gain from a Ethernet based distributed control in heavy duty machines.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2303
Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Michele Trancossi, Dean Vucinic
The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission. While the traditional constructal method performs an optimization with a down-to-top approach, it produces an optimization process in two stages: the first one defines the optimal characteristics of the system understood as a unitary system to achieve the desired performances; the second analyzes the subsystems, examining those most disadvantaged, in order to optimize its performance for the desired goal.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application. Furthermore this flexibility could pave the way to a significant reduction of investment costs since it could allow the revamping of obsolete vehicles in the fleet of public transportation companies, extending their end of life.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0989
Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Youssef Bazzi, Oliver Cordes, Nizar Alholou, Malok alamir
Vehicles equipped with wireless communication technology, “Dedicated Short Range Communication” are a promising field for fuel optimization navigation applications. This paper presents a vehicle routing methodology modeled as a Petri Net (PN) for optimizing travel time and vehicle emission in a connected roadway network with minimal total traffic capacity to route vehicle in a dynamically changing traffic environment, and in an optimal and predictive manner. The novel unfolded PN model presented in this paper incorporates the essential features in Dynamic Programming (DP) to solve the stochastic traffic routing problem. The effectiveness of the proposed eco-friendly navigation methodology is validated by comparing the performance with conventional travel time based navigation methods.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0987
Tang Xinpeng
Two vehicles non-cooperation differential game model of the vehicle automatic tracking was established and the corresponding optimization control algorithm was proposed using the differential game's theory. Based on this method, the simulation was carried out with high speed ISO Lane Change, Sine Steer and low speed circular motion. The preliminary study result indicated that applied differential game's theory in the vehicles automatic tracking's research was completely feasible; the computation accuracy was also satisfying.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0728
Hadj Hamma Tadjine, Benedikt Schonlau, Robert Schwaiger, Klaus Krumbiegel
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0621
Hidetoshi Imaizumi, Koji Sengoku
This paper clarifies influence rate of traffic-flow and eco-driving factors that have effect on on-road fuel economy and a case study was conducted to estimate the CO₂ reduction potential due to traffic-flow smoothing and eco-driving promotion by analyzing floating car data from throughout Japan. The data employed in the study was obtained from hybrid vehicles equipped with an Eco Assist system. Previous research has reported that repeated use of these vehicles enhances fuel economy by approximately 10%. First, multiple regression analysis was performed on the subject floating car data to obtain a polynomial with fuel economy as the explained variable and items related to traffic flow and eco-driving as the explanatory variables. Average travel speed was found to have the greatest effect on fuel economy. In order to calculate the potential reduction in CO₂ emissions, the distributions of the explanatory variables were set for present conditions and assumed conditions of smoother traffic flow and more eco-driving promotion.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0617
Jan-Mou Li, Zhiming Gao
It is rare for an attempt towards optimization at the fleet-level when consideration is given to the sheer number of seemingly unpredictable interactions among vehicles and infrastructure in congested urban areas. To close the gap, we introduce a simulation based framework to explore the impact of speed synchronization on fuel economy improvement for fleets in traffic. The framework consists of traffic and vehicle modules. The traffic module is used to simulate driver behavior in urban traffic; and the vehicle module is employed to estimate fuel economy. Driving schedule is the linkage between these two modules. To explore the impact, a connected vehicle technology sharing vehicle speed information is used for better fuel economy of a fleet including six vehicles. In all scenarios analyzed, the leading vehicle operates under the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), while the other five vehicles follow the leader consecutively. Every follower in the fleet was governed by a driver behavior model and their desired speeds may be adjusted according to received speed information of the leading vehicle.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0099
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanchai Dechanupaprittha
Normally, the energy conversion efficiency in road vehicle was presented in term of amount of unit fuel per distance within specific condition where it could not be comparable in practice that the variations of dynamic traffic condition and driver behavior were impacted. To minimized energy consumption, the both traffic conditions and driver behavior needs to be managed. The traffic conditions improves as infrastructure development, but the driver behavior needs personal training with equipment In this study, the alternative practical indicator was proposed with applying specific positive kinetic energy concept to indicate the level of vehicle dynamic behavior which relate to the level of fuel consumption rate. Furthermore, the experimental were taken place in Pahonyothin Rd. (Bangkok, Thailand) including urban, sub-urban and highway with various traffic congestion level. In addition, the 2010-model Honda CRV 2.0l was selected as experimental vehicle with on-board combustion rate equipment for actual fuel consumption measurements.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0064
Pallavi Kharade, Krishnan Kutty
Traffic information is very useful in planning and designing of road transport, ensuring efficient administration of road traffic, transportation agencies as well as for the convenience of road users. Traffic can be measured in terms of speed, density and flow. In this paper, we propose two different methods to measure traffic in terms of density and flow. The set up for the proposed traffic monitoring system includes a camera placed at a height from ground looking downward on the road, such that its field of view is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the traffic. The images of the road are continuously captured by the camera and processed to determine the traffic. The first method uses Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) to detect vehicles. Density is calculated in terms of area occupied by the vehicles on the road. Another method of measuring the traffic flow is proposed that is based on calculation of edge points on a horizontal line drawn in the image. Both these methods determine the traffic flow in terms of number of vehicles per unit time.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0142
Arturo Davila, Eduardo del Pozo, Enric Aramburu, Alex Freixas
Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE), a research project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, has developed the technology and the strategy to create fully functional road trains that allow vehicle platoons to operate in public highways. The project intends to establish important concepts to show why platooning systems are a good way to increase safety and reduce pollution on tomorrow's highways. As part of the activities within the project, the authors performed fuel consumption simulations to estimate the fuel consumption reduction of the platoon due to the aerodynamics improvement. Dynamic simulations of the platoon behaviour in certain normal and emergency situations were also performed. Fuel consumption tests were also performed in companies proving grounds. These tests were performed using two trucks and three cars. Different platoon configurations were used, involving some or all the vehicles. Also, different leading vehicles were used to study the importance of the leading vehicle geometry in the fuel consumption results.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9018
Alberto Broggi
Many successful implementations of intelligent vehicles are using laser based technology to perceive the area around the vehicle, providing a dense 3D point cloud covering an extended range. However, such technology is still too expensive to be a candidate for series production, and its integration requirements are hardly compatible with cost and style constraints dictated by the mainstream automotive market. On the other hand computer vision is reaching close enough results in terms of sensing performance to be a viable alternative. Vision also brings additional advantages such as a much lower price and straighforward integration options. This paper presents a comparison of these two technologies.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9016
Robert W. Heller, Arun Krishnamurthy
The State of Florida initiated the SunGuide® Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) software development program in October 2003; that software is deployed in over 15 Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) throughout the major cities in Florida. One of SunGuide's biggest strengths is a software architecture that allows for short development times for new functionality. This paper describes the system design, implementation, and lessons learned from the development of the SunGuide Connected Vehicle Subsystem (CVS). The SunGuide CVS receives real-time speed, location, and heading data from instrumented vehicles and uses that data in a manner similar to its use of traffic detector data to provide information to the TMC. In addition to the vehicle providing data to the TMC, the TMC may create and publish Traveler Advisory Messages to the vehicle as part of the SunGuide Event Management response plans. The Connected Vehicle component implementation was timed to enable demonstration as part of the 2011 ITS World Congress (WC2011) outdoor showcase.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9019
Eric Chan
Vehicles are increasingly being sold with partially automated systems in order to improve fuel consumption, safety or driver convenience. The SARTRE project is an EU FP7 project which brings together seven companies to explore how road trains, or platoons, can continue the trend of automation to bring benefits to fuel consumption, safety, congestion and driver convenience. In order to enable the introduction of such systems in the near future, the project is assuming that no changes to the road infrastructure will be required, and that any systems added to the vehicles are either already in production or are close to being in production. This paper provides an overview of the project and presents some of the preliminary results.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0292
Reza Azimi, Gaurav Bhatia, Raj Rajkumar, Priyantha Mudalige
Driving through intersections can be potentially dangerous because nearly 23 percent of the total automotive related fatalities and almost 1 million injury-causing crashes occur at or within intersections every year [1]. The impact of traffic intersections on trip delays also leads to waste of human and natural resources. Our goal is to increase the safety and throughput of traffic intersections using co-operative driving. In earlier work [2], we have proposed a family of vehicular network protocols, which use Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) technologies to manage a vehicle's movement at intersections Specifically, we have provided a collision detection algorithm at intersections (CDAI) to avoid potential crashes at or near intersections and improve safety. We have shown that vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications can be used to significantly decrease the trip delays introduced by traffic lights and stop signs. In this paper, we investigate the use of more realistic controller models and higher concurrency to improve V2V intersection protocols for autonomous driving at intersections.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0079
Sungjun Yoo
In this paper, the analysis has been made on the effect of the reduction of traffic accident following the installation of the red light camera. The survey was based on 2004 when the red light camera started on 13 signal intersections in 3 areas to analyze the number of accident occurrences for 2003 as pre-installation and 2005 to 2007 as the post-installation. Before and after installing the red light camera at each point, the on-site survey was made at the similar points of installed point and un-installed point, and as a result, the average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate would be shown to decline at the installed point compared to the un-installed point compared to the pre-installation of the red light camera for average speed of vehicle, dispersion and signal violation rate. This type of result is attributable to have the influence on the safety improvement of the intersection by reducing the signal violation rate with the difference of speed and running speed known to have great influence to the traffic accidents.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0487
Isaac Olumide Coker
The Human Sensor Vehicle Traffic Control with In-vehicle Notification is a vehicle traffic preemption system that employs the Microsoft's Kinect technology to implement a real-time human controlled traffic override system through use of body gestures to control traffic light systems by a traffic warden and at the same time, broadcasts traffic control data right into vehicles equipped with appropriate receiving devices. This system is designed for use in both Fixed-Time and Dynamic controlled traffic systems. Basically, the present technology serves three purposes to wit: 1 Emergency Vehicle Traffic Preemption for Fire engines and Ambulances2 Alteration of traffic light systems based on varying traffic conditions such as time of day or for special circumstances such as major events or any other circumstances causing unusual traffic demands.3 Broadcast of traffic conditions to drivers right inside the vehicles. In most urban locations, traffic is usually unpredictable and pre-programmed traffic light system always fail to cater for the demand of adjustability based on prevailing traffic situation per time per intersection.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2697
Claude Le Tallec, Antoine Joulia, Moshe Harel
The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks. The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management. A systematic and innovative approach has been developed and implemented within the PPlane project in order to understand and analyze customers' needs and to propose novel ideas for a Personal Air Transport System (PATS).
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0067
Arghya Sardar, Sajid Mubashir
Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis. It is also essential to evaluate the impact on grid, and the charging infrastructure required.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0035
Takanori Yoshizawa, Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak, Masao Nagai
Highly-precise ego-localization and mapping techniques from the road shape features are key elements in order to realize an autonomous driving system for vehicle in urban area which has complex environments. The objective of this study is to develop an autonomous driving system based on mapping and ego-localization using a LIDAR. To handle curved path tracking scenario, this paper proposes a desired steering angle generator considering a constructed map using the LIDAR in real time combined with the feedback control of the preview lateral deviation. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified by simulation and test drives using the autonomous path tracking control system.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0060
Arturo Dávila, Mario Nombela
The SARTRE Project is an FP7 European collaborative project funded by the EC with the participation of 7 entities from 4 countries. The SARTRE project focuses on the design, set up, evaluation and validation of road train systems that do not require modification to the actual road infrastructure, making use of available technologies for in-vehicle applied systems. The SARTRE project will define a set of acceptable platooning strategies that will allow road trains to operate on public highways without changes to the road and roadside infrastructure therefore enhancing, developing and integrating technologies for a prototype platooning system such that the defined strategies can be assessed under real world scenarios. Also, the project will show how the use of platoons can lead to environmental, safety and congestion improvements. The project bases the functionality of the platooning system in safety improvements from autonomous control systems to be used in lead vehicles (trucks) and following vehicles (trucks, cars, SUVs).
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0162
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast. The ability to effectively interpret this traffic and weather data to estimate the power demand is important for the energy management and plays crucial role in the battery utilization.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-39-7217
Gaku Sone
Nissan LEAF that is a new model of an Electric Vehicle has dedicated IT system as standard equipment. Concept of this IT system, Services provided to owners and technical solutions to be introduced.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0499
Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang
The Taipei Metro is one of the major transportation systems in the Taipei area. Noticeable noise and vibration caught attention during the train turning on a rail with a large angle. The initial investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets which are located between the body and chassis systems. A study was conducted to identify the root causes. A lab test to duplicate the reported problem observed on the train was established, and a set of experiments were performed in the lab to identify the root causes. Under certain contact conditions, unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. To further identify and understand the root causes. An ADAMS multibody dynamic model which included the slew bearing and friction set was build to perform the train turn motion, and to verify the lab test. Different friction materials were also included in the simulation. The simulation suggested that the vibration can be effectively reduced by ceramic compound friction materials.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0528
T. A. Heleno, P. B. Salazar, J. G. Slama
With the growth of urban areas, the areas adjacent to airports are becoming densely inhabited, causing a big problem known as encroachment. The encroachment occurs when a significant portion of the population is submitted to the adverse effects of noise, even outside the areas of restricted use established by the airport zoning. The metric used for the airport zoning in many countries and in Brazil is the DNL (Day Night Level). This metric is associated to the average sound energy produced by all aeronautical events during a period of 24 hours, with weighting of 10 dB(A) during the night. However, the use of DNL for airport zoning can lead to different results for noise levels, daytime and nighttime, depending on the seasonality of airport activity in those periods. The paper proposes a study of alternatives for the airport zoning based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT/NBR 10151. It also presents a comparative analysis between the indices of encroachment through a Geographic Information System for two Brazilian airports: the Congonhas Airport and the Recife Airport, aiming to adjust the municipal zoning to the airport zoning.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1473