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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1485
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
Abstract Our study unveils what smart cars are needed to minimize congestion by traffic stability. We have previously considered pacer cars with single lane road networks based on a car following model, e.g. adaptive cruise control (ACC). However, pacer cars may have a limitation with multi-lane roadways in terms of lane distribution of traffic and shockwave suppression. Therefore, we motivate building a new smart car which extends the capability of pacer cars allowing lane changing at the timing of congestion detection. In essence, the congestion detection plays a role of adjusting the (time) headway of smart cars to determine whether lane changes should be undertaken. Lane changes can be used to uniformize (or equalize) lane distribution for traffic (flow) stability. Our simulation study has suggested that the proposed smart cars enforce the capability of traffic stability more than manual and pacer cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0282
Emrah Adamey, Guchan Ozbilgin, Umit Ozguner
Abstract Vehicle tracking problem is of crucial importance in intelligent vehicles research, as it is amongst the basic components of any comprehensive situation awareness technology. In mixed-traffic environments, where vehicles with varying degrees of sensing and communication capabilities coexist, the vehicle-tracking problem becomes particularly more demanding. In this paper, a collaborative vehicle tracking approach is presented, where onboard sensing and inter-vehicular communication resources are utilized in an efficient manner to provide track lists to all participating vehicles in a mixed-traffic environment. The approach is implemented on SimVille, our indoor testbed for urban driving, in accordance with our system development philosophy. The performance of the approach is evaluated using entropy values of vehicle tracks-an information theoretic measure of uncertainty. The experimental results of our scaled-down tests demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0287
Javier Adolfo Alcazar, David Weber
Abstract This paper proposes and verifies a potential application of Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) technology: An on-line method to merge onto highways using V2V communications. Vehicles equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) and Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) are capable of broadcasting vehicle's GPS data to neighboring vehicles. Vehicles traveling along the highway share traffic information via DSRC. Using position and speed a velocity profile for merging is proposed. Such information allows vehicles to adapt their speed and position specifically at merging intersections enabling smooth traffic flow. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC could enable smoother traffic flow and fewer collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor's velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Abstract Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH (Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology) program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0291
Radovan Miucic, Samer Rajab, Sue Bai, James Sayer, Dillon Funkhouser
Abstract Many Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies have been developed to improve the safety and efficiency of cars, trucks, public transport and infrastructure. However, very few ITS have been developed specifically for the motorcycle user protection. In this paper an analysis of dynamic and static communications tests between a vehicle and two motorcycles are provided. The system enables vehicles and motorcycles to exchange safety information such as speed, heading, location, and brake status through the use of 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol. The vehicles and motorcycles can then assess the potential threat level based on the incoming messages from the nearby traffic. Several high-impact motorcycle-to-vehicle collision scenarios are analyzed. Technical challenges, such as motorcycle wireless unit antenna direction performance, communication performance and target classification accuracy are further investigated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
Abstract This paper proposes an approach that characterizes a driver's driving behavior and style in real-time during car-following drives. It uses an online learning of the evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model combined with the Markov model. The inputs fed into the proposed algorithm are from the measured signals of on-board sensors equipped with current vehicles, including the relative distance sensors for Adaptive Cruise Control feature and the accelerometer for Electronic Stability Control feature. The approach is verified using data collected using a test vehicle from several car-following test trips. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in the paper.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Abstract Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort and safety as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical advances and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received significant attention from both research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future velocity of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. In this work a stochastic model of the velocity of a preceding vehicle based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2I, V2V and radar information is presented. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this approach are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0469
Ning Wang, Yafei Liu
Abstract The Chinese government initiated the “Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicles” program for electric vehicles from the year of 2009 to 2012. The demonstration results indicate that an integral city readiness system is required in the promotion of electric vehicles, including the government policies, charging infrastructure, after-sales service, business models and consumer awareness. Through the analysis of related literature and summary reports from 25 demonstration cities, a partial least squares (PLS) path model with 5 major factors and 13 observation indicators was developed to assess the city readiness of electric vehicle adoption. The 5 factors consist of government policies and investment, charging infrastructure construction and operation, business models and maintenance service system, consumer awareness education, operation scope and environmental benefits. Based on the PLS results, 25 cities are classified into 6 groups with the clustering analysis model.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0031
Jung-Ok (Jo) Kuys, Gavin Melles, Scott Thompson-Whiteside, Ajay Kapoor
Abstract The Malaysia National Automotive Policy (NAP 2014) focuses on the systemic changes needed for the country to develop a competitive and sustainable automotive manufacturing sector. Alternative electric vehicles (EV) -including the public transport sector, in particular buses - forms part of this strategy. This also features in the Transport Scenarios for the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan for 2020. Kuala Lumpur's population is expected to reach 10 million by 2020, the current public transport system is beset by problems, e.g. route congestion, a growing trend of private car ownership among a rising middle-class, and a range of environmental and infrastructure issues which must be challenged. A human-centred design approach to public transport focuses on developing (future) scenarios to accommodate the 2020 economic, environmental and social considerations building on Design for Sustainability (DfS), user needs, behaviour change and inclusivity principles.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0050
Shane Richardson, John McIver
Abstract Mining operations which utilise Haul Trucks to move product or overburden have to also build and maintain a network of roads which the Haul Truck can operate on. As the development of the mine progress typically the road network changes and the maintenance of a mining road can influence the productivity of the mine and specifically the Haul Truck fuel consumption on the mine. The current class of Ultra class Haul Trucks can have a Gross mass from 450t to 590t with 60lt to 90lt engines developing 1,830kW to 2,800kW. By managing the roughness of the mining road network the rolling resistance of the Haul Trucks can be controlled/managed within a defined band and hence the mine can control part of the Haul Truck fuel consumption. Conversely constantly maintaining mine roads affects the productivity of the mine. Typically the decision to conduct maintenance work on a Haul Road is made subjectively, based on the feel of how rough the roads are getting.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0233
Marc Pinilla, Pau Kuipers
Abstract Asphalt specifications for a Wet Handling Track (WHT) are very stringent regarding coefficient of adherence and homogeneity of this coefficient over time. Currently, asphalt mixture pavements used in wet conditions have a very limited useful life and continue degrading following different patterns depending on the asphalt mixtures used. This is due to many reasons, but mainly as a consequence of supporting big strains and the extreme conditions during its useful life. During its lifetime, the asphalt is constantly immersed in water and submitted to adverse weather conditions. Moreover, Wet Handling pavements should provide very specific and stable adherence values for vehicle testing during the asphalt aging evolution. Consequently, the study, execution and testing of the new asphalt concrete mixture for the pavements and the materials used for WHT is necessary to reach durable, homogenous in time and cost effective pavements with very low adherence parameters.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0463
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2007
Arturo Davila, Adria Ferrer
Abstract In recent years, platooning emerged as a realistic configuration for semi-autonomous driving. In the SARTRE project, simulation and physical tests were performed to validate the platooning system not only in testing facilities but also in conventional highways. Five vehicles were adapted with autonomous driving systems to have platooning functionalities, enabling to perform platoon tests and assess the feasibility, safety and benefits. Although the tested system was in a prototype, it demonstrated sturdiness and good functionality, allowing performing conventional road tests. First of all the fuel consumption decreased up to 16% in some configurations and different gaps between the vehicles were tested in order to establish the most suitable for platooning in terms of safety and economy. Additionally, the platooning technology enables a new level of safety in highways. Around 85% of the accident causation is the human factor.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9094
Waleed Faris, Hesham Rakha, Salah A.M. Elmoselhy
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions has led to new vehicle emissions standards which in turn have led to a call for vehicle technologies to meet these standards. Modeling of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions emerged as an effective tool to help in developing and assessing such technologies, to help in predicting aggregate vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, and to complement traffic simulation models. The paper identifies the current state of the art on vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and its utilization to test the environmental impact of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)’ measures and to evaluate transportation network improvements. The study presents the relevant models to ITS in the key classifications of models in this research area. It demonstrates that the trends of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions provided by current models generally do satisfactorily replicate field data trends.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0108
Carlos Bustamante, Eduard Mateu, Jesús Hernández, Álvaro Arrúe
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2303
Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Michele Trancossi, Dean Vucinic
The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0621
Hidetoshi Imaizumi, Koji Sengoku
This paper clarifies influence rate of traffic-flow and eco-driving factors that have effect on on-road fuel economy and a case study was conducted to estimate the CO₂ reduction potential due to traffic-flow smoothing and eco-driving promotion by analyzing floating car data from throughout Japan. The data employed in the study was obtained from hybrid vehicles equipped with an Eco Assist system. Previous research has reported that repeated use of these vehicles enhances fuel economy by approximately 10%. First, multiple regression analysis was performed on the subject floating car data to obtain a polynomial with fuel economy as the explained variable and items related to traffic flow and eco-driving as the explanatory variables. Average travel speed was found to have the greatest effect on fuel economy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0989
Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Youssef Bazzi, Oliver Cordes, Nizar Alholou, Malok alamir
Vehicles equipped with wireless communication technology, “Dedicated Short Range Communication” are a promising field for fuel optimization navigation applications. This paper presents a vehicle routing methodology modeled as a Petri Net (PN) for optimizing travel time and vehicle emission in a connected roadway network with minimal total traffic capacity to route vehicle in a dynamically changing traffic environment, and in an optimal and predictive manner. The novel unfolded PN model presented in this paper incorporates the essential features in Dynamic Programming (DP) to solve the stochastic traffic routing problem. The effectiveness of the proposed eco-friendly navigation methodology is validated by comparing the performance with conventional travel time based navigation methods.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0987
Tang Xinpeng
Two vehicles non-cooperation differential game model of the vehicle automatic tracking was established and the corresponding optimization control algorithm was proposed using the differential game's theory. Based on this method, the simulation was carried out with high speed ISO Lane Change, Sine Steer and low speed circular motion. The preliminary study result indicated that applied differential game's theory in the vehicles automatic tracking's research was completely feasible; the computation accuracy was also satisfying.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0728
Hadj Hamma Tadjine, Benedikt Schonlau, Robert Schwaiger, Klaus Krumbiegel
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0617
Jan-Mou Li, Zhiming Gao
It is rare for an attempt towards optimization at the fleet-level when consideration is given to the sheer number of seemingly unpredictable interactions among vehicles and infrastructure in congested urban areas. To close the gap, we introduce a simulation based framework to explore the impact of speed synchronization on fuel economy improvement for fleets in traffic. The framework consists of traffic and vehicle modules. The traffic module is used to simulate driver behavior in urban traffic; and the vehicle module is employed to estimate fuel economy. Driving schedule is the linkage between these two modules. To explore the impact, a connected vehicle technology sharing vehicle speed information is used for better fuel economy of a fleet including six vehicles. In all scenarios analyzed, the leading vehicle operates under the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), while the other five vehicles follow the leader consecutively.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0099
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanchai Dechanupaprittha
Normally, the energy conversion efficiency in road vehicle was presented in term of amount of unit fuel per distance within specific condition where it could not be comparable in practice that the variations of dynamic traffic condition and driver behavior were impacted. To minimized energy consumption, the both traffic conditions and driver behavior needs to be managed. The traffic conditions improves as infrastructure development, but the driver behavior needs personal training with equipment In this study, the alternative practical indicator was proposed with applying specific positive kinetic energy concept to indicate the level of vehicle dynamic behavior which relate to the level of fuel consumption rate. Furthermore, the experimental were taken place in Pahonyothin Rd. (Bangkok, Thailand) including urban, sub-urban and highway with various traffic congestion level.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0064
Pallavi Kharade, Krishnan Kutty
Traffic information is very useful in planning and designing of road transport, ensuring efficient administration of road traffic, transportation agencies as well as for the convenience of road users. Traffic can be measured in terms of speed, density and flow. In this paper, we propose two different methods to measure traffic in terms of density and flow. The set up for the proposed traffic monitoring system includes a camera placed at a height from ground looking downward on the road, such that its field of view is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the traffic. The images of the road are continuously captured by the camera and processed to determine the traffic. The first method uses Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) to detect vehicles. Density is calculated in terms of area occupied by the vehicles on the road. Another method of measuring the traffic flow is proposed that is based on calculation of edge points on a horizontal line drawn in the image.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0142
Arturo Davila, Eduardo del Pozo, Enric Aramburu, Alex Freixas
Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE), a research project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, has developed the technology and the strategy to create fully functional road trains that allow vehicle platoons to operate in public highways. The project intends to establish important concepts to show why platooning systems are a good way to increase safety and reduce pollution on tomorrow's highways. As part of the activities within the project, the authors performed fuel consumption simulations to estimate the fuel consumption reduction of the platoon due to the aerodynamics improvement. Dynamic simulations of the platoon behaviour in certain normal and emergency situations were also performed. Fuel consumption tests were also performed in companies proving grounds. These tests were performed using two trucks and three cars. Different platoon configurations were used, involving some or all the vehicles.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9016
Robert W. Heller, Arun Krishnamurthy
The State of Florida initiated the SunGuide® Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) software development program in October 2003; that software is deployed in over 15 Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) throughout the major cities in Florida. One of SunGuide's biggest strengths is a software architecture that allows for short development times for new functionality. This paper describes the system design, implementation, and lessons learned from the development of the SunGuide Connected Vehicle Subsystem (CVS). The SunGuide CVS receives real-time speed, location, and heading data from instrumented vehicles and uses that data in a manner similar to its use of traffic detector data to provide information to the TMC. In addition to the vehicle providing data to the TMC, the TMC may create and publish Traveler Advisory Messages to the vehicle as part of the SunGuide Event Management response plans.
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9018
Alberto Broggi
Many successful implementations of intelligent vehicles are using laser based technology to perceive the area around the vehicle, providing a dense 3D point cloud covering an extended range. However, such technology is still too expensive to be a candidate for series production, and its integration requirements are hardly compatible with cost and style constraints dictated by the mainstream automotive market. On the other hand computer vision is reaching close enough results in terms of sensing performance to be a viable alternative. Vision also brings additional advantages such as a much lower price and straighforward integration options. This paper presents a comparison of these two technologies.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1485