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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1610
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0051
Keisuke Terada, Takayuki Sano, Kenichi Watanabe, Takashi Kaieda, Kazuhisa Takano
Abstract In recent years three-wheel camber vehicles, with two wheels in the front and a single rear wheel, have been growing in popularity. We call this kind of vehicle A “Leaning Multi Wheel category Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as a “LMWV”). A LMWV has various characteristics, but one of them stands out in particular. When a LMWV is cornering, if one of the front wheels passes over a section of road surface with a low friction coefficient, there is very little disturbance to the vehicle’s behavior and can continue to be driven as normal. However, there has been no investigation into why these vehicles have this particular characteristic. Consequently, in this paper an investigation was carried out in order to determine the behavior of a LMWV in this situation. First, measurements were taken using an actual vehicle to confirm the situation described above.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1894
Siyu Chen, Libo Huang, Jie Bai, Haitao Jiang, Liang Chang
Abstract Intelligent vehicles can improve traffic safety and reduce damage caused by traffic accidents. Environmental perception system is the core of the intelligent vehicle which detects vehicles and pedestrians around the ego host-vehicle by using vehicle environmental perception sensors. Environmental perception system with the multi-sensor information fusion algorithm can utilize the advantages of each environmental perception sensor and detects targets with higher detection probability and precision. Most of the published papers are based on the sensor level fusion architecture which is not stable and robust in detecting target. This paper presents a multi-sensor fusion algorithm with central level architecture, which can improve the target detection probability compare to these with the sensor level fusion architecture.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1875
Jinghua Guo
Abstract The studies of coordinated control method for autonomous electric vehicles face two major challenges such as: I) Autonomous electric vehicles have the properties of uncertain nonlinearities and strong coupling, the platoon control system should effectively overcome these characteristics. II) Over-actuated tire actuators are equipped with in the autonomous electric vehicles to improve the system reliability, and reconfigurablity, the platoon control system should real-time handle the redundancy of tire actuators. This paper presents a novel nonlinear coordinated control scheme aimed at the improvement of the automatic driving performance of multiple autonomous electric vehicles in a platoon. First, a nonlinear mathematic model which perfectly describes the dynamic behaviors of autonomous electric vehicles is deduced using Newton-Euler theorem.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1827
Giorgio Bartolozzi, Marco Danti, Andrea Camia, Davide Vige
Abstract The time to market in the automotive industry is constantly decreasing pushing the carmaker companies to increase the efforts in numerical simulations and to decrease the number of prototypes. In the NVH field, this time constraint reflects in moving the well-established finite element simulations towards the so called “full-vehicle simulations”. Specifically, the CAE techniques should be able to predict the complete behavior of the vehicles in mission conditions, so to reproduce some usual tests, such as the “coast down” test on different roads. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology to improve rolling noise simulations exploiting an integrated full-vehicle approach. An accurate modeling of all the subsystems is needed, with particular attention to the wheels and the suspension systems. Therefore, the paper firstly covers the modeling approach used to obtain the FE models of tires and suspension system.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-04-12
Technical Paper
2016-01-7000
Daniel P. Malone, John F. Creamer
In 1966, Congress boldly reshaped the American approach to road safety and thereby established the United States as the worldwide leader in vehicle safety. Congressional action led to the establishment of the Department of Transportation, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and the motor-vehicle safety defects and recall system. However, the safety environment that gave rise to these responses has evolved substantially. Fifty years later, the United States is unable to properly regulate rapidly advancing safety technologies, and the recall system is wholly unsuited to ensuring the safety of software-driven systems. Congress must act to update the road safety system in order to enable the United States to meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of the new transportation era.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0162
Takashi Kodachi, Masaharu Shimizu, Hideaki Yamato, Kengo Toda, Takayuki Furuta, Hirotoshi Ochiai, Mitsuhiro Ando
Abstract Our society is faced with the serious problems such as aging population growth, environmental pollution and limited energy resource issues. As a means to address these issues, we are developing new mobility vehicles designed to support short-distance trips in urban settings. These mobility vehicles are intended for use in pedestrian areas inside buildings as well as outside, including public roads. In order to ensure safe and convenient operation for both pedestrians and mobility users, we conducted a risk assessment of mobility vehicles in pedestrian areas, and then developed a feature to autonomously limit the speed according to their surrounding conditions. This report discusses the utility of these mobility vehicles with the safety functions based on the fully conducted risk assessment, collision test and performance evaluation in public roads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0153
Qingkun Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
Abstract This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0156
Pavel Steinbauer, Jan Macek, Josef Morkus, Petr Denk, Zbynek Sika, Adam Barak
Abstract Current vehicles, especially the electric ones, are complex mechatronic devices. The pickup vehicles of small sizes are currently used in transport considerably. They often operate within a repeating scheme of a limited variety of tracks and larger fleets. Thanks to mechatronic design of vehicles and their components and availability of high capacity data connection with computational centers (clouds), there are many means to optimize their performance, both by planning prior the trip and recalculations during the route. Although many aspects of this opportunity were already addressed, the paper shows an approach developed to further increase the range of e-vehicle operation. It is based on prior information about the route profile, traffic density, road conditions, past behaviour, mathematical models of the route, vehicle and dynamic optimization.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0154
Pritesh Jain, Purushottam Bhumre, Saakshi Jain
Abstract This paper describes the Common Automobile Program (CAP) that can be implemented to improve mass transportation. CAP is the use of automated electric vehicles using smart navigation and control technologies to improve mass transportation. In CAP, common vehicles are used by different passengers, thus, reducing the on-road traffic and also the parking space required. Various low-cost stations are to be built along specified paths and the vehicle can be used at the convenience of the commuter. Currently, buses and trains require the passengers to wait at the station and a significant amount of time is spent at intermediate stops. The vehicle in CAP runs directly from origin to destination and also eliminates the waiting time at stations. Passengers do not wait for vehicles; instead vehicles wait for the passengers. The journey starts as the passenger enters the station and selects the destination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Abstract Automation of vehicles can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and is being developed in various countries. Introduction of automated driving can be ranked from 0 to 5 (0: no automation, 1: driver assistance, 2: partial automation, 3: conditional automation, 4: high automation, 5: full automation). Currently, feasible automation levels are considered to be levels 2 or 3, and human manual take-over from the automated system is needed when the automated system exceeds these levels. In this situation, time required for take-over is an important issue. This study focuses on describing driving simulator experimental results of time required for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead during automated driving on the highway, and issues a take-over request to the driver. The subject driver can be in the following driver situations: hands-on or hands-off the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Abstract Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1680
Suresh Abasaheb Patil, Indrajit Dinkar More
Abstract This paper incorporates the on-road real time ride comfort testing and simulation analysis of the typical passenger cars. The main objective is to analyze the vibrations to the passenger’s seat through the irregularities on road surface. This analysis is carried out with the help state-of-the-art of FFT analyzer for different classes of passenger car for variety of road conditions which have been validated by simulation analysis in the 20-Sim simulation software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0479
Kuniaki Goto, Takashi Kondo, Masakiyo Takahira, Eiji Umemura, Masashi Komada, Yasuhiko Nishimura
Abstract Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0157
Victor Osipkov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Boris Belousov, Oleg Karasev, Sergey Sokolov, Mykola Rudynets, Mykola Skalyga, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
Abstract In the coming half-century, the global transport industry is expected to be affected by two technological revolutions - the first will start upon admission of autonomous vehicles to public roads, while the second will finalize a complete removal of manned vehicles away from them. As a result of the above revolutionary shocks, several major changes are anticipated: the modification of whole paradigm of ground vehicles; introduction of new business models in the transport sector, as well as new vehicle ownership forms; transition to technologies of collective and cooperative management and synchronized parrying the dangerous traffic collisions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0461
Wenfei Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Abstract This paper proposes a new braking torque distribution strategy for electric vehicles equipped with a hybrid hydraulic braking and regenerative braking system. The braking torque distribution strategy is proposed based on the required braking torque and the regenerative braking system’s status. To get the required braking torque, a new strategy is designed based on the road conditions and driver's braking intentions. Through the estimated road surface, a robust wheel slip controller is designed to calculate the overall maximum braking torque required for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) under this road condition. Driver's braking intentions are classified as the emergency braking and the normal braking. In the case of emergency braking, the required braking torque is to be equal to the overall maximum braking torque. In the case of normal braking, the command braking torque is proportional to the pedal stroke.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1596
Kenji Tadakuma, Tomoyuki Doi, Mitsuhisa Shida, Kazuhiro Maeda
Abstract An experimental study on reducing aerodynamic drag and improving fuel economy through vehicle platooning was conducted to develop an Intelligent Transport System (ITS) with good fuel economy of the entire vehicle-based transportation society. The objectives of the present study are to achieve a simple and quick approach to estimating the aerodynamic drag reduction rates of vehicle platooning. This paper reports the prediction formula, including the conditions of various types of vehicles in multiple-vehicle platooning, based on the power law of a free turbulent axisymmetric wake and on-road experimental results. Note, the prediction formula in this study does not fully include the effect of various type of wake deficit patterns due to rear shape of vehicle and atmospheric wind. Therefore, continuous study is needed to examine the applicable limit.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1721
Wachira Nilprapunt, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract Urban Mobility is one of the most critical issues at the present. Public transport in connection with feeder bus system is proposed to be one of the main solution. Chulalongkorn University has a fleet of electric feeder bus in operation for a few years now. The fleet service is, however, to be improved because of current limitations in battery energy capacity and long battery charging time. This paper aims to examine the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the electric feeder buses using various types of energy storage. The results on the sensitivity analysis highlight the major parameters that exert strong influence in the TCOs. The fast charging system using supercapacitor battery bus shows the lowest TCO for the present bus fleet. The travel distance (km/year) and operational years were illustrated to be the top two parameters that exert major influence towards the TCO.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1718
Thitipat Thitacharee, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract The utility of energy efficiency and zero-emission of electric vehicles leads the way to electrify the urban public transport bus networks in many cities around the world. The purpose of this paper is to study the operational feasibility of transition the existing conventional combustion bus fleet to Electric bus fleet. The analysis is based on the data of the bus operation in Bangkok, Thailand. Traffic congestion as occurred in Bangkok is considered in the analysis. This research is focused on Fast charging technology of Electric vehicles. Instead of slow-charging overnight, Fast-charging is used during the regular layover time of the bus operation which is called Opportunity charging. The opportunity charging allows to extend the driving range of the electric buses which is a prominent problem of electric vehicles.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0252
Aravind Vadiraj
Abstract This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0220
Rahul Krishnan, Aniruddh Malpani
Abstract The paper presents a simple but effective algorithm for managing the signaling intervals at high density traffic intersections based on traffic intensity on a particular side. We observe that most high density traffic intersections receive heavy traffic from specific directions at specific timings which repeat periodically. So, the idea aims at providing less waiting time for vehicles at signals by manipulating the time intervals for the Red/Green signaling on the basis of vehicle density. The solution is designed to solve the problem of commuting time to some extent in a day to day life in densely populated countries where it becomes difficult to keep an easy check on the vehicle movement through manual efforts. This algorithm is also intended to help emergency vehicles which gets stuck into heavy traffic jams and in turn reduce casualties. This algorithm can also prove effective for pedestrian safety and for several other purpose.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2895
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang
Abstract This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2896
Matthew Ellis, Joaquin Ivan Gargoloff, Raja Sengupta
Abstract The increasing importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the ongoing evolution of vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity technologies have generated significant interest in platooning for commercial vehicles, where two or more vehicles travel in same traffic lane in relatively close proximity. This paper examines the effect of platooning on four increasingly aerodynamic tractor-trailer configurations, using a Lattice Boltzmann based CFD solver. Each platoon consisted of three identical tractor-trailer configurations traveling in the same lane at 65mph. Two different vehicle to vehicle gaps were studied, 5m and 9m, in addition to singleton (solitary) vehicles, representing an effectively infinite gap. Aerodynamic drag for the lead, middle, and trailing vehicle in the platooning configurations were compared to the corresponding single vehicle tractor-trailer configuration.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2897
Rick Mihelic, Jeff Smith, Matthew Ellis
Abstract Modern aerodynamic Class 8 freight tractors can improve vehicle freight efficiency and fuel economy versus older traditional style tractors when pulling Canadian style A- or B-Train double trailer long combination vehicles (LCV's) at highway speeds. This paper compares the aerodynamic performance of a current generation aerodynamic tractor with several freight hauling configurations through computational fluid dynamics evaluations using the Lattice-Boltzmann methodology. The configurations investigated include the tractor hauling a standard 53′ trailer, a platooning configuration with a 30′ separation distance, and an A-Train configuration including two 48′ trailers connected with a dolly converter. The study demonstrates CFD's capability of evaluating extremely long vehicle combinations that might be difficult to accomplish in traditional wind tunnels due to size limitations.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0357
Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Ricardo Moreira Vaz, Kleber Nogueira Hodel, Paschoal Federico Neto, Armando Laganá, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka
Abstract The several problems and bottlenecks faced users public transport users in big cities are a common knowledge. Among them agencies responsible for public transport recognize the lack of centralized control, the under and over supply, the lack of information to users and the non-compliance of scheduled trips. In order to work identified problems improving cities like Recife and São Paulo are testing systems named as embedded technology that integrate the use of GPS, cameras, centralized monitoring among others, retarding a deeper coverage compared to systems previously used. The main objectives are the comfort and safety increase of users and the freight logistics improvement. This paper presents the technologies being tested in Brazil through successful models applied in countries as Spain and Colombia, as well as the scope of bids and proposals for improvement of public transport.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2300
Robert Fiedler, Chadwyck Musser, Petr Cuchý
Abstract This paper addresses the NVH design of a light rail vehicle whose maximum allowable interior SPL levels at certain speeds are regulated and may vary between countries, states, and cities. The objective of this study was to predict sound pressure levels (SPL) at several interior locations across a wide range of frequencies and estimate if the current design configuration will meet the noise level limits. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was used to predict interior SPL and to understand and rank the various noise contribution paths and give a better understanding of the physics of transmission and what types of design changes are most effective to reduce the overall interior SPL to meet targets. A typical light rail vehicle is composed of a frame-like structure covered by lightweight panels and with interior panels that are increasingly made from composites, sandwich, laminated, or honeycomb materials or extruded panels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
Abstract This paper proposes an approach that characterizes a driver's driving behavior and style in real-time during car-following drives. It uses an online learning of the evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model combined with the Markov model. The inputs fed into the proposed algorithm are from the measured signals of on-board sensors equipped with current vehicles, including the relative distance sensors for Adaptive Cruise Control feature and the accelerometer for Electronic Stability Control feature. The approach is verified using data collected using a test vehicle from several car-following test trips. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in the paper.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Abstract Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort and safety as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical advances and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received significant attention from both research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future velocity of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. In this work a stochastic model of the velocity of a preceding vehicle based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2I, V2V and radar information is presented. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this approach are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor's velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1610