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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1642
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0103
Thomas Beyerl, Bernard Ibru, Charvi Popat, Deborah Ojo, Alexander Bakus, Jessica Elder, Valentin Soloiu
Non-standard intersections, which do not follow a simple orthogonal three or four way configuration, present a navigational challenge to autonomous vehicles. Conventional navigation systems which gather data from the surrounding area then plan a path through the collected data require faultless and complex analysis of extremely unstructured environments. The vehicle must then avoid obstacles as well as successfully navigate the intersection with extremely low tolerance for error. Computer decision making challenges can arise from this method of navigation, especially when interacting with non-autonomous vehicles. This research presents a computational method of optimizing navigation through intersections based on pre-planned routing data. The static nature of roadways enabled detailed path planning, using a series of lines and arcs, which reduced, even the most complex intersections, into simply navigable splines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are to be tested. Having a 3D virtual environment to enable testing many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or on a cluster reduces the amount of required road tests significantly. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, with potential applications to level 2 active safety systems as well, a shared memory interface between MATLAB/Simulink and Unreal Engine 4, such that perception and/or control algorithms running within or interfacing with MATLAB/Simulink can receive virtual sensor data generated in an Unreal Engine 3D virtual environment, and send information such as vehicle control signals back to the virtual environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0087
Jiaqi Ma, Erin Clausing, Yimin Liu
It is estimated that up to 30% of traffic in cities is due to drivers looking for parking. Research suggests that drivers spend an average of 6-14 minutes looking for an available space in London. This increases individuals stress levels as well as congestion and pollution. Intelligent transportation system wants to provide an effective way to address these challenges by making parking easier and less stressful. Parking Guidance Systems are an important component in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), which reduces search time for parking by presenting drivers with dynamic information on parking. An accurate prediction and recommendation analytics algorithm is the key part of the parking guidance system, which combines real time cloud-based analytics and historical data trends, and can be integrated into a smart parking user App.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0089
Antonio D'Amato, Fabrizio Donatantonio, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Road topography has a remarkable impact on vehicle fuel con- sumption for both passenger and heavy duty vehicles. In addi- tion, erroneous or non-optimized scheduling of both velocity set-point and gear shifting may be detrimental for fuel consumption and performance. Recent technologies have made road data, such as elevation or slope, either available or measurable on board, thus making possible the exploitation of this additional information in innovative controllers. The aim of this paper is the development of a smart, fuel economy oriented controller that adapts cruising speed and engaged gear to current road load (i.e. local slope). Unlike traditional cruise controllers, the velocity set-point is not constant, but it is set depending on the current slope and the mission time duration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0104
Maryam Moosaei, Yi Zhang, Ashley Micks, Simon Smith, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali
Traffic light detection is critical for safe behavior in a world where technology on vehicles is growing more complex. In this work we outline a deep learning based solution for traffic light detection that leverages virtual data for affordable and efficient supervised learning. Using Unreal Engine, we generated a virtual dataset by moving a virtual camera through a variety of intersection scenes while varying parameters such as lighting, camera position and angle. Using the automatically generated bounding boxes around the illuminated traffic lights themselves, we trained an 8-layer deep neural network (DNN), without pre-training, for classification of traffic light signals (green, amber, red). After training on virtual data, we tested the network on real world data collected from a forward facing camera on a vehicle. Using color space conversion and contour extraction, we identified candidate regions by filtering based on color, shape and size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1608
Sara Dadras, Hadi Malek
Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary and secondary coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. Additionally, coupling coefficient is required to be utilized in real time optimization algorithms, such as impedance matching to improve the stability and transient response of this wireless charger. Furthermore, maintaining a minimum coupling coefficient is a prerequisite for starting charging process in these hands free chargers in order to prevent excessive stresses on electronic components. Estimation of the coupling coefficient can be determined by using a mathematical model of the resonant network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Yu Tang
The tunnel exit is easily blocked with a large traffic. One reason is that when the driver out of the tunnel, the added ramp resistance leads to the speed drop, but the driver is imperceptible. The present solutions are more concentrated in the transport sector, regulations are applied to all vehicles through the tunnel, easily distract the driver attention and disturb the operator accelerating away from the tunnel. In this paper, when the system judges the speed drop is due to driver's unconscious behavior through the road and external illumination changes ,then the system gives the driver accelerated reminder. Firstly, establish the vehicle driving dynamic model. With the road tunnel design standards for a reference, build the tunnel road model. Secondly, based on the dynamic model and the tunnel model, study the relationship between the throttle opening and the duration with the speed change and study the relationship between the engine braking with the speed and the ramp change.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Wanyang Xia, Yahui Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Xianyao Ping, Benlong Liu
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the highway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more responsible time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The highway exit speed limit sigh (ESLS) is an effect reminder for the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the Color Variable ESLS system, whose installation point is placed considering the vehicle dynamic difference, the traffic condition and the highway geometric design. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit requirement in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change between the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
In this work, DSRC capabilities combined with autonomous vehicles' on-board sensors (camera) are used to trigger an Automated Emergency Brake (AEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve AEB in two phases, the comfortable brake and the full stop emergency brake. The comfortable brake is applied first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop emergency brake. On the automated vehicle, the content of the received SPaT/MAP is parsed and communicated through UDP packets to the central processing unit that runs the camera-based TLD software for traffic light state matching and distance calculation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0094
Soodeh Dadras
In recent years, navigation and guidance of autonomous vehicles get daily increasing attention from people in both research and manufacturing department. Leading automotive companies are looking for algorithms and control designs for vehicles to follow desired path. We proposed a novel control for autonomous vehicle where the classical extremum seeking scheme is modified to address the problem of path tracking of an autonomous ground vehicle. This technique utilizes a Fractional Order extremum seeking controller to control a non-holonomic autonomous ground vehicle to track the behavior of the predefined reference path. The designed FO-ESC controller has shown the significant capability of the autonomous ground vehicle to track the desired path. We show the performances of fractional order and integer order controller through simulation results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized space of regulatory rules, vehicles and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring and active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have a digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1433
Enrique Bonugli, Joseph Cormier, Matthew Reilly, Lars Reinhart
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and ‘typical’ roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0093
Balachander Dhanavanthan
Radio Frequency (RF) propagation in vehicular environments exhibit major transformations from indoor, outdoor and farmland multipath environments. The innovative advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has made it necessary to recognise and predict the RF propagation losses for WSNs in vehicular environments. Very few models exist for network planning and deployment in vehicular environments. All of these models need an extensive statistical estimations and an in-depth knowledge of the vehicular environment. In this paper a different approach has been pursued and as a first step is to evaluate the factors which affect RF propagation in vehicular environments and how these factors affect each other while predicting propagation losses in vehicular environments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Today, automated and autonomous vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, Ford is currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X based applications like Electronic Emergency Brake Light (EEBL), Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW) and Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC) in the 5.9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, the novel application Intersection Priority Management (IPM) is part of the research project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0415
Xingxing Feng, Peijun Xu, Penglei Fu, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This work is motivated by the fact that the surface of a terrain may vary with local pavement properties and number of passes of the vehicle, which means the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain may vary in specific intervals. However, in traditional random terrain models, the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are assumed as constants. Therefore, this assumption may be not very reasonable. A novel random terrain model is presented where the roughness coefficient and waviness of the terrain are expressed by interval numbers instead of constants. A 5-degree-of-freedom ride dynamic model of the vehicle with uncertain parameters is derived. The power spectral density (PSD) and root mean square value (RMS) of the vehicle ride responses are shown and analyzed. Analysis results indicate that the vehicle responses vary in specific intervals under the random terrain excitation with interval parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Mountain road winding and bumpy,traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present Curve warning system research are based on CCD, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map. Braking based on vehicle dynamics before entering the curve is used to identify the road. The critical safety speed which do not occur side-slip is calculated with the radius of curvature , side friction factor and so on using the vehicle lateral dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Mountainous roads have complex terrain. Traditional vehicle active safety system, such as ABS, only play a role when there's an emergency situation, and the loading rate is not high in the heavy vehicle. So the traffic accident rate is still high in the mountainous area. Researches show that if drivers react before the accident 2-3 s there could be 90% reduction in the accident rate. This safety speed warning system is combined with the digital map, which makes the drivers see the mountainous road information beyond the horizon. Compared to the road standard speed limit, the system combination with the road information and characteristics of heavy vehicle itself can provide a more accurate and more useful safety warning speed limit. It can effectively reduce the incidence of accidents.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
A variety of vehicle control systems – from active safety to power management – greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust estimation of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a vehicle mass and road grade estimation scheme, termed parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation, and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiating the undriven wheel speeds, while mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1487
Russ Norton, Ben Bulat, Ahmed Mohamed
The RLM algorithm seeks to resolve the tradeoff of high damping rates required to control the loads and the need for lower damping forces to improve secondary ride. As the base active damping forces are increased to control the loads, ride benefits of the system are diminished. To ensure the best possible outcome, the team sought to reduce the tradeoffs by looking for a way to switch the damping force fast enough to manage the loads without affecting secondary ride. The RLM algorithm is designed to manage the road loads when driving through potholes. The algorithm detects the presence of a pothole based on individual suspension velocity and direction. When the wheel enters the pothole, the suspension velocity increases quickly while traveling downward (suspension rebound travel) into the pothole.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1137
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang, Wei Luo
Abstract For the vehicle equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT) that has a fixed number of gears, gearshift schedule is crucial to improve the comprehensive performance that takes into account power performance, fuel economy, and driver’s performance expectation together. To optimize and individualize the gearshift schedule, an optimization method and an improved performance evaluation approach for multi-performance gearshift schedule were proposed, which are effective in terms of reflecting the driver's expectation on different performance. However, the proposed optimization method does not consider the influence of the road slope on the comprehensive performance. As the road slope changes the load of vehicle that is different from the load when a vehicle runs on a level road, the optimized gearshift schedule without considering road slope is obviously not the optimal solution for a vehicle equipped with SAT when it runs on ramp.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0410
Aref M. A. Soliman
Abstract Although active suspension improved vehicle ride comfort, their two main drawbacks are the required high component costs and energy input levels for active suspension. The semi-active and twin accumulator suspensions are proposed which addresses these two drawbacks. Ride performances for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active are examined theoretically using half vehicle model. The power consumed in rolling resistance and power dissipation in suspension for passive, twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems are evaluated. The effect of road disturbance on the vehicle ride performance for twin accumulator and semi-active suspension systems is studied. The rolling resistance power losses are also investigated. The results showed that the optimum twin accumulator suspension system over all road roughness/speed conditions would have adaptable spring stiffness and damping coefficients which could be changed depending on the road conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1552
Mehriar Dianat, Maciej Skarysz, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to predict the flow of water over exterior surfaces of road vehicles. We present simulations of liquid flows on solid surfaces under the influence of gravity with and without the addition of aerodynamic forces on the liquid. This is done using an implementation of a Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) multiphase approach implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD code. This is a high fidelity interface-resolving method that solves for the velocity field in both phases without restrictions on the flow regime. In the current paper the suitability of the approach to Exterior Water Management (EWM) is demonstrated using the representative test cases of a continuous liquid rivulet flowing along an inclined surface with a channel located downstream perpendicular to the oncoming flow.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0111
Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
Abstract As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1328
Yoshiteru Tanaka, Jun Yamamura, Atsushi Murakawa, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters to the engine compartment and sometimes reaches the position of the air intake duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is an effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion route. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to become smaller and the undercover tends to become bigger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine compartment becomes higher and causes an increase of the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is causing a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of a water level prediction method in engine compartment while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multibody and fluid dynamics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0086
Matteo Muratori, Jacob Holden, Michael Lammert, Adam Duran, Stanley Young, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as a means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption – and related emissions – while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, which are currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0082
Yazhe Hu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a system designed to develop a high-resolution map of public roads by capturing high-resolution surface images. Unlike conventional system, the proposed system applies a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to synchronize camera, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Global Positioning System (GPS) by using FPGA’s high clock frequency and flexibility to multiple devices. The proposed system, which can be mounted on a regular vehicle, contains a Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS) camera which can achieve 0.006 ms shutter speed and 150 fps frame rate. This camera’s high shutter speed and high frame rate can help capturing images with overlapping region at fast driving speed so that no area is missing from road surface image capturing.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0083
Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0309
Sathish Kumar Prasad, J Prakaash, P Dayalan
Abstract Automotive vehicles are subjected to a variety of loads caused by road undulations. The load history data measured from the roads are one of the vital input parameters for physical test as well as virtual durability simulation of vehicles. In general, the automotive vehicles are instrumented and subjected to a variety of driving conditions in diverse roads to obtain representative road load time histories. Acquired road load time history signals from various roads are exhaustive and repetitive in terms of both time length and data size. This results in more computation and virtual simulation processing. Hence it is imperative to reduce the input time signals without compromising on the representation of the actual operating conditions. Signal reduction of measured road load histories for virtual simulation assumes greater significance for durability prediction.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0275
Prashant Pawar, Omkar Joshi, Mangesh Saraf
Abstract Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0051
Keisuke Terada, Takayuki Sano, Kenichi Watanabe, Takashi Kaieda, Kazuhisa Takano
Abstract In recent years three-wheel camber vehicles, with two wheels in the front and a single rear wheel, have been growing in popularity. We call this kind of vehicle A “Leaning Multi Wheel category Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as a “LMWV”). A LMWV has various characteristics, but one of them stands out in particular. When a LMWV is cornering, if one of the front wheels passes over a section of road surface with a low friction coefficient, there is very little disturbance to the vehicle’s behavior and can continue to be driven as normal. However, there has been no investigation into why these vehicles have this particular characteristic. Consequently, in this paper an investigation was carried out in order to determine the behavior of a LMWV in this situation. First, measurements were taken using an actual vehicle to confirm the situation described above.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1642