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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2611
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
John O. Manyala, Todd W. Fritz
Electro-hydraulic actuated systems are widely used in industrial applications due to high torque density, higher speeds and wide bandwidth operation. However, the complexities and the parametric uncertainties of the hydraulic actuated systems pose challenges in establishing analytical mathematical models. Unlike electro-mechanical and pneumatic systems, the nonlinear dynamics due to dead band, hysteresis, nonlinear pressure flow relations, leakages and friction affects the pressure sensitivity and flow gain by altering the system's transient response, which can introduce asymmetric oscillatory behavior and a lag in the system response. The parametric uncertainties make it imperative to have condition monitoring with in-built diagnostics capability. Timely faults detection and isolation can help mitigate catastrophic failures. This paper presents a signal-based fault diagnostic scheme for a gearbox hydraulic actuator leakage detection using the wavelet transform. The novelty of the work is the development of a high fidelity leakage fault detection as low as 0.128 lit/min.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Byeong wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway). After each event, participants were asked to complete the rating of the four descriptive terms as well as a comprehensive rating on the gear-shifting event.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joseph Y. Chen
The planetary gear train has been used as a core element for most of automatic transmissions (AT) due to its unique advantages: such as high power density, lower noise level, lower support bearing cost, and easier for mass production, compare to lay shaft or other types. In particularly, when multiple-pinion (MP) arrangement is used to accommodate flexible packaging design specifications. However, the planetary gear train does inherit a critical limit that is the lack of flexibility on gear ratio selection, because it needs to comply with certain constraints on tooth combination to meet gear train installation for assembly, load sharing for durability and phasing arrangement for noise concerns. To fully take the MP advantages for AT transmission applications, while increase the gear ratio selection was the primary motivation that prompted us to seek for some potential solutions on the MP arrangement. This report will provide the method for the proposed approach, and also reveal some of the associated assessment results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karthikeyan N, Anish Gokhale, Narendra Bansode
Abstract The Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) in scooters is used to transmit the power from the engine to the wheels. The CVT transmission consists of a drive pulley and a driven pulley connected to each other through a belt. The centrifugal clutch is attached to the rear pulley which transmits the power to the wheel. The engagement and disengagement of the clutch generates heat and friction heat is generated between the belt and pulley, thereby requiring continuous external cooling for its safe operation. A centrifugal fan is employed for cooling of the CVT belt. Since the cooling fan takes air from atmosphere, there is always a possibility of dust from the atmosphere entering the system, which might cause wear of pulley and belt, thereby decreasing the performance of the transmission system. The objective of the work is to analyze the dust ingress pattern in to CVT housing. The work aims at simulating the possible conditions for dust entry into the CVT housing for a complete scooter and the study of different design proposals to minimize the dust entry without compromising the cooling requirement of CVT.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Soovadeep Bakshi, Parveen Dhillon, Teja Maruvada
This paper presents the method of designing an optimized light weight, cost effective planetary gearbox for a Formula Student vehicle. The gearbox has a high speed functioning capability, in addition to the compact size and light weight. The iterative optimization procedure used provides a technique for selecting the best possible configuration of the gearbox. Conventional gearboxes used for this purpose are generally two step reduction gearboxes, which are bulkier in terms of weight and volume. Also, a review of the existing market reveals that the planetary gearboxes manufactured in India are not capable of handling high speeds, thus rendering them futile for racing applications. The target reduction ratio for the gearbox is a fixed parameter. The method involves design and optimization of the gear-train with the calculated ratio. A detailed algorithm has been used, which involves developing a mathematically modelled code for deciding gear characteristics, physical modelling using CAD, and structural testing of the same through simulation, with repeated iterations with a target to reduce both weight and volume.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chengwu Duan
A dog clutch, if successfully implemented in an automatic transmission, provides better packaging and the potential for improved fuel economy. The technical requirements for this concept are examined through modeling and simulation. As a first step, a physics-based component level model is developed that provides an understanding of the basic contact and impact dynamics. The model is compared to a built-in AMESim block to establish confidence. This component level model is then integrated into a powertrain system model within the AMESim environment. As a test bed, the powertrain model is exercised to simulate a friction plate to dog clutch shift in a 6-speed automatic transmission. The analysis helps to define the slip speed target at the onset of the dog clutch engagement while ensuring shift requirements are met. Finally, the model is validated by comparing the simulated results with measured dynamometer data.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Darrell Robinette
This investigation utilizes a DFSS analysis approach to determine automatic transmission gear content required to minimize fuel consumption for various powertrain - vehicle systems. L18 and L27 inner arrays with automatic transmission design and shift pattern constraint parameters were varied to determine their relative influence on fuel consumption. An outer noise array consisting of two vehicles with various engines, final drive ratios and legislated emissions test cycles was used to make a robust transmission selection based on minimizing fuel consumption. The full details of the DFSS analysis method and assumptions are presented along with a detailed examination of the results. With respect to transmission design parameters, parasitic spinloss and gear mesh efficiency were found to be most important followed by the number of gears. The DFSS analysis further revealed that unique transmission design formulations are potentially required for widely varying engines. The shift pattern constraint of minimum operating speed in gear that establishes the downshift line was found to be most significant while all other shift parameters proved to be negligible.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Darrell Robinette
This paper presents a methodology to represent automatic transmission clutch-to-clutch shift dynamics with a two degree of freedom, lumped inertia model. The method of reducing the automatic transmission to a lumped, two inertia model as a function of shift and input shaft acceleration is detailed using a full kinematic representation of the automatic transmission. For a given clutch-to-clutch shift maneuver there are two dependent equations that utilize the two lumped inertias and represent the response of the transmission system from input to output shaft. Applicability of the method is shown for planetary automatic and layshaft dual clutch transmissions. Typical clutch-to-clutch shift maneuvers are illustrated with the two inertia model for power on upshifts and downshifts. The simplification of automatic transmission shift dynamics using this method enables rapid synthesis of a given transmission powerflow for estimation of shift quality potential, required clutching torques, inertia phase engine torque intervention and output torque through all phases of a shift event.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hiroyuki Kitajima, Takanori Ide, Juan Leiva, Brian Watson, Shrinivas Lankalapalli
Abstract A design process to improve the structural performance under contact conditions of automatic transmission of vehicles is presented. The proposed process uses newly developed nonlinear contact optimization techniques. Additionally, useful structural optimization techniques such as 3D topography and the beta method are described. As a demonstrative problem, we consider the improvement of a 6- speed AISIN FWD automatic transmission which is subjected to static loadings and nonlinear contact conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
V. Sundaram, Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract The performance of the Transmission Oil Cooler (TOC) is influenced significantly by the TOC plumbing lines which transmit the oil from transmission system to the oil cooler and back. Designing the optimum TOC plumbing line with lesser pressure drop is the need of the hour considering the complex nature of the vehicle packaging. Reducing the pressure drop increases the oil flow rate through the transmission which results in optimum performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn shall improve the engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency shall result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Optimization solutions are required in the early product development cycle where the components are not readily available and/or are prohibitively expensive to do testing. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solutions. In this paper, the approach of creating a modeling tool for TOC plumbing line pressure drop is discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments. Dynamic and Static testing techniques were used to measure GSQ parameters like efforts during gear shift/select, feel of different phases of gear engagement /selection, gate definitions and lever travels; this helped in formulating objective metrics that can be used to create a definition of GSQ in a vehicle segment and an objective methodology to assess the same.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Elana Chapman, Jill Cummings, Mark Winston-Galant
Abstract Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution systems used for transportation of fuel from refineries. They are also used to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of the types of inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and to show how variation in concentration of components of CIs and detergents impact intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages and detergent packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels (Ethanol Fuel Blends), were studied for their impact on intake valve deposit formation in a naturally aspirated port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yao Fu, Yulong Lei, Sun Shaohua, Huabing Zeng, Ke Liu, Yuanxia Zhang
Abstract After the analysis of shift quality evaluation methods of stepped automatic transmission, the evaluation indexes of shift quality have been established based on power-on up-shift of DCT (dual clutch transmission). Shift quality objective evaluation method of DCT based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) model is proposed. Taking the ideal shift process as reference, the shift quality evaluation model based on absolute ideal solution is developed. A comparison with the subjective evaluations shows that the proposed method is in good agreement with the traditional subjective evaluation method. The TOPSIS model provides a new shift quality evaluation approach and thinking for stepped automatic transmission.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Md Abdul Quaiyum, Mohammed Ismail, Amir Fartaj
Abstract Channel diameter is one of the most important parameters of a heat exchanger especially for a highly viscous fluid-flow. Narrow channel heat exchangers are believed to have better energy efficiency due to elevated heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer and Fluid-flow behaviors of Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) have been experimentally investigated in a closed loop integrated thermal wind tunnel test facility using wavy finned Minichannel Heat Exchanger (MICHX). The experiment was conducted by varying the ATF Reynolds number from 3 to 30. The flow friction factors in minichannel were evaluated. For a fully developed laminar flow the friction factors were evaluated considering fluid viscosity effects due to temperature variation. The flow correlated with a Poiseuille equation while friction factors were analyzed considering constant property ratio. However, it showed different correlation when considered variable property ratio. A numerical analysis on friction factor for single serpentine MICHX did not follow the Poiseulle law for both cases of constant property ratio and variable property ratio.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Byungchan Lee, Dohoy Jung, John Myers, Jae-Hoon Kang, Young-Ho Jung, Kwang-Yeon Kim
Abstract A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation. The results from the study indicate that the potential fuel economy improvement during the driving cycle is 7.3 % at 24°C ambient temperature, and 20.1 % at −6.7°C.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data. In addition to importing measured test signals into the Autonomie environment, the process also calculated some of the critical missing signals, such as gear ratio and torque converter lockup.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tatsuya Osone, Terauchi Seiji, Takeshi Yamamoto, Fumihito Konagaya
Abstract Conflicting customer demands for reduction of CO2 emissions (fuel economy improvement) and enhancement of driving pleasure are continuing to become more rigorous all the time. Against this backdrop, JATCO launched the transmission for hybrid system with Nissan in 2010, followed by the development of a hybrid system for use on a front-wheel-drive midsize SUV in the North American market. Among the various types of hybrid systems proposed to date, this one-motor two-clutch (1M2CL) parallel hybrid system achieves high efficiency with no engine friction loss during the EV mode and energy regeneration. This paper describes the new Jatco CVT8 HYBRID (CVT8 HYBRID), it is newly developed packaging technologies for compactly mounting the 1M2CL parallel hybrid system on front-wheel-drive vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chen Wang, Zhiguo Zhao, Tong Zhang, Xianjun Dai, Xiyue Yuan
Abstract Several types of power-split hybrid transmissions are outlined and the strengths and weaknesses of typical compound power-split prototype designs are summarized in this paper. Based on an modified Ravigneaux gear set, a novel compound power-split hybrid transmission with compact mechanical structure is presented, its dynamic and kinematic characteristics in equations and operating modes are described, and then equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the proposed compound power-split device. Control strategies in different operating modes are discussed with the simplified combined lever diagram, and a global optimization method is implemented to find the optimum operation point for the hybrid powertrain. To evaluate the fuel economy of a hybrid car equipped with this hybrid transmission, a forward powertrain simulation model is developed and real vehicle performance tests are conducted in the chassis dynamometer. Simulations and test results show that the proposed hybrid transmission can improve the efficiency of the powertrain and demonstrate lower fuel consumptions than the corresponding conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xingxing Zhou, Paul Walker, Nong Zhang, Bo Zhu, Jiageng Ruan
Abstract This paper mainly studies the power losses in a refined two-speed dual clutch transmission which is equipped in a electric vehicle test rig. Both numerical and experimental investigations are carried out. After theoretical analysis of the power losses original sources, the developed model is implemented into simulation code to predict the power losses. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, results from experimental test are used to compare the difference the simulation and test. The simulation and test result agree well with each other. Results show that the power losses in the two-speed are mainly generated by multi-plate wet clutch drag torque and gear churning loss.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hiroko Ohtani, Khaled Zreik, Edgar Steigerwald, Martin Knaffel, Robert Neumann, Gordon P. Small, Gregory Mordukhovich, Tracey E. King
Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously. The Force Controlled Continuous Slip mode has demonstrated a correlation with anti-shudder performance in the field, whereas other tests revealed important properties such as torque capacity and shift qualities.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sandeep Mahadev Jadhav
Abstract Objective of this research is to reduce gear rattle and whine noise. Study includes measurement of noise, vibration on transmission for source identification in order to eliminate rattle, whine through optimization of gear design and clutch damper performance. In order to optimize, we measured transmission torsional vibration and analyzed for proper selection of clutch dampers to reduce engine vibration transfer function to transmission. Through Noise & Vibration FFT, order and color map analysis we identified noise sources and further scope for specific gears design improvement. Hence test methodology adopted for development of gears and clutch damper successfully eliminated noise.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Lloyd
Abstract A hydro-mechanical transmission is described that approximates the “gearing” performance of a continuously variable transmission and incorporates all functions required for hydraulic regenerative braking. Other characteristics such as efficiency, noise, and responsiveness, match or exceed that of present day conventional automatic transmissions. Performance and physical sizing are shown for passenger vehicle, bus and truck transmissions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James Gramling
Abstract It is very important to note that most present-day CVT's drive with a friction element. Unlike gears that can be produced with any size necessary for the torque load they must transfer, CVT's are limited in torque capacity and are only marginally suitable for small vehicle applications. A system is described using two variable-inertia flywheels to not only supply the heavy torque requirements during acceleration of a vehicle but also operate in reverse capturing the otherwise wasted decelerating torque (I.E. braking torque). This system (called Kinetic Energy Power Transmission System or KEPTS) provides all of the documented benefits of the use of an IVT for motor vehicle acceleration and also incorporates regenerative braking. The significance of the system is that besides providing a complete KERS (kinetic energy recovery and storage) system, all accelerating and braking torque is provided by the two variable-inertia flywheels, thus allowing the main motive engine (ICE, electric traction motor, gas turbine, etc.) to operate at a fixed angular velocity (rpm) isolated from large torque variances, and the CVT elements can be minimized in size (I.E. low-torque).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gabriela Achtenova
The target of the work is to find out the algorithm of definition of the ratios of mechanical part of complex powersplit CVT/IVT system with regard to the highest achievable efficiency. The presented synthesis is focused on powersplit systems, which will consist of a CVT part, differential and eventually by-pass gear. The algorithm will be programmed and become an integral part of the program Sungear developed on Czech Technical University in Prague for analyses and synthesis of planetary stepped transmissions and CVT/IVT powersplit systems. The article will mainly present the algorithm of definition of efficient powersplit system. For the search of the efficient powersplit system we assume that the following parameters are given: a Spread and efficiency of used CVT system.b Total spread of the whole powersplit CVT/IVT mechanism.c Optional: Ratios of the used CVT system.d Optional: Ratios of the whole powersplit CVT/IVT system. The more kinematic parameters will be given, the more constraints of mechanism are defined and the less optimization capabilities will remain.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hiromu Soya, Makoto Yoshida, Kazutaka Imai, Yoshitaka Miura, Yuuki Matsushita
Abstract The new Jatco CVT8 High Torque (CVT8 HT) was developed for use on front-wheel-drive vehicles fitted with a large displacement engine. The development objectives set for this new CVT with a high torque capacity were outstanding fuel economy, size and weight reductions. To achieve those targets, a high torque capacity CVT chain was newly developed in cooperation with LuK GmbH & Co. KG. This article describes the efforts undertaken to develop increasing torque capacity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Toshihiro Aoyama, Hideaki Takahara, Shinya Kuwabara, Hideki Miyata, Makoto Nakayashiki, Shinji Kasuga
Abstract In response to global demands for environmental conservation, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on the development of fuel-efficient technologies to help reduce global CO2 emissions. With the aim of simultaneously improving fuel economy and driveability, TOYOTA has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) vehicles in North America equipped with a 1.8-liter engine [1]. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy, including: the world's first coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, a flex start system, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a higher final gear ratio. This paper outlines the configuration, characteristics, performance, and new technologies of this CVT.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Abhijeet Pingale
Advancements in engine technology have increased overall torque rating of engine and demanded further improvement in transmissions to sustain higher input torque. Conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for these torque and gear inertia. It becomes necessary to use advanced material science and enhanced technology to synchronizer capabilities. Multi-cone compact synchronizer with carbon composite friction material technology has been tested successfully for these more demanding applications. This paper will focus on some of the key challenges in modern synchronized transmission, and way forward to address those. Some of the key areas delivering highest impact are being discussed. A combination of various techniques has enabled a significant reduction in overall transmission length along with enhancement in shift effort, life and overall performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Amit Sandooja
Abstract In a transmission for Automobiles, the driver's comfort of smooth shifting and selection of gears is a major concern for the transmission designer. To achieve this comfort, lot of work and improvement has been done in the past few years and still some more improvements are in continuation by the automobile manufacturer. Apart from the smooth shifting and selection of gears while driving, the safety of the driver is also a major concern for the vehicle manufacturer. This paper relates to a safety Interlock mechanism of vehicle gear shifter selector lever to a drive position, until a predetermined condition is satisfied. There are various gear shift pattern exists in the vehicles, which depends upon the number of gears in the gearbox. Generally, two types of gear shift pattern are commonly used in commercial vehicles. 1st-2nd, 3rd- 4th, 5th-6th, Rev and Rev-1st, 2nd-3rd, 4th-5th, 6th. In the first type of gear shift pattern, neutral gear is placed in between 3rd-4th gear and reverse gear is separate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chao Jiang, Wenhua Huang, Weirong Fang, Jun Xin
To meet the requirements of low fuel consumption, good driving performance, vehicle packaging constraint, and manufacturing feasibility, a new wet dual clutch transmission family has been developed by SAIC Motor. This paper will provide a design overview of the transmission architecture, main characteristics, key subsystems and control strategies. The paper will also provide an overview of the development process, and the fuel economy benefit to the vehicle. The transmission family adopts compact layout of gears and shafts, wet dual clutch, hydraulic system for actuation of clutch and forks, integrated parking system, integrated fork and synchronizer system, etc. To achieve compact package target, a coaxial dual clutch with integrated damper system, two countershafts system, and optimized layout of gear system are adopted. The technical features for low fuel consumption include waved clutch plates, targeted cooling of wet clutch, optimized gear ratios, optimized control strategies. The technical features for high driving performance include optimized control on clutch pre-filling and clutch swap, close loop control on gear engagement, optimized control on different driving mode.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2611