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Viewing 1 to 30 of 162
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Abstract Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are tested. Using a 3D virtual environment to enable testing of many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or cluster significantly reduces the amount of required road tests. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, a shared memory interface between MATLAB, Simulink, and Unreal Engine 4 can send information (such as vehicle control signals) back to the virtual environment. The shared memory interface conveys arbitrary numerical data, RGB image data, and point cloud data for the simulation of LiDAR sensors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0104
Maryam Moosaei, Yi Zhang, Ashley Micks, Simon Smith, Madeline J. Goh, Vidya Nariyambut Murali
Abstract In this work, we outline a process for traffic light detection in the context of autonomous vehicles and driver assistance technology features. For our approach, we leverage the automatic annotations from virtually generated data of road scenes. Using the automatically generated bounding boxes around the illuminated traffic lights themselves, we trained an 8-layer deep neural network, without pre-training, for classification of traffic light signals (green, amber, red). After training on virtual data, we tested the network on real world data collected from a forward facing camera on a vehicle. Our new region proposal technique uses color space conversion and contour extraction to identify candidate regions to feed to the deep neural network classifier. Depending on time of day, we convert our RGB images in order to more accurately extract the appropriate regions of interest and filter them based on color, shape and size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0103
Thomas Beyerl, Bernard Ibru, Charvi Popat, Deborah Ojo, Alexander Bakus, Jessica Elder, Valentin Soloiu
Abstract Autonomous vehicles must possess the capability to navigate complex intersections, which do not conform to typical models. Such intersections may have multiple roadways of different classes, highly acute angles, or unique multi-modal combinations. These may include railway grade crossings, bicycle lanes, or unique signal arrangements. Conventional navigation systems, which gather data from the surrounding area then plan a path through the collected data require faultless and complex analysis of extremely unstructured environments. The vehicle must then avoid obstacles as well as successfully navigate the intersection with extremely low tolerance for error. Computer decision making challenges can arise from this method of navigation, especially when interacting with non-autonomous vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0111
Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
Abstract As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
Abstract In this work, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) capabilities combined with classical autonomous vehicles’ on-board sensors (Camera) are used to trigger a Comfortable Emergency Brake (CEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve CEB in two phases, the Automated Comfortable Brake (ACB) and the full stop Automated Emergency Brake (AEB). The ACB is triggered first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the Camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop AEB. In the automated vehicle, the current traffic light color and duration received in the SPaT message is parsed; and compared with the TLD output for color matching.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
Abstract The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system (CPS) Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized regulatory rules, vehicles, infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring, active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users, traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0083
Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
Abstract This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Abstract Today, automated vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, we are currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X-based applications based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC). Moreover, the novel application intersection priority management (IPM) is part of the research project. IPM aims at automating intersections in such a way that vehicles can pass safely and even more efficiently without the use of traffic lights or signs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0079
Hao Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Yu Tang
Abstract Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1875
Jinghua Guo
Abstract The studies of coordinated control method for autonomous electric vehicles face two major challenges such as: I) Autonomous electric vehicles have the properties of uncertain nonlinearities and strong coupling, the platoon control system should effectively overcome these characteristics. II) Over-actuated tire actuators are equipped with in the autonomous electric vehicles to improve the system reliability, and reconfigurablity, the platoon control system should real-time handle the redundancy of tire actuators. This paper presents a novel nonlinear coordinated control scheme aimed at the improvement of the automatic driving performance of multiple autonomous electric vehicles in a platoon. First, a nonlinear mathematic model which perfectly describes the dynamic behaviors of autonomous electric vehicles is deduced using Newton-Euler theorem.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1596
Kenji Tadakuma, Tomoyuki Doi, Mitsuhisa Shida, Kazuhiro Maeda
Abstract An experimental study on reducing aerodynamic drag and improving fuel economy through vehicle platooning was conducted to develop an Intelligent Transport System (ITS) with good fuel economy of the entire vehicle-based transportation society. The objectives of the present study are to achieve a simple and quick approach to estimating the aerodynamic drag reduction rates of vehicle platooning. This paper reports the prediction formula, including the conditions of various types of vehicles in multiple-vehicle platooning, based on the power law of a free turbulent axisymmetric wake and on-road experimental results. Note, the prediction formula in this study does not fully include the effect of various type of wake deficit patterns due to rear shape of vehicle and atmospheric wind. Therefore, continuous study is needed to examine the applicable limit.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0153
Qingkun Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
Abstract This paper reports an effort to improve plan of vehicle trajectory using an approach with rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT), which has been widely adopted in the prior art for complex and dynamic traffic environment. Design and implement of an integrated threat assessment is presented that evaluates threats of the trajectory. A node and trajectory evaluation index was introduced into the proposed RRT algorithm to connect an appropriate node and select the best trajectory. The contribution of this paper is on the threat assessment that takes into account not only obstacle avoidance but also stability. The simulation is conducted and the results show that the proposed method works as expected and is valid and effective.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0220
Rahul Krishnan, Aniruddh Malpani
Abstract The paper presents a simple but effective algorithm for managing the signaling intervals at high density traffic intersections based on traffic intensity on a particular side. We observe that most high density traffic intersections receive heavy traffic from specific directions at specific timings which repeat periodically. So, the idea aims at providing less waiting time for vehicles at signals by manipulating the time intervals for the Red/Green signaling on the basis of vehicle density. The solution is designed to solve the problem of commuting time to some extent in a day to day life in densely populated countries where it becomes difficult to keep an easy check on the vehicle movement through manual efforts. This algorithm is also intended to help emergency vehicles which gets stuck into heavy traffic jams and in turn reduce casualties. This algorithm can also prove effective for pedestrian safety and for several other purpose.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2895
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang
Abstract This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2897
Rick Mihelic, Jeff Smith, Matthew Ellis
Abstract Modern aerodynamic Class 8 freight tractors can improve vehicle freight efficiency and fuel economy versus older traditional style tractors when pulling Canadian style A- or B-Train double trailer long combination vehicles (LCV's) at highway speeds. This paper compares the aerodynamic performance of a current generation aerodynamic tractor with several freight hauling configurations through computational fluid dynamics evaluations using the Lattice-Boltzmann methodology. The configurations investigated include the tractor hauling a standard 53′ trailer, a platooning configuration with a 30′ separation distance, and an A-Train configuration including two 48′ trailers connected with a dolly converter. The study demonstrates CFD's capability of evaluating extremely long vehicle combinations that might be difficult to accomplish in traditional wind tunnels due to size limitations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2896
Matthew Ellis, Joaquin Ivan Gargoloff, Raja Sengupta
Abstract The increasing importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the ongoing evolution of vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity technologies have generated significant interest in platooning for commercial vehicles, where two or more vehicles travel in same traffic lane in relatively close proximity. This paper examines the effect of platooning on four increasingly aerodynamic tractor-trailer configurations, using a Lattice Boltzmann based CFD solver. Each platoon consisted of three identical tractor-trailer configurations traveling in the same lane at 65mph. Two different vehicle to vehicle gaps were studied, 5m and 9m, in addition to singleton (solitary) vehicles, representing an effectively infinite gap. Aerodynamic drag for the lead, middle, and trailing vehicle in the platooning configurations were compared to the corresponding single vehicle tractor-trailer configuration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0469
Ning Wang, Yafei Liu
Abstract The Chinese government initiated the “Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicles” program for electric vehicles from the year of 2009 to 2012. The demonstration results indicate that an integral city readiness system is required in the promotion of electric vehicles, including the government policies, charging infrastructure, after-sales service, business models and consumer awareness. Through the analysis of related literature and summary reports from 25 demonstration cities, a partial least squares (PLS) path model with 5 major factors and 13 observation indicators was developed to assess the city readiness of electric vehicle adoption. The 5 factors consist of government policies and investment, charging infrastructure construction and operation, business models and maintenance service system, consumer awareness education, operation scope and environmental benefits. Based on the PLS results, 25 cities are classified into 6 groups with the clustering analysis model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
Abstract Our study unveils what smart cars are needed to minimize congestion by traffic stability. We have previously considered pacer cars with single lane road networks based on a car following model, e.g. adaptive cruise control (ACC). However, pacer cars may have a limitation with multi-lane roadways in terms of lane distribution of traffic and shockwave suppression. Therefore, we motivate building a new smart car which extends the capability of pacer cars allowing lane changing at the timing of congestion detection. In essence, the congestion detection plays a role of adjusting the (time) headway of smart cars to determine whether lane changes should be undertaken. Lane changes can be used to uniformize (or equalize) lane distribution for traffic (flow) stability. Our simulation study has suggested that the proposed smart cars enforce the capability of traffic stability more than manual and pacer cars.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0359
Alessandro Cezar Pinto, Geovanni Vezzaro Mattioli
Abstract This paper describes the development of an Intelligent Traffic Lights Control System using Fuzzy Logic concepts. Fuzzy Logic offers the possibility to ‘compute with words’, by using a mechanism for representing linguistic constructs common on real world problems. This is very important when the complexity of a task (problem) exceeds a certain threshold. Real world complex problems such human controlled systems involve a certain degree of uncertainty, which cannot be handled by traditional binary set theory. The algorithm implementation will be done inside Mathworks MATLAB software, and the results will be measured on Simulink Tool to create traffic scenarios and comparisons between simple time-based algorithms and the proposed system. During Project phase, a Robustness Parameter-Diagram will be used to design the system and cover its variables, error states, possible noises and control factors.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2007
Arturo Davila, Adria Ferrer
Abstract In recent years, platooning emerged as a realistic configuration for semi-autonomous driving. In the SARTRE project, simulation and physical tests were performed to validate the platooning system not only in testing facilities but also in conventional highways. Five vehicles were adapted with autonomous driving systems to have platooning functionalities, enabling to perform platoon tests and assess the feasibility, safety and benefits. Although the tested system was in a prototype, it demonstrated sturdiness and good functionality, allowing performing conventional road tests. First of all the fuel consumption decreased up to 16% in some configurations and different gaps between the vehicles were tested in order to establish the most suitable for platooning in terms of safety and economy. Additionally, the platooning technology enables a new level of safety in highways. Around 85% of the accident causation is the human factor.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0621
Hidetoshi Imaizumi, Koji Sengoku
This paper clarifies influence rate of traffic-flow and eco-driving factors that have effect on on-road fuel economy and a case study was conducted to estimate the CO₂ reduction potential due to traffic-flow smoothing and eco-driving promotion by analyzing floating car data from throughout Japan. The data employed in the study was obtained from hybrid vehicles equipped with an Eco Assist system. Previous research has reported that repeated use of these vehicles enhances fuel economy by approximately 10%. First, multiple regression analysis was performed on the subject floating car data to obtain a polynomial with fuel economy as the explained variable and items related to traffic flow and eco-driving as the explanatory variables. Average travel speed was found to have the greatest effect on fuel economy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0728
Hadj Hamma Tadjine, Benedikt Schonlau, Robert Schwaiger, Klaus Krumbiegel
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0099
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanchai Dechanupaprittha
Normally, the energy conversion efficiency in road vehicle was presented in term of amount of unit fuel per distance within specific condition where it could not be comparable in practice that the variations of dynamic traffic condition and driver behavior were impacted. To minimized energy consumption, the both traffic conditions and driver behavior needs to be managed. The traffic conditions improves as infrastructure development, but the driver behavior needs personal training with equipment In this study, the alternative practical indicator was proposed with applying specific positive kinetic energy concept to indicate the level of vehicle dynamic behavior which relate to the level of fuel consumption rate. Furthermore, the experimental were taken place in Pahonyothin Rd. (Bangkok, Thailand) including urban, sub-urban and highway with various traffic congestion level.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0064
Pallavi Kharade, Krishnan Kutty
Traffic information is very useful in planning and designing of road transport, ensuring efficient administration of road traffic, transportation agencies as well as for the convenience of road users. Traffic can be measured in terms of speed, density and flow. In this paper, we propose two different methods to measure traffic in terms of density and flow. The set up for the proposed traffic monitoring system includes a camera placed at a height from ground looking downward on the road, such that its field of view is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the traffic. The images of the road are continuously captured by the camera and processed to determine the traffic. The first method uses Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) to detect vehicles. Density is calculated in terms of area occupied by the vehicles on the road. Another method of measuring the traffic flow is proposed that is based on calculation of edge points on a horizontal line drawn in the image.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0142
Arturo Davila, Eduardo del Pozo, Enric Aramburu, Alex Freixas
Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE), a research project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, has developed the technology and the strategy to create fully functional road trains that allow vehicle platoons to operate in public highways. The project intends to establish important concepts to show why platooning systems are a good way to increase safety and reduce pollution on tomorrow's highways. As part of the activities within the project, the authors performed fuel consumption simulations to estimate the fuel consumption reduction of the platoon due to the aerodynamics improvement. Dynamic simulations of the platoon behaviour in certain normal and emergency situations were also performed. Fuel consumption tests were also performed in companies proving grounds. These tests were performed using two trucks and three cars. Different platoon configurations were used, involving some or all the vehicles.
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