Abstract For handheld power tools, a four-stroke engine allows compliance with exhaust emissions regulations although four-stroke engines available tend to have unfavorable power to weight. The requirement for a low cost diecast block compromises valve sizes and port flow. While dynamic valve train limitations restrict maximum engine speeds. The use of a rotary valve as opposed to poppet valves avoids these issues and results in an engine with competitive performance. The engine block can be diecast and the engine can operate up to 14,000 rpm without valve related issues. This paper describes the evolution of a rotary valve concept and its application to two 35cc handheld development engines. The HRCV35 is based on a belt driven rotary valve horizontally mounted parallel to the crankshaft axis. The VRCV35 is based on a gear driven rotary valve vertically mounted on the cylinder axis. In both configurations, the rotary valve exposes inlet and exhaust ports providing unrestricted flow. The valve generates turbulence for easy starting and can operate on low volatility fuels such as aviation kerosene or JP8.
Abstract One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, two-stroke SI engines equipped with a carburetor are the most widely used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. To date, research tended to focus on two-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the advantages and challenges of leaner and/or lean operation are discussed. Experimental investigations regarding the influence of equivalence ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and power have been performed. Accompanying 3D-CFD simulations support the experiments in order to gain insight into these complex processes. The investigations concentrate on two different mixture formation processes, i.e. CCI (crankcase injection) and LPDI (low pressure direct injection).
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) metric sockets, universal metric sockets, metric box wrenches and metric torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12 point fasteners conforming to the requirement of ISO 4095, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. This standard provides additional requirements beyond ASME B107.100 and B107.5M appropriate for aerospace use. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.
This document discusses, in broad general terms, typical present instrumentation practice for post-overhaul gas turbine engine testing. Production engine testing and engine development work are outside the scope of this document as they will typically use many more channels of instrumentation, and in most cases will have requirements for measurements that are never made in post-overhaul testing, such as fan airflow measurements, or strain measurements on compressor blades. The specifications for each parameter to be measured, in terms of measurement range and measurement accuracy, are established by the engine manufacturers. Each test cell instrument system should meet or exceed those requirements. Furthermore, each instrument system should be recalibrated regularly, to ensure that it is still performing correctly.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS)/Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS) specifies the minimum performance requirements of Remote On-Ground Ice Detection Systems (ROGIDS). These systems are ground-based. They provide information that indicates whether frozen contamination is present on aircraft surfaces.
This paper describes a recommended practice and procedure for the correlation of test cells that are used for the performance testing of turboprop and turboshaft engines. This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) shall apply to both dynamometer and propeller based testing. Test cell correlation is performed to determine the effect of any given test cell enclosure and equipment on the performance of an engine relative to the baseline performance of that engine.
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to define and recommend to the Aerospace Industry standardized test procedures for establishing fuel nozzle operating performance including types of tests, controlled and measured parameters, and test configurations.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been written for individuals associated with the ground-level testing of gas turbine engines and particularly for those who might be interested in upgrading their existing engine test facility to meet the airflow requirements for higher thrust engine models. The intellectual property rights on the material contained in this document are protected by US Patent Number 5,293,775 dated March 15, 1994 assigned to United Technologies Corporation, Hartford, Connecticut, USA. Any individual, or organization, attempting to use the system described in this document should get a clearance from United Technologies Corporation, to avoid any potential liability arising from patent infringement.
This document establishes the minimum criteria for effective training of air carrier and contractor personnel to deice/anti-ice aircraft to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during ground icing conditions. Appendix D specifies guidelines for particular airplane models.
This material establishes the minimum criteria for effective training of air carrier and contractor personnel to deice/anti-ice aircraft and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during ground icing conditions. This program will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground. It is for training Ground, Flight and Dispatch personnel. Background information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training and qualification process. A Standard Teaching Plan and the Practical Assessment are included. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments. Its purpose is to serve as a “Universal Deicing Training Manual”.
The purpose of this document is to provide industry recommennded proceduresguidelines for the methods and procedures used in performing the operations and services necessary for proper deicing and anti-icing of aircraft on the ground.
This document contains guidelines for establishing clear concise standardized communication and phraseology between aircraft Flight and Ground crews during aircraft deicing operations. It is very important that both parties communicate fully about contact requirements, aircraft configuration, de/anti-icing treatment needed and post deicing reporting requirements
This SAE Aerospace Information Resource Document (AIR) covers Forced Air technology including: reference material, equipment, safety, operation, and methodology. This resource document is intended to provide information and minimum safety guidelines regarding use of forced air or forced air/fluid equipment to remove frozen contaminants.. During the effective period of this document relevant sections herein should be considered and included in all/any relevant SAE documents.
This document is offered to provide state-of-the-art information about design factors that must be considered in the design of new or significantly modified engine test cells used to test propeller equipped turboprop engines in either QEC or bare engine configurations. The report does not address design considerations for test cells designed to test turboprop engines with dynamometer type load absorption devices because they are essentially tested as turboshaft engines. Design considerations for those test cells are presented in AIR4989, Reference 2.1.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
Scope is unavailable.
Development of a Drill Bit for CFRP/Aluminum-Alloy Stack: To Improve Flexibility, Economical Efficiency and Work Environment
In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) developed by a broad cross section of personnel from the aviation industry and government agencies is offered to provide state-of-the-art information for the use of individuals and organizations designing new or upgraded turboshaft engine test facilities.
Tools and Equipment
Tools and Equipment
Tools and Equipment
Tools and Equipment
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for evaluating the characteristics of heavy truck steering control systems under simulated driver impact conditions. The test procedure employs a torso-shaped body block that is impacted against the steering wheel.
This equipment recommended practice defines the requirements for a permanent vehicle-mounted or slip-in accessory device designed to transport and distribute aggregate de-icing, anti-icing, or friction modifying solid materials or wetted solid materials onto runways, taxiways, ramp, and terminal areas and other paved surfaces on an airport. It is not intended for liquid material spreaders which are addressed in ARP5559. The material spreader may be permanently mounted on a carrier vehicle, trailer, or semi-trailer, or temporarily installed on a carrier vehicle trailer, or semi-trailer for seasonal use only. The carrier vehicle may be dedicated to material spreading applications only, or provide additional functions such as a plow vehicle, flat bed or dump body. Carrier vehicles are self-propelled prime movers, generally a commercial or purpose-built truck that provides the mobility to move the material spreader on these paved surfaces. Carrier vehicle recommended practices may be found in ARP5943 plows and ARP5539, rotary plow with carrier vehicle.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
This aerospace recommended practice (ARP) addresses the care, use, and training required to employ an effective borescope inspection program. Five subsections are included that cover training, storage, preoperational inspections, operation, and postoperational care related to both rigid and flexible borescopes. Throughout this ARP, proper borescope system nomenclature and terminology are utilized as specified in SAE ARP4022, Borescope Inspection System Definitions.
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.