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2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as in the aircraft assembly are manually done by high experienced workers. The aircraft manufacturers deal with a varying number of items, growing product variants and an increase of requirements for their products. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. An important aspect is the maintenance of a high productivity and ensuring the competitiveness and the existence of manufacturing companies in Germany. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support and for the documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. Typically these fasteners are installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high flushness fastening of countersunk fasteners. The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener. The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Owing to high strength to weight ratio CFRP composite materials has been widely use in aerospace industries. However drilling CFRP laminates is difficult owing to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps as moving to fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reached and lift the drill. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a Robot.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2096
Simon Schnieders, Dirk Eickhorst
Drilling of high-strength titan material and composites in combination creates complex challenges in order to achieve required productivity and quality. Long spiral chips are characteristically for the titan drilling process, which leads to e.g. chip accumulation, high thermomechanical load, surface damages and excessive tool wear. The basic approach is the substitution of today’s peck-drilling as current solution to this problem and the implementation of a vibration assisted drilling, so called micro-peck-drilling-process, to generate a kinematic chip breakage in a significant more efficient way. To meet perfectly the requirements regarding rates, quality and automation level, Broetje-Automation as system integrator has investigated and developed the implementation of different alternative high-performance systems and methods to approach the optimal oscillation movement of the tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. In order to meet this challenge industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) – a European Union funded project with 31 partners – aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention is directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the prospective assembly process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach the required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC), which will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2082
Ralf Schomaker, Björn Knickrehm, Jürgen Langediers
In the frame of incremental product improvement, AIRBUS has developed and implemented a new innovative rapid decompression / pressure relieve concept for the cargo compartment area. The core change lays with detaching the complete cargo lining panels from the substructure in case of a rapid decompression in the cargo area instead of using dedicated blow in panels. In that way, pressure equilibrium can be achieved by air flow through the opened areas around the cargo lining panels rather than through specific blow out / blow in venting areas. The key for this is a self-detaching fastener AIRBUS has developed in an outstanding cooperation with ARCONIC Fastening Systems & Rings (former Alcoa Fastening Systems & Rings) in Kelkheim, Germany. These fasteners are installed to keep the cargo lining panels in place and tight against smoke in case of fire which is one of the main purposes for their use.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2127
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
Contribution of 3D printing in tooling and portable tools Application case for a Smart Driller The recent contribution rise in 3D printing is rapidly changing the whole industry. In aeronautics, it has 2 major domains of growth: • Aircraft parts • Tooling and portable tools Aircraft parts in metallic 3D printing have been highly publicized in the media, although they represent only a tiny share of the aircraft cell in the short term. On the other hand, metallic (and non-metallic) 3D printing in tooling and tools bring immediate advantages compared to traditional methods. The advantages • Design made directly from the final function • Optimized for strength vs weight • Weight reduction • Reduction in parts number • Short cycle time from design to use • Low cost for customization The drawbacks • Limited in size We have already applied this new manufacturing technique to obtain real breakthroughs in portable tools.
2016-08-12
Standard
AS90387D
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-07-06
Standard
AS4167C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
2016-06-06
Standard
AIR1589B
Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing.
2016-05-09
WIP Standard
ARP4902C
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.
2016-04-13
Standard
AS81824D
The AS81824 specification covers environment resistant, permanent crimp type, splices having heat shrinkable insulating sleeve and meltable environmental seals or heatless sealing sleeves. The splices may be used with tin, nickel, and silver plated conductors in applications where the total temperature of the splice application does not exceed 200 °C or as specified in the detail specification.
2016-04-04
Standard
AIR6894
This document describes laser wire stripping technologies and recommendations to strip electrical single conductor and shielded cables intended for aerospace applications. These recommendations include: Laser stripping safety guidelines Laser stripping quality Tool qualification Tool inspection User health and safety
2015-12-21
WIP Standard
ARP6898
The goal of this new document is to provide criteria for managing, auditing, and controlling the use of rotating balancing tooling and associated support tools. A variety of subjects will be addressed including serialization and marking requirements, critical inspection criteria, performance tracking through tooling compensation trend analysis, handling of gage standards (rotor simulators, master blades, dummy blades, etc.), recommendations for periodic and preventive maintenance intervals, test recommendations to evaluate rotating tooling performance, requirements for traceable measures (such as torques, runouts, eccentricity, etc.), repeatability characterization, and criteria for return to service.
2015-12-01
WIP Standard
AIR6364
The paper will discuss in general terms the activities required to be undertaken or demonstrated during the establishment of the facility
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0843
Marek Lajda, Sebastian Hook, Nikolai Reimgen
During the start-up phase of machines it can happen that tools are inadvertently rotating, which is caused by the half-throttle setting. Due to the starting throttle locking mechanism, the engine's rotational speed is above the engagement speed of the tool (for example the chain of a chain saw). This article describes the software algorithms developed by PRUFREX that are able to prevent rotation of the tool upon machine start at idle. The patented software solution is able to differentiate between start behavior with and without a starting throttle locking mechanism based on the machine's speed and time information and, as a result, can identify or estimate the position of the throttle valve. The effect of the algorithms is the switch-over between different ignition curves that are stored in the microcontroller-operated ignition modules. This includes a provision in the start ignition curve that prevents the tool from rotating.
2015-11-05
WIP Standard
AIR6355
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been written for individuals associated with ground level testing of turbofan and turbojet engines and particularly for those who might be interested in investigating the performance characteristics of a new test cell design or of proposed modifications to an existing test cell by means of numerical modeling and simulation.
2015-10-22
WIP Standard
AS6286/6
This document outlines permissible fluid application areas for Deicing and Anti-icing fluids, no-spray/no-direct fluid application areas, and other cautionary areas/items by aircraft type. The diagrams and cautions are generic representations of the aircraft types specified, and apply to all series/variants unless indicated otherwise. In conjunction with the main document and other related slash sheets it will provide guidelines for the proper procedures to deice and anti-ice aircraft on the ground information to support this training program is provided to make the material a better tool for the preparation and execution of the training & qualification. It is intended to provide a common basis for de-icing/anti-icing training and qualification for de- icing providers and airlines. This material was compiled using various international documents with support from SAE documents and individually contributed editorial comments.
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