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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2229
Byeongsoek Lee, Heechang Oh, SeungKook Han, SooHyung Woo, JinWook Son
There are two way to improve engine thermal efficiency. One is to improve the theoretical thermal efficiency by increasing the compression ratio and specific heat ratio. The other is to reduce various engine losses like friction, pumping, heat loss. For the development of Ultra High Efficiency, We designed the new 2.0L NA GDI engine based on HMC's Nu 2.0L GDI engine. We conducted various parameter studies related to gasoline combustion characteristic, such as compression ratio, ignition system, intake port design, cam duration, Cooled EGR, etc. As a result, we achieved the maximum thermal efficiency up to 42%(~200g/kWh) in stoichiometric AFR. This paper described the ways and possibilities to improve the maximum thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2204
Hoon Lee, Kwangwoo Jeong, Sanghoon Yoo, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim
Hyundai Motor Company recently developed a multi-way, electrical coolant valve for engine thermal management module. The main purposes of the system that replaces a mechanical thermostat are to boost fuel economy by accelerating warm-up and to enhance thermal efficiency by actively controlling engine operating temperature. The electrical valve controls the amount of coolant flow to components such as oil heat exchanger, heater core, and radiator, while providing separate cooling for engine block and head. The coolant flow is modulated by varying the valve angle actuated with an electric motor. The system operates under a thermal management strategy that consists of multiple phases including zero coolant flow mode, and for those phases that require coolant temperature control, a feedback algorithm is designed for the flow control.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2196
Giuseppe Cicalese, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Alessandro D'Adamo, Enrico Andreoli
High performance Diesel engines are characterized by remarkable thermo-mechanical loads. Therefore, compared to spark ignition engines, designers are forced to increase component strength in order to avoid failures. By the way, 3D-CFD simulations represent a powerful tool for the evaluation of the engine thermal field and may be used by designers, along with FEM analysis, to prevent thermo-mechanical failures. The current work aims at providing an integrated in-cylinder/CHT methodology for the estimation of a Diesel engine thermal field. On one hand, in-cylinder simulations are fundamental to evaluate not only the global heat transfer at the combustion chamber walls, but also its point-wise distribution. In particular, thanks to an improved heat transfer model based on a modified thermal wall function, wall heat fluxes due to combustion are correctly estimated.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2381
Kristian Hentelä, Ossi Kaario, Vikram Garaniya, Laurie Goldsworthy, Martti Larmi
In the present study, a new approach for modelling emissions of coke particles or cenospheres from large diesel engines using HFO (Heavy fuel oil) was studied. The used model is based on a multicomponent droplet mass transfer and properties model that uses a continuous thermodynamics approach to model the complex composition of the HFO fuel and the resulting evaporation behavior of the fuel droplets. Cenospheres are modelled as the residue left in the fuel droplets towards the end of the simulation. The mass-transfer and fuel properties models were implemented into a cylinder section model based on the Wärtsilä W20 engine in the CFD-code Star CD v.4.24. Different submodels and corresponding parameters were tuned to match experimental data of cylinder pressures available from Wärtsilä for the studied cases. The results obtained from the present model were compared to experimental results found in the literature.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2408
Lei Zhou, Hongxing Zhang, Zhenfeng Zhao, Fujun Zhang
The Opposed Piston Two-Stroke (OPTS) engine has several advantages for power density, fuel tolerance, fuel efficiency and package space. A new type of balanced opposed-piston folded-crank train two-stroke engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied in this paper. The effects of high altitude environment on engine performance and emissions are investigated by thermodynamic simulation. Moreover, the matching between the engine and turbocharger was designed and optimized for different altitude levels. The results indicate that a suitable turbocharger for OPTS engine can achieve the purpose of improving the quality of scavenging, lowering the fuel consumption and recovering power at high altitude environment. Finally, an optimized OPTS engine model especially for UAV is proposed in this research.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2442
Bingqing Xiao, Wei Wu, Jibin Hu, Shihua Yuan, Chenhui Hu
The prediction of temperature distribution and variation of oil-cooled sliding disk pair is essential for the design of wet clutches and brakes in vehicle transmission system. A heat transfer model is established in the study and some fluid-solid coupled heat transfer simulations are performed to investigate the thermal behaviors of wet clutch during sliding. Both cooling liquid and grooved solid disks are contained in the heat transfer model and the heat convection due to the cooling liquid in the radial grooves is also considered by fluid-solid coupled transient heat transfer simulations. The temperature distribution and variation of the grooved disk are discussed and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the temperature distribution on the grooved disk is nonuniform. The temperature within the middle radius area is higher than that in the inner and outer radius area. The outer radius temperature is higher than the inner radius temperature at the contact face.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2160
Ferdinand Spek, Maarten Weehuizen, Ilja Achterberg
In new aircraft programs, systems’ functionality is increasingly becoming integrated into modular avionics. Controllers may not be delivered by the systems supplier so this trend creates a new interface between systems and controllers. A functional software specification is therefore needed to facilitate the building of the software by the controller supplier. In the case of an ECS system controller, the hardware was obtained from different suppliers and a software functional specification was needed for the controller supplier. To be able to design and verify the system functionality, an integrated ECS simulation model was created which coupled the thermodynamics of the aircraft and ECS system to the controller actions. The model also included functionality to simulate sensor noise and component failures. The thermodynamic model was created in Matlab/Simulink and consisted of a combination of direct programming as well as data on a Flowmaster model for the bleed system.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2037
Daniel Schlabe, Dirk Zimmer, Alexander Pollok
The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. Allowing a temperature band of e.g. 2 K around the prescribed temperature, it is possible to use the cabin dynamics as an energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power, or reduce engine offtake if it is costly or not sufficiently available. In the same way, also the aircraft galleys can be exploited. Since ECS and galleys are among the largest consumers of electrical power or bleed air, there is a large potential on improving energy efficiency or reducing system mass to reduce fuel consumption of aircraft. This paper investigates different exploitation strategies of cabin and galley dynamics using modelling and simulation.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2038
Russell H. Strehlow
Abstract A Vapor Envelope is an ultra-thin-walled vapor chamber that enables a unique combination of lighter weight, lower profile, and lower cost for heat spreading or heat removal applications. It evolved from work done as part of a DARPA program on Thermal Ground Planes. This paper examines a published testing protocol for the measurement of the thermal resistance of thin flexible thermal ground planes. It then applies an adapted version of the published technique to measure the thermal resistance of a vapor envelope and a dimensionally equivalent solid copper heat spreader. Finally, it looks at the implications of a significantly lower thermal resistance for a specific configuration. The analysis of whether this adapted technique would provide a sufficient metric for industrial application identified the control and understanding of the thermal interface materials as a key determinate.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2044
Mithilesh Kumar Sahu, Tushar Choudhary, Sanjay Y
Aircraft engines powering propulsion of the aircraft is the key component of the system. In aircraft industry it is desirable that an aircraft engines should supply high speeds (for military fighters) with low maintenance (for civil airplanes). In this regard an integration of gas turbine engines with traditional propeller has been introduced and termed as turboprop engine. In present work, a gas turbine with cooled blading has been proposed to be the turboprop engine which has been exergoeconomically analysed to assess the performance and economics related to the proposed turboprop engine. Exergoeconomic analysis is a tool which combines thermodynamic analysis and economic principles to provide information that is helpful to predict thermodynamic performance and total cost of the engine (thermal system). The methodology includes energy, exergy and cost balance equations for component-wise modelling of whole system.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2045
Shivam Mishra, Sanjay Y
Gas turbine air-film blade cooling is widely used aero-derivative gas turbine blade cooling technique. The present paper reviews previously developed air-film blade cooling models. The article further proposes a new blade cooling model for estimating blade coolant mass fraction which takes into account the effect of radiative heat transfer from hot flue gases to aero-derivative gas turbine blade surface. Various possibilities to achieve enhanced performance from aero-derivative gas turbine have been enumerated namely effect of advanced design philosophies, thermal barrier coatings, advancement in blade material. Also adoption of advanced design philosophies such as 3-D CFD would lead to improved component design. Further use of advanced blade material specifically for gas turbine blade application including single-crystal blade, directionally solidified blade material being nickel-chrome-molybdenum alloys may be explored.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2046
Pejman Akbari, Ian Agoos
The Wave Disk Engine (WDE) is a novel engine that has the potential for higher efficiency and power density of power-generation systems. A recent version of wave disk engine architecture known as the two-stage WDE has been studied to address existing challenges of an existing WDE. After describing the engine operation, a cold air-standard thermodynamic model supporting the physical phenomena occurring inside the device is introduced to evaluate performance of the engine. The developed model is general and does not depend on the shape of the wave rotor, it can be applied to radial and axial combustion wave rotors integrated with turbomachinery devices. The analysis starts with predicting internal waves propagating inside the channels of the engine and linking various flow states to each other using thermodynamics relationships. The goal is to find analytical expressions of work output and efficiency in terms of known pressure and temperature ratios.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2039
Michael Sielemann, Changsoo Lee, Victor-Marie LeBrun, Chiwoo Ahn, Arnaud Colleoni, Dongkyu Lee, JeongSeok Lee, Anh Nguyen, Katrin Proelss, Hyon Min Yoon
Abstract Thermal management on aircraft has been an important discipline for several decades. However, with the recent generations of high performance aircraft, thermal management has evolved more and more into a critical performance and capability constraint on the whole aircraft level. Fuel continues to be the most important heat sink on high performance aircraft, and consequently the requirements on thermal models of fuel systems are expanding. As the scope of modeling and simulation is widened in general, it is not meaningful to introduce a new isolated modeling and simulation capability. Instead, thermal models must be derived from existing model assets and eventually enable integration across several physical domains. This paper describes such an integrated approach based on the Modelica Fuel System Library and the 3DExperience Platform.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2158
Fernando Stancato, Luis Carlos dos Santos, Marcelo Pustelnik
Abstract A problem of interest of the aeronautical industry is the positioning of electronic equipment in racks and the associated ventilation system project to guarantee the equipment operational conditions. The relevance of the proper operation of electronic equipment increases considerably when high economical costs, performance reduction and safety are involved. The appropriate operational conditions of the electronic components happen when the working temperature of the equipment installed in the rack is inside a safety project temperature margin. Therefore, the analysis and modelling of heat transfer processes for aircraft rack design becomes mandatory. This paper presents a parametric study considering volumetric and superficial heat generation in electronic equipment within racks in an aircraft. Simulations were performed using the commercial CFD Fluent code and results were compared to experimental data.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2062
Tushar Choudhary, Mithilesh Sahu, Shreya KRISHNA
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is the most promising candidate for utilization of waste generated from the GT based power system. By coupling SOFC with gas turbine (GT) based power system, a hybrid SOFC–GT power system has been developed and the thermal efficiency of the system can be enhanced upto 70-85%. This paper focuses of thermodynamic analysis of an internal reformed solid oxide fuel cell which is integrated with the gas turbine cycle to form a hybrid power generation system for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a long range. Thermodynamic 1st and 2nd law, parametric analysis has been carried out and the effect of various parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, air flow rate has been examined. In order to validate the results, present work has been compared with the available literature and it shows good agreement.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0107
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Vittorio Rocco, Michela Costa, Daniele Piazzullo
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are characterized by complex phenomena involving spray dynamics and possible spray-wall interaction. Control of mixture formation is indeed fundamental to achieve the desired equivalence ratio of the mixture, especially at the spark plug location at the time of ignition. Droplet impact on the piston or liner surfaces has also to be considered, as this may lead to gasoline accumulation in the liquid form as wallfilm. Wallfilms more slowly evaporate than free droplets, thus leading to local enrichment of the charge, hence to a route to diffusive flames, increased unburned hydrocarbons formation and particulate matter emissions at the exhaust. Local heat transfer at the wall obviously changes if a wallfilm is present, and the subtraction of the latent heat of vaporization necessary for secondary phase change is also an issue deserving a special attention.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0016
Morris Langwiesner, Christian Krueger, Sebastian Donath, Michael Bargende
Abstract The real cycle simulation is an important tool to predict the engine efficiency. To evaluate Extended Expansion SI-engines with a multi-link cranktrain, the challenge is to consider all concept specific effects as best as possible by using appropriate submodels. Due to the multi-link cranktrain, the choice of a suitable heat transfer model is of great importance since the cranktrain kinematics is changed. Therefore, the usage of the mean piston speed to calculate a heat-transfer-related velocity for heat transfer equations is not sufficient. The heat transfer equation according to Bargende combines for its calculation the actual piston speed with a simplified k-ε model. In this paper it is assessed, whether the Bargende model is valid for Extended Expansion engines. Therefore a single-cylinder engine is equipped with fast-response surface-thermocouples in the cylinder head. The surface heat flux is calculated by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0032
Gilles Decan, Stijn Broekaert, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Jan Vierendeels, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract The present work details a study of the heat flux through the walls of an internal combustion engine. The determination of this heat flux is an important aspect in engine optimization, as it influences the power, efficiency and the emissions of the engine. Therefore, a set of simulation tools in the OpenFOAM® software has been developed, that allows the calculation of the heat transfer through engine walls for ICEs. Normal practice in these types of engine simulations is to apply a wall function model to calculate the heat flux, rather than resolving the complete thermo-viscous boundary layer, and perform simulations of the closed engine cycle. When dealing with a complex engine, this methodology will reduce the overall computational cost. It however increases the need to rely on assumptions on both the initial flow field and the behavior in the near-wall region.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0158
Teresa Castiglione, Giuseppe Franzè, Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel control architecture for dealing with the requirements arising in a cooling system of an ICE. The idea is to take advantage of the joint action of an electric pump and of an ad-hoc regulation module, which is used to determine adequate flow rates despite engine speeds. Specifically, a robust Model Predictive Control approach is exploited to take care formally of input/output constraints and disturbance effects of the resulting lumped parameter model of the engine cooling system, which incorporates the nucleate boiling heat transfer regime. Numerical simulations and test rig experimental data are presented. The results achieved show that the proposed control scheme is capable of providing effective and safe cooling while mitigating disturbance effects and minimizing coolant flow rates when compared with the action pertaining to standard crankshaft driven pumps.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0021
Sabino Caputo, Federico Millo, Giancarlo Cifali, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Abstract One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0041
Daniele Piazzullo, Michela Costa, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Vittorio ROCCO
Abstract During gasoline direct injection (GDI) in spark ignition engines, droplets may hit piston or liner surfaces and be rebounded or deposit in the liquid phase as wallfilm. This may determine slower secondary atomization and local enrichments of the mixture, hence be the reason of increased unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter emissions at the exhaust. Complex phenomena indeed characterize the in-cylinder turbulent multi-phase system, where heat transfer involves the gaseous mixture (made of air and gasoline vapor), the liquid phase (droplets not yet evaporated and wallfilm) and the solid walls. A reliable 3D CFD modelling of the in-cylinder processes, therefore, necessarily requires also the correct simulation of the cooling effect due to the subtraction of the latent heat of vaporization of gasoline needed for secondary evaporation in the zone where droplets hit the wall. The related conductive heat transfer within the solid is to be taken into account.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0161
Noboru Uchida, Hideaki Osada
Abstract To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.
2017-07-24
Technical Paper
2017-01-5003
Igor V. Gritsuk, Valery Aleksandrov, Sergii Panchenko, Artur Kagramanian, Oksana Sobol, Aleksandr Sobolev, Roman Varbanets
Abstract Thermal control of a vehicle engine operation is a key aspect of the development of a vehicle warming-up systems. The use of heat accumulators and phase transition heat-accumulating materials is perspective. The given article describes the ways of improving thermal properties of phase transition heat-accumulating materials in the processes of their designing, the efficient ways of heat transfer from phase transition heat-accumulating materials to heat carrying agent of heat accumulators and then to vehicles. To create reliable phase transition heat-accumulating materials, different ways of their realization are suggested. One of them is the construction of the corresponding phase diagrams to determine an optimal composition of phase transition heat-accumulating materials with higher thermal properties to operate in a given temperature range.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1958
Jyothivel Giridharan, Gokul Kumar
Bio-fuels potentially represent a more environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as they produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when burned. Ethanol is one such bio-fuel alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. Towards the initiative of sustainable transportation using alternative fuels, it is attempted to develop an ethanol powered engine for commercial vehicles and this paper attempts to explain the 1D thermodynamic simulation carried out for predicting the engine performance and combustion characteristics, as a part of the engine development program. Engine simulation is becoming an increasingly important engineering tool for reducing the development cost and time and also helps in carrying out various DOE iterations which are rather difficult to be conducted experimentally in any internal combustion engine development program. AVL Boost software is used for modeling and simulation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1951
K Nantha Gopal, B. Ashok, Rishabh Bahuguna, Tanmay Prasad
Abstract Thermal management is one of the most challenging and innovative aspects of the automotive industry. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling framework unequivocally relies upon the air stream through the radiator core. Significant advances in thermal management are being embraced in the field of radiator material and coolant. The radiator shouldn't be exclusively credited for the reliable cooling of the engine. There are other auto parts that play an essential role in keeping engine temperature at a manageable level. The fan-shroud assembly is an important component of the cooling system. While the fan is responsible for drawing in air, the fan shroud's job is to ensure uniform air distribution to the radiator core. By assisting airflow in the engine compartment the fan shroud helps in dismissing excess heat from the engine. This assembly also prevents the recirculation of heated air through the cooling fan.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9279
Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9281
Nuria Garrido Gonzalez, Roland Baar, Jens Drueckhammer, Christoph Kaeppner
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
2017-06-28
Journal Article
2017-01-9180
Johannes Wurm, Eetu Hurtig, Esa Väisänen, Joonas Mähönen, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
2017-06-27
Journal Article
2017-01-9179
Mike Liebers, Dzmitry Tretsiak, Sebastian Klement, Bernard Bäker, Peter Wiemann
Abstract A vital contribution for the development of an environmental friendly society is improved energy efficiency in public transport systems. Increased electrification of these systems is essential to achieve the high objectives stated. Since the operating range of an electrical vehicle is heavily influenced of the available energy, which primarily is used for propulsion and thermal passenger comfort, all heat losses in the vehicle systems must be minimized. Especially for urban buses, the unwanted heat losses through open doors while passengers are boarding, have to be controlled. These energy fluxes are due to the large temperature gradients generated between in- and outdoor conditions and to install air-walls in the door opening areas have turned out to be a promising technical solution. Based on air-wall technologies used for climate control in buildings, this paper presents an experimental investigation on the reduction of heat losses in the door opening of urban buses.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0011
J. Ocampo, S. Jelic, J. Han
Abstract Thermal performance of a brake system is one of the key attributes in a new vehicle development process. Adequate brake cooling characteristics are part of the vehicle performance and safety requirements. The design of a new brake system, however, can be a complex task from a thermal engineering perspective, particularly because of complex interactions between the brake component and the rest of the vehicle. Frequently, the vehicle integration issues are the most serious challenges for brake engineers. There are considerations on how much heat should be dissipated from a single and/or consecutive braking events vs. how much cooling can be provided to the brake corner. Design issues such as where to direct the cooling air to how much flexibility is allowed while complying with other requirements from the studio and aero teams. For a brake engineer, the priority is to maximize cooling to the brake corner and prevent system failure.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2632

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