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Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios. Instantaneous engine performances including torque and speed, gaseous emissions such as CO, THC and NOx, and particulate emissions for its number and mass are analyzed during each transient scenario under different ambient conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Bongkeun Choi
Abstract In this paper an effective technology of virtual thermal test of disc brake with several advanced analytic techniques was presented. With the virtual thermal test process, thermal performance of brake system could be easily evaluated without any possibility of great errors that used to happen in the past. In addition to the classical result of CFD, this virtual thermal test produced several valuable applications such as thermal deformation of rotor, optimization of thermal performance and estimation of braking distance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Abdulwahab A. Alnaqi, Suman Shrestha, David C. Barton, Peter C. Brooks
Abstract Aluminium alloys have been used extensively in the automotive industry to reduce the weight of a vehicle and improve fuel consumption which in turn leads to a reduction in engine emissions. The main aim of the current study is to replace the conventional cast iron rotor material with a lightweight alternative such as coated aluminium alloy. The main challenge has been to meet both the cost and functional demands of modern mass-produced automotive braking systems. A sensitivity analysis based on the Taguchi approach was carried out to investigate the effect of various parameters on the thermal performance of a typical candidate disc brake. Wrought aluminium disc brake rotors coated with alumina on the rubbing surfaces were determined to have the best potential for replacing the conventional cast iron rotor at reasonable cost. Optimisation of the structure was subsequently carried out using a genetic algorithm on the selected coated aluminium disc brake rotor. This determines the optimum thickness of the coating and the composition of the substrate based on selected criteria.
WIP Standard
2014-05-23
This test method specifies the operating conditions for a fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) and condensation apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive exterior components. Specimen preparation, test duration, and performance evaluation procedures are addressed by each automotive manufacturerÕs material specifications. This SAE Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this document to consult and establish appropriate and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Significance and Use This test method is designed to simulate extreme environmental conditions encountered on the outside of an automobile due to sunlight, heat, and to provide an acceleration of exposure for the purpose of predicting the performance of exterior automotive materials. Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions reported in this method are nominal.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focusses on state of the art simulation technologies for modeling thermal systems and their application in the development and optimization of vehicle thermal management and fuel economy. The papers included will range from empirical, 1D modeling methods to three dimensional CFD models as well as coupled methods.
Standard
2013-11-13
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to compare the results of Florida exposure at 45 deg from the horizontal, facing south, with those at deg from the horizontal, facing south, using various types and colors of automotive finishes.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jeffrey Morgan
Since the 1960's, lightning protection of aircraft has been an important design aspect, a concern for the flying public, aircraft manufacturers and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). With the implementation of major aircraft structures fabricated from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials, lightning protection has become a more complicated issue to solve. One widely used material for lightning strike protection of CFRP structures within the aerospace industry is expanded metal foil (EMF). EMF is currently used in both military and commercial passenger aircraft. An issue that has historically been an area of concern with EMF is micro cracking of paint on the composite structure which can result in corrosion of the metal foil and subsequent loss of conductivity. This paper addresses the issues of stress and displacement in the composite structure layup which contribute to paint cracking caused by aircraft thermal cycling. The analysis of EMF by computer modeling is made using commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics software that is supported by data from limited experimental testing.
Standard
2012-11-19
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies the operating procedures for a controlled irradiance, air-cooled xenon-arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive interior trim components. Test durations, as well as any exceptions to the sample preparation and performance evaluation procedures contained in this document, are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
Standard
2012-11-19
This SAE Standard specifies the operating procedures for a controlled irradiance, air-cooled xenon-arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive exterior materials. The sample preparation, test durations, and performance evaluation procedures are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
Technical Paper
2012-10-02
Vinicius Durazzo Negrisolo, Ayres P. Andrade Filho, Edson Nascimento, Jose Marcelo Moura Silva, Edgard Ferraz
As part of any water pump development for engine cooling system, the interaction between materials with different coefficient of thermal expansion is unexceptional. Though in very specific applications where the coolant temperature is over 115°C several factors and variables can cause movement between parts because of the interference and coefficient of thermal expansion interaction combined with engine vibration and external loads. These factors were listed and evaluated considering several variables being validated physically and by simulation resulting on an optimized method to enhance this kind of fixation.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Juan Du
This paper presents a method of calculating temperature field of the piston by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to identify the unknown boundary conditions. Because of the complexity of the heat transfer and limitations of experimental conditions of heat transfer analysis of the piston in a diesel engine, boundary conditions of the piston temperature field were usually obtained empirically, and thus the result itself was uncertain. By employing the capability of resolution analysis from a wavelet neural network, the method obtains improved boundary heat transfer coefficients with a limited number of measured temperatures. Using FEA software iteratively, results show the proposed wavelet neural network analysis method improves the prediction of unknown boundary conditions and temperature distribution consistent with the experimental data with an acceptable error.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Zhelin Dong, Guohua Chen, Yankun Jiang, Chunfa Wang
A transient gas-solid heat transfer model for the 3-D (three-dimensional) coupling components in internal combustion chamber was built. In order to implement this model, a transient heat transfer program based on FEM (finite-element method) was developed, the KIVA3V code was improved, and a KIVA-FEM interface program was developed. A special treatment for the grid generation were designed and utilized. The 3-D transient non-uniform gas temperature field and convective heat transfer coefficient distribution near the combustion chamber wall can be obtained using this heat transfer model. In addition, both steady and transient temperature fields of the 3-D coupling component system of a gasoline engine were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the temporal and spatial non-uniformity of thermal boundary conditions has an important influence on the steady temperature field, transient temperature field and heat flux of the combustion chamber wall.
Standard
2011-12-06
The scope of this SAE Information Report is to acquaint and inform those concerned with cold weather operation of diesel-powered machines and vehicles with the selection and application of electrically powered starting aids currently available. It deals specifically with the design, function, and application of line voltage electrically powered engine preheaters and battery warmers.
Standard
2011-12-06
This SAE Standard describes electric immersion engine preheaters for use in the coolant jacket of heavy-duty and intermediate size diesel engines. This document gives the dimensional information of the four basic styles of engine preheaters. The tables for each style will list the wattage commonly used. Small engines that typically require less than 600 W of preheat for cold weather starter are not covered by this document. These types of engines generally have very little space available to accommodate an immersion heater of the styles presented in this document. The purpose of this document is to establish commonality of engine preheater designs. The user of this document can use these current styles and wattages early on in their designing. This will give the user of this document a good engine preheater design.
Standard
2011-11-30
This standard covers off-road, self-propelled work machines as categorized in SAE J1116. This standard outlines requirements that must be met in order for the heating equipment to perform satisfactorily on construction and industrial machinery. This standard describes a general set of parameters covering fuel-fired heaters for heating and defrosting cabs on construction and industrial machinery.
Standard
2011-11-30
This information report covers fuel fired pre-heaters which burn gasoline, diesel, or propane fuels. This type of heater must be used in remote areas where 110/220 V, 60 Hz electric power is not available, and is recommended anywhere an on-board self-contained system is required. The guidelines in this report are applicable, but not limited to, fuel burning heater installations on the off-road self-propelled work machine described in SAE Recommended Practice J1116.
Standard
2011-10-27
This SAE Information Report establishes performance requirements for devices used to warm diesel fuel before entering the fuel filter(s).
Standard
2011-10-27
This SAE Information Report recommends the requirements for the location of ether atomizers.
Technical Paper
2011-10-06
Hong Rok Shim, Jong Min Park
Vehicle engine cooling and under-floor heat protection is very important at the early stage of vehicle development. Nowadays, numerical analysis in this area is very common. Engineers can decide the radiator and bumper opening area, fan and radiator size by engine room airflow and temperature distribution analysis. At the same time, the results also can be used to prove effective heat protection method for the vulnerable components around the exhaust manifold and pipe. But, solving both cases at the same time is considered as very difficult because of large analysis domain, complicate model and very long solving time. The study provides an effective method for analysis the engine cooling and heat damage by two-way coupling between CFD code Star-CCM+ and a special heat transfer program RadTherm. Especially, the study attempted transient analysis at the ignition off condition just after 8%, 50kph uphill driving. At ignition off condition some components are over the limited temperature because of sudden disappearance of convection airflow.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
Shinan Chang
Electro-thermal deicing process was an unsteady heat transfer process including phase change. Based on the investigation of such a process, a code was developed to numerically simulate electro-thermal deicing process. Phase change was performed by an enthalpy method. A staircase approach was used to describe the variable ice thicknesses along the icing surface. The control volume method was adopted to discretize the governing equations. Tri-diagonal matrix method, alternating direction implicit method and block-correction technique were used to solve the discrete equations. Results of temperature distribution in this investigation were compared with experimental results of previous study. Their good agreements indicate the validity of our simulation. The effects of icing conditions, such as ambient temperature, liquid water content (LWC) and flight velocity, etc., were analyzed through a case. Some useful conclusions were achieved.
Standard
2011-05-16
This test method specifies the operating procedures for using a solar fresnel reflector apparatus for the accelerated exposure of various automotive materials. Sample preparation, test durations, and performance evaluation procedures are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Hai Xu, Avinash Singh, Don Maddock, Ahmet Kahraman, Joshua Hurley
In recent years, there has been a sustained effort by the automotive OEMs and suppliers to improve the vehicle driveline efficiency. This has been in response to customer demands for greater vehicle fuel economy and increasingly stringent government regulations. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline, and hence represents an area where power loss improvements can have a significant impact on overall vehicle fuel economy. Both the friction induced mechanical losses and the spin losses vary significantly with the operating temperature of the lubricant. Also, the preloads in the bearings can vary due to temperature fluctuations. The temperatures of the lubricant, the gear tooth contacting surfaces, and the bearing contact surfaces are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life, and wear. It is therefore important to understand the temperature variations in an automotive rear axle as a function of operating loads and speeds.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Rainer Immel, André Mack-Gardner
The fueling of hydrogen vehicles in three minutes enabling ranges above 500 km offers a significant advantage over other types of electric powertrain vehicles. SAE J2601, published in 2010, offers the first and only worldwide guideline to standardize fueling methodology. Due to the properties of hydrogen and compressed storage, each type and geometry tank heats up differently. Therefore, a hydrogen fueling methodology needs to take into account the range of storage anticipated from all automakers. This paper will describe a simulation tool developed in order to be able to assist in the development of a fueling procedure for General Motors Company; SAE J2601 team and the validation thereof. A reduced numerical simulation model has been developed that simulates the thermal response of a compressed gas storage tank operated under transient conditions. The stored gas is represented as a lumped mass with a spatially uniform temperature and pressure distribution inside the cylinder; a real gas model is employed to calculate the gas properties.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency. The radiation model is verified according to a theoretical-numerical comparison on a schematic test case; the whole methodology is then validated on a simple prototype of lamp with the aid of experimental investigations.
Technical Paper
2010-10-06
Fabricio Cardinali Rezende, Danilo M. Batista, Thais C. S. Santos, Cristiana Brasil Maia, Elizabeth Marques Duarte Pereira
The main objective of this work is to study the influence of temperature and weather conditions on the thermal behavior of the plastic components of a vehicle considering several environmental conditions. It is intended to correlate and validate the solicitations currently reproduced in laboratory tests of thermal fatigue to real solicitations obtained in actual field. The developed methodology includes the evaluation of weather maps from several regions of Brazil to identify the critical conditions. The experimental planning comprehends the evaluation of the ambient temperature, the solar radiation and the temperature of the plastic parts, mounted inside and outside a vehicle.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Vittorio Manente, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, William Cannella
The effects of fuel properties on the performance and emissions of an engine running in partially premixed combustion mode were investigated using nine test fuels developed in the gasoline boiling point range. The fuels covered a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. The fuels were characterized by performing a load sweep between 1 and 12 bar gross IMEP at 1000 and 1300 rpm. A heavy duty single cylinder engine from Scania was used for the experiments; the piston was not modified thus resulting in the standard compression ratio of 18:1. In order to properly run gasoline type of fuels in partially premixed combustion mode, an advanced combustion concept was developed. The concept involved using a lot of EGR, very high boost and an advanced injection strategy previously developed by the authors. By applying this concept all the fuels showed gross indicated efficiencies higher than 50% with a peak of 57% at 8 bar IMEP. NOx were mostly below 0.40 g/kWh only in few operative points 0.50 g/kWh was reached.
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