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Viewing 211 to 47 of 47
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Abstract Aerogels are nanoporous structures with physical characteristics that make them promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems: highly porous with low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) - features that provide favorable characteristics for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (∼0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand high temperatures. Aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method employed in this work for aerogel preparation, describes in detail the benchtop scale testbed and methods used to assess the catalytic activity of RSCE fabricated aerogels, and presents data on the catalytic ability of some promising aerogel chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0891
Teri D. Kowalski, Satoshi Hirano, William A. Buscher, Eric Liu, Jerry C. Wang, James L. Linden
Abstract The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0371
Wenkai Li, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su
Abstract In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives correspond to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested at ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the fatigue crack propagation fracture surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are the very important tools to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure the dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be certificated. In the neck certification procedure, the head angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neck base. To get the head angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummy head. The rotation is then calculated from those potentiometer readings. There are two potentiometers mounted in the Hybrid III family dummies, while three potentiometers mounted in ES2, ES-2re, SID-IIs, and WorldSid 50th dummies. In the certification, maximum head angle and time occurred should be within certain ranges in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2 and WorldSid 50th dummies, not only the maximum head angle, but also the other angles and their timings should meet the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0201
Armin Traussnig, Wilko Jansen, Heinz Petutschnig, Sepp Steiner, Petra Gruen
Abstract In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0197
Ravi Ranjan, Kaushal Kumar Jha, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
Abstract The traditional approach of engine thermal behavior of engine during startup has largely been dependent on experimental studies and high fidelity simulations like CFD. However, these techniques require considerable effort, cost and time. The low fidelity simulations validated with experimental results are becoming more popular due to their ease in handling the several parameters such as cost effectiveness and quick predictive results. A four point mass model of engine thermal behavior during cold start has been developed to study the engine warm up temperature behavior. The four point mass model considers the lumped mass of coolant, mass of engine directly associated with the coolant, mass of engine oil and mass of engine directly associated with the engine oil. The advantage of four point model is to predict the coolant temperature as well as lubricant temperature during the transient warm up cycle of the engine.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0192
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ahmed Uddin
Abstract Engine mount is one of the temperature sensitive components in the vehicle under-hood. Due to increasing requirements for improved fuel economy, the under-hood thermal management has become very challenging in recent years. In order to study the effects of material thermal degradation on engine mount performance and durability; it is required to estimate the temperature of engine mount rubber during various driving conditions. The effect of temperature on physical properties of natural rubber can then be evaluated and the life of engine mount can be estimated. In this paper, a bench test is conducted where the engine mount is exposed to a step change in the environment around it, and the temperature of the rubber section is recorded at several points till a steady state temperature is reached. A time response curve is generated, from which a time constant is determined.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0232
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Song Lan, Richard Stobart
Abstract Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0578
Giuseppe Cicalese, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi
Abstract New SI engine generations are characterized by a simultaneous reduction of the engine displacement and an increase of the brake power; such targets are achieved through the adoption of several techniques such as turbocharging, direct fuel injection, variable valve timing and variable port lengths. This design approach, called “downsizing”, leads to a marked increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the thermal field is of primary importance in order to avoid mechanical failures. Moreover, the correct evaluation of the temperature distribution improves the prediction of pointwise abnormal combustion onset.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0575
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Shyam Jade
Abstract Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0415
Sijin Wu, Xinya Gao, Yong Lv, Yanpeng Jiang, Yao Fang, Aiguo Zhou
Abstract Temporal phase-shifting and spatial-carrier techniques are the two dominant phase extraction methods used in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI). Temporal phase-shifting technique enjoys the advantages of precise phase extraction and capability of high-quality phase map formation, but suffers from the limitation in its use in dynamic measurement due to the time cost for carrying out the phase shift. To meet the rising demand of dynamic measurement of deformations in modern industry, spatial-carrier technique is developed to extract the phase information from a single speckle interferogram, yielding less time cost during a test. In this paper, both temporal phase-shifting and spatial-carrier techniques are investigated in theory as well as experiment. The experiment results from measuring a same deformation behavior using both techniques are used to compare the performances of the two phase extraction techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0418
Xin Xie, Danielle Zeng, Junrui Li, Jeffrey Dahl, Qiancheng Zhao, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0410
Joseph V. Gabiniewicz, Douglas M. Baker, Michael Testani
Abstract Historically, driveshaft torque data has been obtained using slip rings. Slip rings, however, are expensive, and require time-intensive driveshaft modifications for proper installation. In addition, the time and expense involved in field servicing units is prohibitive. For these reasons, AISIN Technical Center of America (ATCA) investigated a viable telemetry solution. At the onset of this development activity, existing torque telemetry solutions had their own issues. In particular, they did not offer the same data resolution as slip rings, they lacked sufficient battery life for long-term, real-world testing applications, and they suffered from data drop-outs. ATCA worked with TECAT Performance Systems to develop a torque telemetry solution that addressed all of these issues. This paper presents the development activity involved, alongside real-world measurement data showing the results of both the slip ring and telemetry solutions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0414
Nehal Sardar Rahim
Abstract The Aisin A465 6-Speed Diesel Hybrid powertrain started production in early 2012 and is available in the North American market in the Hino 195h DC COE truck. The suitability, and added fuel efficiency, of a Hybrid powertrain for Class 5 Box truck is very dependent on fleet usage conditions and duty cycle. Aisin has undertaken real-world, extended mileage, durability testing on public roads to determine the operational modes for which such a powertrain is most suitable, and for which a fleet owner can expect fuel savings that will result in a payback period justifying the higher cost of a hybrid system equipped commercial truck. Data collected on the same Aisin proprietary durability test routes with a Conventional Class 3-5 Cab Chassis truck provides insights into truck usage parameters that differ between Hybrid and Conventional Class 3-5 commercial trucks.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0459
Jian Zhao, Jing Su, Bing Zhu, Jingwei Shan
Abstract Proper tire pressure is very important for multiple driving performance of a car, and it is necessary to monitor and warn the abnormal tire pressure online. Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). In this paper, an indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to its resonance frequency of circumferential vibration. Firstly, the errors of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm and the measuring errors are eliminated from the wheel speed signal. Then, the data segments with drive train torsional vibration are found out and eliminated by the methods of correlation analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0449
Xian Xu, Wei Chen, Yuan Cao, Yingxiong Zhang, Hu Guo
Abstract The stiffness of the frame has a great influence on the ride comfort of the heavy truck. Reducing frame thickness was proved to be unacceptable in terms of ride comfort, which is verified by the testing results. The truck frame was reinforced in order to improve the ride comfort. The modal analysis showed that the pitch frequency of the vehicle has increased 0.5 Hz and the frequency response has decreased by 20%. In order to research the influence of frame stiffness on the heavy truck ride comfort, a detailed model including a flex frame, chassis suspension, cab suspension, driveline, etc., was built by MSC.ADAMS. The Simulation results showed that the ride comfort can be improved by reinforce the frame, and the ride comfort can be improved by 5%∼10%. The results of this study need to be further examined through field testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0451
Fu Wenkui, Liu Ligang, Shu Jin, Wang Dawei, Xu Long
Abstract Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition (vRLDA) is to replace traditional Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) thus becomes the important method to obtain the load for the fatigue analysis of the vehicle components. Pothole event, which is a typical loadcase among vehicle durability test in the development process, is simulated based on Adams/Car in this paper. Flex-body is adopted in the full vehicle model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. Flexible ring tire model, FTire, is used for the benefit of validity in higher frequency domain. The result shows that simulation result correlated well both in wheel center travel and load of tire and suspension parts. Consequently, it is available to predict the max effective jounce travel and body max load in the early phase of vehicle development thus decrease the potential risk in the later phase and the total research cost. vRLDA is also proven as a reliable and effective method to obtain the load.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0441
Aref M. A. Soliman
Abstract An active suspension system has better performance than a passive suspension. However, it requires a significant amount of energy and is constructed from high cost components. To solve the problem of the power required, a switchable damper suspension system has been studied. In this paper, control strategies for the switchable damper suspension system and passive are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities. Practical limitations involving switching time delay and threshold delay values are modeled and their effect on the ride performance are evaluated. The four setting switchable damper is compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers. The control strategies are used to maintain suspension working space level within design limit and to minimize body acceleration level. The results showed that the four setting switchable damper gives better ride improvements compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
Abstract The performance of a structural design significantly depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design and development stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers and analysts invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. These theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. Due to the errors associated with the assumption of design load, several components might have more weight or may have less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load (lab or theoretical studies) and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to give engineers insight to understanding the complex real world loading of their structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0486
Sakthinathan Ganapathy, K R Viswanathan, Saravanan Raju, Anand Kumar Appancheal
Abstract The intervention of Nanotechnology in the field of lubricants have found path to several new lubricants for high temperature applications. Nanolubricants are the nanoparticles suspended in base lubricants, are being developed to increase the performance of machine components at high temperatures, which reduces friction and wear in sliding contact encountered in many heat engines and industrial applications. An attempt has been made to study the effect of the Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Calcia stabilized Zirconia(CSZ), and Aluminium Oxide nanoparticles in the lube oil base stock. The nanoparticles were synthesized using Ball mill and the nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 50 to 90 nm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0484
Chad W. Chichester
Abstract Silicone fluids are known to have high Viscosity Indices (VI), and high Oxidation Onset Temperatures (OOT). Silicone VI and OOT characteristics make these fluids appealing for use as lubricants in high temperature applications, and where lubricant longevity is desired. Despite thermal and oxidative benefits, silicones lubricants have a reputation as being poor lubricants in metal-to-metal applications, and are typically only selected for use in plastic applications. Most industrial knowledge about silicone lubricants is based on characteristics of PolyDiMethyl Siloxanes (PDMS), in which case, lubricity limitations do exists. However, there are other silicone based lubricating fluid technologies, that have been commercially available for decades, that far exceed known lubricity performance of PDMS, and in some ways can rival traditional synthetic hydrocarbon.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0479
Kuniaki Goto, Takashi Kondo, Masakiyo Takahira, Eiji Umemura, Masashi Komada, Yasuhiko Nishimura
Abstract Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0474
Shukai Yang, Bingwu Lu, Zuokui Sun, Yingjie Liu, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract A low frequency vibration issue around 3.2 Hz occurs during a commercial heavy truck program development process, and it is linked to extremely uncomfortable driving and riding experiences. This work focuses on an analytical effort to resolve the issue by first building a full vehicle MBS (multi-body-system) model, and then carrying out vibration response analyses. The model validation is performed by using full vehicle testing in terms of structural modes and frequency response characteristics. In order to resolve the issue which is excited by tire non-uniformity, the influence of the cab suspension, frame modes, front leaf spring system and rear tandem suspension is analyzed. The root cause of the issue is found to be the poor isolation of the rear tandem suspension system. The analytical optimization effort establishes the resolution measure for the issue.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0464
Lingyang Li, Wei Wu, Ji Chen, Jianpeng Shi, Xicheng Wang, Liuhua Qian
Abstract In order to expand the product design and development capabilities of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, a passenger car’s simulation model integrated with EPS system model will be made. Some analytical investigation is conducted in this paper. Through simplifying the architecture model of EPS system, the mathematical equation expressions of steering wheel and column, worm gear reducer, rack and pinion, steer-wheels, brushed DC electrical motor, and ECU assistance and compensation laws will be described. A number of tests on the EPS full system and subsystems and components will be executed. The tests’ results will be used as the input parameters of the model, and then be used for model validations. After that, the EPS system model will be created. Since the most important part of control logic strategy is the top secret of steering assembly supplier and it could’t be provided to OEM in details or not even a black-box model directly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0463
Juan Sierra, Camilo Cruz, Luis Munoz, Santiago Avila, Elkin Espitia, Jaime Rodriguez
Abstract Brake systems are strongly related with safety of vehicles. Therefore a reliable design of the brake system is critical as vehicles operate in a wide range of environmental conditions, fulfilling different security requirements. Particularly, countries with mountainous geography expose vehicles to aggressive variations in altitude and road grade. These variations affect the performance of the brake system. In order to study how these changes affect the brake system, two approaches were considered. The first approach was centered on the development of an analytical model for the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. This model was developed at system-level, considering the whole vehicle. This allowed the understanding of the relation between the braking force and the altitude and road grade, for different fixed deceleration requirement scenarios. The second approach was focused on the characterization of the vacuum servo operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0503
Evandro Giuseppe Betini, Francisco Carlos Cione, Cristiano Stefano Mucsi, Marco Antonio Colosio, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando
Abstract This paper reports the experimental efforts in recording the 2-dimensional temperature distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The butt-welded autogenous joints were experimentally performed by the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) process with either argon or argon-2%nitrogen atmospheres. The temperatures cycles were recorded by means of thermocouples embedded by spot welding on the plate's surfaces and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The laser flash method (LFM) was also used for the determination thermal diffusivity of the material in the thickness direction. The temperature curves suggest a relationship between the microstructures in the solidified and the heat affected zone with the diffusivity variation. This is a region where there had been a major incidence of heat. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental used apparatus.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0499
Xu Zhang, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Abstract Debris are progressively generated just after wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements inside the engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, debris could interfere with the normal operation of such components generating even more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are susceptible to interact with very fine debris accumulated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many test advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to reproduce three-body abrasion in hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been before employed for the wear assessment of elastomeric materials. This paper presents an adaptation of the micro-scale test method to study three-body abrasive behavior of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0833
Lei Meng, Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Chunnian Zeng, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
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