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1975-02-01
Technical Paper
751014
Rudolf Limpert
This paper presents equations for determining the convective heat transfer coefficients of solid and ventilated disc brakes. Analysis of data indicates that the cooling capacity of a ventilated rotor is sharply reduced at lower speeds, and most cooling is provided by the increased surface area. A general relationship derived from road test data is presented that yields the heat transfer coefficient for both disc and drum brakes of commercial vehicles.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
751017
Wayne K. Simons
IN 1973, AN EXPERIMENTAL C.O.E. class eight highway vehicle was designed and built by Kenworth Truck Company to evaluate market impact generated by a unique looking vehicle. Various design aspects as related to driver comfort and associated component development are presented. To provide separate sleeping accommodations for two people, total cab height from current production models was increased by 22 inches. This increase was also used to develop a roof contour with esthetic valve and moderate air flow characteristics to the extent possible. In addition, a brief summary of actual road testing is presented.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750027
J. F. Stocky, M. W. Dowdy, T. G. Vanderbrug
The performance of a hydrogen-supplemented fuels system is predicted using a semiempirical model. The prediction of this model is compared to data obtained during engine dynamometer tests of a hydrogen generator/multicylinder engine system. The test data and the predictions are also compared to the fuel consumption and emissions of the same engine in its stock configuration and indicate that the hydrogen-supplemented fuels system can improve BSFC 10-15% and simultaneously reduce NOx emissions to a level consistent with the 1977 EPA standard. The performance of an optimized hydrogen generator/engine system is estimated. With these comparisons and estimates used as a basis, the potential of the hydrogen-supplemented fuels system is identified.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750560
V. E. Dawson
The results of over 600 braking tests carried out on large mining trucks are presented in this paper. The tests were made over the past five years at mine sites in British Columbia on dump trucks having load capacities ranging from 35-200 tons. All tests were made with the vehicles fully loaded operating on downhill grades varying from 6-10%. Stopping distances were measured from the point of application of the service brakes from various initial speeds. The results are adequate, in some cases, to permit extrapolation of the observed values to indicate a likely “runaway” speed of the truck in the event of failure of the regenerative or other auxiliary retarding system.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750678
Martin Fock, Karl-Heinz Lies, Laszlo Pazsitka
The United States regulations concerning the Automobile exhaust emissions stipulate the limits of the individual pollutants that must not be exceeded, but make no allowance for measuring uncertainties when evaluating the test results; nor are the final results subjected to any form of statistical analysis. We have performed a critical study of the Exhaust Emission Certification Test based on statistical methods. With the results of this investigation, it is possible to calculate the real risk for passing the Certification Test and to determine the engineering goals (or safety margins) which are required to pass Certification. In addition, systematic errors should be taken into account. Meeting these safety margins represents an calculable additional aggravation of the already stringent standards.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750670
D. T. West, T. Wusz, F. T. Finnigan, R. J. Askevold
Union Oil Company of California tested 106 new 1975 domestic and foreign vehicles for on-the-road fuel economy using the Fuel Economy Measurement - Road Test Procedure - SAE J1082. This paper gives the results of the test and discusses vehicle selection, procurement, break-in, tune-up, instrumentation description and development, track procedure, and driver techniques. Each of the vehicles was tested for emissions following the 1975 CVS-CH Federal test procedure as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency. Included in the results are fuel economy figures for the three SAE J1082 cycles, as well as fuel economy figures obtained from the EPA dynamometer procedures. Complete vehicle specifications and emission figures are shown.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750462
J. D. Minford, F. R. Hoch, E. M. Vader
IN WELDBONDING, a joint is produced by (a) spotwelding through an uncured adhesive bondline or (b) flowing adhesive by capillary action into the bond area after spotwelding. Weldbonding can offer higher joint strength, reduced joint weight, improved fatigue life and, in some aircraft-oriented investigations, showed reduced manufacturing costs(1,2). Although weldbonding has had repeated use in the Russian aircraft industry(3,4), it has not been widely employed in American manufacturing to date. The most intensive efforts to develop the process have resulted from contracts sponsored by the U. S. Air Force(4). The only aluminum alloys used in these investigations were the high strength aircraft alloys and the emphasis was to develop the highest strength weldbond joints with economics a secondary consideration. These studies usually included the use of special surface treatments on the aluminum, special adhesives, and carefully controlled curing conditions.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750448
A. T. Meyers
Eight catalytically equipped vehicles were used to compare the effects of an ashless, nonphosphorus lubricant and a conventional SE lubricant on the deterioration of two different types of bead catalyst operating in field service. Composite CO emissions (measured by the 1975 Federal Test Procedure) approximately doubled during the 25,000-mile test with both oils relative to the fresh catalyst. No significant increase in composite HC emissions was shown. There were no significant differences between the two oils with respect to either HC or CO emissions at the end of the test. Analysis of the aged catalyst showed average phosphorus contamination of 0.07 wt % with the conventional oil compared to 0.01 wt % with the ashless oil. The higher level of phosphorus contamination with the conventional oil was not accompanied by an increase in catalyst deterioration relative to the ashless oil.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750447
W. Fitzgerald, J.V.D. Wilson
: The presence of a metal such as calcium or zinc in a lubricant appears to inhibit the poisoning effect of phosphorus on platinum oxidising catalysts. This is a general conclusion from rig, engine and vehicle tests on lubricants with different additive components. Among the test results reported a lubricant blend with 2.5% by weight ZDDP (0 22% wt Zn) and another blend with 1.25% wt ZDDP plus enough phosphorus containing ashless anti-oxidant to double the phosphorus content of the lubricant both gave satisfactory performance in tersm of catalyst degradation.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750849
James E. Bennethum, James N. Mattavi, Richard R. Toepel
In-cylinder sampling appears to be the only available means for obtaining detailed information of the diesel combustion process. This information is necessary to understand pollutant formation because of the intimate relationship between formation rates and local cylinder conditions. This paper discusses efforts to (1) examine and improve sampling valve design, (2) evaluate potential effects of the valve and the sampling system on sample composition, (3) find methods to extract useful information from sampling data. Sampling hardware is currently being used to study combustion in engines, but further work is needed to quantify the influence of hardware and procedures on sample composition and to design experiments to provide data containing maximum information.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750781
A. F. Gerber, W. J. Lendener, T. R. Mullen
An engine test has been developed which differentiates the cleanliness characteristics of two-cycle lubricants. This test procedure utilizes an air-cooled Yamaha motorcycle engine and is run using a cyclic operating procedure for 20 hours. Test severity in the ring belt area is controlled by combustion chamber temperatures and fuel consumption rates. Utilizing these techniques, programs were conducted which were directed to the development of improved two-cycle lubricants using the present BIA TC-W(1, 2)* reference oil as a baseline. The effects of various parameters of lubricant formulation were determined including concentration effects of the additive presently used in the TC-W reference, bright stock content, and the use of supplementary additives.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750910
J. J. Mooney, J. G. Hansel, R. D. Hoyer
In contrast to motorcycles with 4-stroke engines, 2-stroke engine motorcycles produce very high hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Compared to a 1976 automobile, such motorcycles produce as much hydrocarbon emissions as ten to twenty passenger cars. Modified automobile catalyst technology with the addition of an air pump is shown to be effective in reducing the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions by 75 - 85% after mileage accumulation of 12,000 miles; these tests are in progress and are being continued. In spite of the fact that current 2-stroke engine motorcycles run rich (no excess air) hydrocarbon emissions can be reduced by 35% and higher with aged catalyst systems without the addition of air. The mechanical durability of the catalytic systems is completely satisfactory. Present data indicate that catalyst system technology has been developed to meet proposed interim EPA emission standards for 2-stroke motorcycle engines.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750028
Russell V. Fisher, James P. Macey
A general purpose data acquisition system has been developed which converts analog data to scaled, tabulated, and graphical output. A scanning synchronization unit ensures that each input channel is sampled synchronously with input data pulses. System input can be either direct from the test area or from an analog tape recorder, in which case time expansion is possible by the use of high record-low play/back speeds. A computer program controls the analog to digital conversion process. The on-line control of the program minimizes the subsequent data reduction, and through the use of input parameters, flexibility is attained in data formatting. The data reduction error is less than 1% and statistical programs included in the system provide estimates of the quality of the input data. The entire system including all associated hardware and software is described in detail, using acquisition of pressure data synchronously with crank angle as an example.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750873
Rudolf Limpert
A new thermal performance measure of automotive brakes is presented which allows the design evaluation of a brake relative to its effective use of rotor material in a single stop or during continued braking. Approaches for improving thermal performance are discussed. Various temperature measurement schemes are evaluated and typical test results are presented.
1975-02-01
Technical Paper
750048
T. E. Parker, G. L. Montgomery
The effect of prestraining on the tensile properties and uniaxial low cycle fatigue behavior of SAE 1008 hot rolled low carbon steel strip has been investigated using a prestraining technique which simulates a press forming operation. Preliminary data for the case of a 40% balanced biaxial prestrain show a considerable increase in fatigue resistance in the long life regime. The reduced ductility as a result of prestraining, however, causes degradation of the short life fatigue resistance. Therefore, for component operation in the long life regime where the strains are mainly elastic, SAE 1008 may have considerably greater fatigue resistance than a designer would anticipate based on the yield and ultimate strength levels or fatigue data of the as-received material.
HISTORICAL
1975-01-01
Standard
ARP695B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides design and installation criteria intended to enhance overall safety by mitigating exposure of cabin crew and passengers to risks from: a. Routine use of galley systems. b. Galley components or equipment becoming dislodged under routine or abnormal operating conditions and under survivable crash or ditching conditions. c. Malfunctions of, or defects in, a galley system or associated galley equipment. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice to specify the specific designs or design methods to be followed in the accomplishment of stated objectives.
HISTORICAL
1975-01-01
Standard
ARP618
This ARP establishes the basic test and design requirements for separable metal seal boss fittings for use in aerospace fluid systems. This document recommends the design criteria, installation, and test requirements for boss fittings utilizing integral metal seals.
HISTORICAL
1975-01-01
Standard
ARP588A
This SAE Aerospace Recommende Practice (ARP) specifies the requirements of balancing machines that make them suitable for the subject class of work. It was developed for soft-bearing balancing machines but may also be used for hard-bearing machines until ARP4050 is issued for that type of machine.
HISTORICAL
1975-01-01
Standard
J823C_197501
This SAE Standard specifies the test procedure, test circuitry, and instruments required for measuring the performance of flashers used in motor vehicles.
HISTORICAL
1974-12-01
Standard
AMS3380B
This specification covers polytetrafluoroethylene resin in the form of extruded and sintered flexible tube reinforced with wire braid. Primarily for fluid lines operating in service up to 230 degrees C (446 degrees F) and under pressures up to 1500 psi (10,342 kPa).
HISTORICAL
1974-12-01
Standard
J602C_197412
This document applies to the requirements of a device used in the field and inspection stations to aim and check aim of mechanically aimable headlamp units. The purpose of this document is to provide a laboratory test procedure to determine whether the devices under test are capable of accurately positioning headlamp units from their aiming pads and maintaining their accuracy in service within the tolerances designated in this document.
HISTORICAL
1974-12-01
Standard
AMS5561
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welded and drawn or seamless and drawn tubing.
HISTORICAL
1974-12-01
Standard
J599D_197412
This code is intended only for the inspection and maintenance of lighting equipment on motor vehicles that are in use.
HISTORICAL
1974-12-01
Standard
AMS2372A
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel forgings.
CURRENT
1974-07-01
Standard
AS8003
This Aerospace Standard covers all automatic pressure altitude code generating equipment manufactured under this standard and complying with the requirements specified herein up to the maximum range of pressure altitude as indicated on the equipment nameplate. In those cases where the code generating equipment forms part of an aircraft system, such as a pressure altimeter, an air data computer or an ATC Transponder, this standard applies only to the code generating equipment as defined in paragraph 1.2.
HISTORICAL
1974-07-01
Standard
J435C_197407
This SAE Standard defines the specifications for steel castings used in the automotive and allied industries.
HISTORICAL
1974-07-01
Standard
J670D_197407
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
1974-06-17
Technical Paper
740532
J. M. Laskey, R. F. Barry
A system for built-in instrumentation, applied to a fleet of bus vehicles, is evaluated as one element of a continuing program to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of bus maintenance operations. The evaluation study concentrated on a built-in instrumentation system, originally developed for military vehicles, in which the connections, sensors, and transducers required for test and diagnosis are permanently installed on a vehicle and terminated in a single “diagnostic” connector. Testing is accomplished by connecting analytic instrumentation to the diagnostic connector. Several designs of analytic instruments exist which provide for varying degrees of test comprehensiveness. This paper describes the peculiarities of bus maintenance, the evaluation process, tradeoffs related to test system requirements versus benefits derived, and how the instrumentation system design was tailored from a military to a commercial application.
HISTORICAL
1974-06-01
Standard
AMS2370B
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of wrought carbon and low-alloy steel products and of forging stock.
HISTORICAL
1974-06-01
Standard
AMS2355C
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of wrought aluminum alloy and wrought magnesium alloy mill products (except forging stock), and includes quality assurance and testing procedures for rolled, forged, and flash welded rings (See 8.3). Requirements are specified in inch/pound units.
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