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1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740940
Milton Baker
This paper discusses the design requirements and operation of two onboard, self-contained, level histogram recording devices that can operate unattended for six months and store data in a removable digital memory. The paper describes the types of data the units record, data sampling and recording techniques, and memory data interrogation procedures.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741002
M. G. MALLOY
Abstract Climatic conditions in parts of North America have created a need for cold weather testing of automotive products for this market. To fulfill this need, a Cold Weather Test Facility has been constructed and is in operation at Kapuskasing, in Northern Ontario. The need for the facility, its design and operation, the types of tests conducted, and typical test results obtained are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740998
Lorna Middendorf, Patrick W. Dineen, Stefan Habsburg
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741004
Richard A. Marshall, Edward F. Miller
This paper describes a new, closed-loop programming system which faithfully transfers road operation to the chassis dynamometer. The system provides stable, rapid, accurate response to programmed speed and throttle position changes. Using a derivative of a torque-related signal, changes in power train performance are compensated realistically by electronic modification of either throttle or speed signals as a function of part or wide open throttle command. Under conditions of minor power loss, part throttle compensation is found to restore such uncontrolled parameters as engine speed and driveline torque to the values measured without engine degradation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740985
R. R. Boltz, R. L. Grzesiak, E. J. Rohn
The Ford Motor Company has developed a mathematical model utilizing electronic data processing techniques to calculate the potential savings to owners of automobiles equipped with energy absorbing bumpers. This model can be used to measure the economic effectiveness of alternative bumper performance requirements and/or system design proposals. Base data for the model has been obtained from surveys conducted by Ford of damage to pre-FMVSS 215 controlled vehicles. A description of the technique utilized to predict bumper system economic effectiveness and the results of Ford Motor Company's bumper cost-effectiveness studies are contained in this report.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740987
T. W. Ruster
The purpose of this study was to define the performance of 1973 vehicles (meeting the requirements of FMVSS 215) in terms of collision losses. The study addresses both unrepaired and repaired damage. In terms of overall dollars per car-year, the results fail to show a difference in losses between 1973 model year vehicles and 1971 model year vehicles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740997
Gordon R. W. Simmonds
Drivers searched for known symbols on a simulation of a dimly lit (5 1x) instrument panel. The symbols, from 2 mm to 25 mm diameter, were in groups of nine. They were randomly selected from 24 used to identify controls and displays on European Ford vehicles. The probability of recognition was related to size for eight symbols. This gives a rational basis for the size used in vehicles. No reliable difference was found between the performance of black symbols on white backgrounds and white on black. Substantial differences exist between the effectiveness of different symbols. Recommendations for improvements were based on confusions between symbols.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740995
Reinhard Lendholt
Clear identification of motor vehicle controls is necessary for safe operation of a vehicle. Identification of some well-known symbols and some new symbols was investigated by inquiries. Differences in identification between trained and untrained subjects are shown (employees of a vehicle manufacturer versus factory visitors). Influences of sex, age, and professional education are evaluated. The learning effect of identification before and after a purposeful training was investigated by an additional inquiry of factory visitors. The result showed no significant influence of sex, age, professional experience, or ownership of a driver license on the identification after training. This improves the chance of eliminating symbols of insufficient identification.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740823
A. Walter Stubner, Ellis Canal
The development of compression systems for advanced twin-spool turbofan engines became increasingly more difficult as stability, performance, weight, and cost reduction goals were increased. Experience indicated that single-spool compressor component tests did not completely duplicate stability limits determined by flight engine tests. A requirement existed for a component test technique to develop the entire twin-spool compression system in a simulated engine environment, with sufficient operating flexibility to reproduce critical operating points that might be incurred during actual engine operation. The Pratt & Whitney Aircraft dual-spool compressor facility was designed and built to meet this requirement. The dual-spool facility has been employed in the development of several advanced models of the JT9D engine, in the JT10D demonstration engine development program, and in a U.S.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740081
J. A. DiCello, R. A. George
One solution to the problem of spiraling automotive weights is the substitution of thinner high strength steels or thicker aluminum alloy outer body panels. In doing so the dent resistance of these panels must not be sacrificed. This study investigates the dent resistance of doubly curved rectangular panels in various steels and aluminum alloys. Dent depth on the order of magnitude of the panel thickness was studied. An empirical equation is developed that relates dent resistance to the yield strengths, metal thickness, and panel geometry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741104
R. L. Leffert, P. M. Riede, R. E. Rasmussen
There are many ways to describe the factors contributing to the directional control dynamics of motor vehicles. The cornering compliance concept is particularly applicable to the tire intermix situation since it helps to separate the front and rear contributions to total vehicle performance. The relationship between cornering compliances and vehicle response properties, discussed in previous papers, is reviewed. The contribution of tire mechanical properties to cornering compliance is described. Typical compliance levels associated with intermix of generic tire types, wear states, and brands are listed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740259
Robert J. Stout
Adhesively bonded metallic laminates are a fabrication concept for providing fail-safe structure. This type of structure was evaluated under Air Force Contract AF33(615)-73-C-3001, “Advanced Metallic Air Vehicle Structures Program.” Development of a bonding process for large-area bonding, adhesives test data, and component test data from the program are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740101
Leonard C. Rowe
It is difficult to avoid the use of bimetallic assemblies in the manufacture of most products. When these combinations of dissimilar metals are exposed to an electrolyte, corrosion of one of the metals can be accelerated; this is referred to as galvanic corrosion. The tendency for it to occur depends on the thermodynamic instability of the metals involved, and the rate at which it occurs depends on the resistance of the system to the corrosion processes. The critical parameters affecting galvanic corrosion are the potential difference between metals, the polarization behavior of the metals in a particular environment, the characteristics of the electrolyte, and the ratio of the cathode to anode areas. Galvanic corrosion can be minimized through good design. Metal combinations that lead to excessive corrosion should be avoided. In some cases a metallic coating can be applied to reduce the potential difference between metals or to provide sacrificial protection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740102
Carl A. Schiele, Stephen F. DeNagel, James E. Bennethum
The development of a variable valve timing (VVT) camshaft was initiated as a potential means of controlling exhaust emissions from a spark ignition piston engine. This approach was based on the fact that valve overlap influences internal exhaust gas recirculation which in turn affects spark ignition engine emissions and performance. The design, fabrication, bench tests and engine durability tests of a unit incorporating splines to allow the intake cams to move relative to the exhaust cams is discussed. Preliminary test data from a 350 CID (5700 cm3) engine fitted with the VVT camshaft are discussed with regard to durability and emissions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740105
T. W. Ryan, S. S. Lestz, W. E. Meyer
The lean misfire limit air-fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine was extended by various modifications of the intake and ignition systems. The effects of long duration spark, extended spark plug gap projections and gap widths, and a vaned collar intake valve are reported. These modifications allowed for reliable operation up to air-fuel ratios of 24:1. The experimental apparatus and procedure used in this study are described. Conclusions are drawn concerning the optimization of the various modifications to extend the lean misfire limit and reduce the exhaust emissions. In general, all modifications extended the lean misfire limit, but increased gap width had the most profound effect. In all cases, the exhaust emissions were reduced by extension of the lean misfire limit.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740118
L. Imparato, F. Berti, G. Mancini, G. Pusateri
The use of several different synthetic lubricants in the formulation of multigrade motor oils is examined from the point of view of their physical and chemical characteristics and their commercial suitability. The influence of synthetic lubricant bases upon some of the performance characteristics of conventional additives has been considered. Engine test results using an SAE 10W/50 oil containing an ester base are compared with the performance of a similar SAE grade motor oil based upon mineral oil alone.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740053
M. L. Haviland, R. L. Anderson, E. D. Davison, M. C. Goodwin, R. E. Osborne
The General Motors Dexron-II automatic transmission fluid specification, issued in August 1973, defines physical, chemical, and performance requirements of a new class of fluids developed to meet increasingly severe service in passenger car and commercial automatic transmissions. Four new tests for determining fluid performance and durability have been developed for the specification. Results from these tests with Dexron-II prototype fluids are compared to those with Dexron fluids. It was found that the prototype fluids are much more oxidation-resistant than typical fluids in the Turbo Hydra-matic oxidation test; a 60% improvement in fluid durability has been realized in the Turbo Hydra-matic transmission cycling test; and Dexron-II prototype fluid friction and wear characteristics are about equivalent to those for Dexron fluids in the high energy, friction characteristics and durability test, and the wear test.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740064
Jack E. Martens
Designers have the capability to produce damage resistant bumpers-bumpers that can protect automobiles against low speed collision damage. If design changes are not made in the areas of truck underride, panic brake dip and dive, and the multi-purpose vehicle bumper interface, the automotive industry faces further increased federal regulation. Crash tests and real-world experience indicates that improved bumpers are cost-effective and can bring about better loss control. There is a gap that must be eliminated between current car designs and their future repair costs. The alternative could be even more stringent federal regulations. Professional societies and designers can provide the answer through self-policed future designs that recognize both the initial sales appeal of cars and the latent consumer cost of repair when operating automobiles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740709
D. W. Evans
Continual attention by manufacturers is necessary to improve the safety testing of fork lift trucks both as to mechanical matters and fire hazard protection. This paper discusses the testing of these trucks to meet the required safety standards. Some of the criteria for design related to safety mentioned are stability, braking control, overhead guards, fork strength, and fire and explosion hazard protection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740718
G. A. Karim, S. Khanna
The paper describes some of the operational and exhaust emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine that was operated warm under a wide range of intake air temperatures extending down to -45°F and occasionally -60°F. The operating range considered included the no-load and partially motored regions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740676
Frederick A. Lloyd
A two-level full-factorial experiment was designed to determine how seven parameters contribute to the power loss in disengaged wet clutches. The results of this program indicate which parameters and interactions of parameters are significant. The important trends were then further evaluated by individual tests, in order to allow extrapolation of these results beyond the two levels assigned in the designed experiment.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740692
L. C. Broering, L. W. Holtman
Tests were conducted with several production diesel engines and one prototype low-emission diesel engine to determine the effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and engine performance. Fuel cetane number was found to be the most significant fuel property; low cetane fuels resulted in higher hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen and increased noise. Conversely, higher cetane fuels produced lower emissions and noise, and also improved engine starting characteristics. The degree of these effects was influenced by engine configuration. Although engine design changes can result in substantial emissions reduction, fuel properties can also influence achieveable levels.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740593
Arthur C. Haman
Paper describes three collegiate automobile runs sponsored by American Motors Corp. to demonstrate that savings in fuel are possible when good driving practices are observed. Driving 1974 Gremlins, the young winners proved that “typical” drivers can in fact achieve economies in fuel of the kind that are being sought nationally at the present time. Reduction of speed proved to be a major contributing factor.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740483
A. B. Wassell
Progress in the application of well-known pollution-control techniques to existing engines is demonstrated in relation to the visibility of the exhaust smoke plume in the RB211 and Olympus 593 engines. The reasons for the apparently protracted nature of this progress are discussed and shown to be related to the maintenance of safety and durability standards. Methods being used to reduce the other combustion-generated pollutants are mentioned, especially in relation to the standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A review of some problems associated with measurement and sampling of pollutants is given.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740569
James O'Day
The current federal accident data collection system is inadequate. It does not produce representative data essential for answering cause-and-effect questions concerning accidents, injuries, and fatalities, and it does not produce adequate data essential for conducting cost-benefit analyses of changes in vehicle designs, highway designs, or driver licensing policies. A proposed federal data collection system (SIR) can solve those problems at a total cost of about $6 million a year. The SIR system would include 30 investigating teams precisely located throughout the U.S., and would include a Sampling program, an In-depth program, and a Rapid-response program. The sooner this system is established, the sooner government and industry will begin to obtain accurate and reliable answers to pressing questions in the field of highway safety.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740567
Charles Y. Warner, Joseph C. Free, Brian Wilcox, Donald Friedman
One of the greatest challenges faced in the design of realistic occupant protection systems is an accurate statistical model of what is really needed. The paucity of data is this realm hinders designers of standards alike. Ideally, a model of crash statistics would correlate, for significant accident modes, injury level (as measured by AMA Abreviated Injury Scale “AIS”) with some adequate measure of crash intensity. Having this information, not only could the required level of safety design be ascertained, but also the justifiable economic expenditure could be estimated. This paper treats the statistical basis for deployment of a data retrival system. It provides a basis for estimates of the amount of data required, the number of vehicles to be instrumented, the crash severity trigger levels, and the economics of recorder installation, for various levels of injury and fatality.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740566
Stephen S. Teel, Steven J. Peirce, Norman W. Lutkefedder
The NHTSA has developed automotive recorders which can measure crash triaxial acceleration/time histories during vehicle collisions. From these acceleration histories (recorded on a magnetic disc), velocity/time histories and velocity change during impact are derived to provide measures of vehicle crash severity. The purpose of developing these recorders is to provide accurate and quantitative relationships of vehicle crash severity with occupant fatalities and serious injuries from real-world accidents. To date, a total of 1200 disc recorders has been produced, approximately 1050 recorders have been installed in fleet vehicles, and 23 accident records have been analyzed. This paper has been prepared to present the progress made in the Disc Recorder Pilot Project as of March 31, 1974. Recorder data from accidents involving vehicles equipped with disc recorders will be discussed and compared with associated reports by accident investigators.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740246
R. A. Haslett
The conventional method of catalyst endurance testing on vehicles is unsuitable for large-scale catalyst development, since the time and cost are prohibitive. This paper reviews a series of experiments comparing the effects of two methods of engine test-bed aging on catalyst deterioration with the normal vehicle endurance test. The test-bed engines caused a higher rate of catalyst deterioration than the vehicle, and there are indications that this effect is related to the intake mixture strength of the engine. From these experiments, a technique for accelerated catalyst aging was derived. The reactor is aged on a test bed for three periods, each of 100 h. At the 0, 100, 200, and 300 h stages, the reactor is removed from the test bed and transferred to another engine for detailed tests of catalyst performance. A 1975 CVS test on a vehicle is also included in each set of experiments. Results from some of the catalytic reactors, tested by this technique, are presented.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740322
K. H. Wadleigh
The need for minimum complexity models of complete body/chassis structures is discussed. Calculations of deflections, loads, and stresses resulting from load applications to this type of model are presented. Comparisons with similar though not exact actual vehicle test results are presented. Evaluation of the computer model is made and future improvements for the model and modeling techniques are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740290
Rudolf Fernengel
This paper discusses the necessity of careful testing in the design of plastic parts for automobiles. It gives specific details of tests on polypropylene plastic parts, such as radiator grilles, toolboxes, and fans. Microtome photographs show details of good and poor connections of varied plastics when they are welded. Different types of plastic are discussed.
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