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1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670332
Albert A. Martino, Gaetan J. Mangano
The Aeronautical Engine Laboratory's Containment Evaluation Facility (AELCEF), featuring the government's largest spin chamber, high speed photographic equipment, and impact instrumentation, has been created and has recently become operational. This unique installation is described in detail. The first successful photographs ever taken of the interaction of rotor fragments and a containment ring are presented. Testing techniques and results are discussed. The ultimate goal of the AEL, NASA sponsored, integrated program of theoretical and experimental research work is to provide lightweight containment/control devices that will prevent the fragments of failed turbomachines from injuring personnel and minimize aircraft damage.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670163
J. A. Sturos, C. J. Pietkiewicz
The dynamic rate of a rubber part must be known to predict adequately the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber part while undergoing dynamic excitation. But accurate and convenient testing systems have not been readily available. The resonant beam system, which is used by most engineering groups, has definite drawbacks. The new dynamic rate system at Cadillac Motor Car Div. is an electro-hydraulic actuated system which excites the rubber part under closed-loop control. The system features a built-in analog computer which accurately determines the spring rate and damping coefficient for selected values of mean load, cyclic amplitude, frequency, and temperature. The need for such a facility, a description of and the procedure in using the resonant beam and the new system, the advantages of the new system as compared to the resonant beam, and the availability of a commercially built electro-hydraulic analog readout system are discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670162
A. M. Sogoian, W. V. Paliga
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670161
Robert M. LaBreche
This paper contains a practical discussion of the applications of reverberation chambers to acoustical measurement problems often encountered by noise control engineers. The important characteristics of a reverberation chamber are explained and typical reverberation chamber construction demonstrated. The advantage of the reverberation chamber as a simple method of measuring certain acoustic phenomena and acoustical properties is illustrated by its application in three typical examples. First, the application of the room to measurements involving directional sound sources is illustrated by a study of automotive alternator noise. Second, the use of the room as a nondirectional sound source in measurement of acoustical material properties is illustrated by sound barrier tests of material sample installations.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670169
Robert Ehrlich
Operational research procedures are, in general, not applicable to the development of cross-country vehicles because the vehicle-environmental relationships are not well enough understood and the environmental information has not yet been gathered. Model tests are proposed to overcome partially these difficulties and for other purposes where calculations or full-scale tests are not practical. A description of a few model programs and abstracts of their results are presented as examples.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670154
M. Raefsky, N. Walter, W. Lieberman, J. Clark
Investigation of cracked rotor “D” spar revealed an area of tensile residual stress in the area of the failure origin. Normal rotor spar processing results in the formation of compressive residual. The service history of the cracked spar indicated that it had been buckled, and that compressive yielding had occurred. This resulted in a “wiping out” of the compressive residual stress, and the subsequent formation of a tensile residual stress. Laboratory tests aimed at reproducing the buckle proved successful and full scale fatigue tests of the buckled spars resulted in failures significantly below the normal test scatter. Inspection criteria, based on X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis, have been instituted.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670028
Vern C. Vanderbilt, William Van Ostrand, Clarence L. Zimmer
This paper describes an automatic control safety monitoring and data logging system which uses a frequency modulation signal format. The theoretical aspects of FM signals are outlined and experimental data reported showing signal to noise ratios for vehicle recorded data. A new type of specialized digital computer and data logger is described and examples given of engine parameter computations.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670023
B. A. Pearson, J. L Thompson
A small-scale oxidation test for automatic transmission fluids has been developed. In the test air flow rates, temperature and catalytic activity can be closely controlled at desired levels. A test procedure for screening automatic transmission fluids is described. Data are presented illustrating the ability of the test to distinguish between different levels of oxidation resistance, the repeatability of the test, and the correlation achieved thus far with a presently used full-scale transmission oxidation test.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670051
G. R. Smith, W. D. Ross, P. L. Silbert, W. B. Herndon
With the object of improving the technique of testing and specifying friction materials, a new type of friction material test fixture has been developed by the SAE Friction Subcommittee. This is a completely self-contained machine especially designed for cyclic testing and quality control work. This does not replace, but rather supplements, the steady state type friction test fixture (SAE No. 1) previously developed by the committee. This fixture, known as the SAE No. 2 test fixture, is designed to test clutch packs in an environment which is as close as possible to that of the friction elements in an automatic transmission. Both friction material manufacturers and users are employing this machine for quality control, component selection, and evaluation of friction materials and lubricants.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670081
A. R. Spencer, W. M. Spurgeon
Establishment of a new quality control (QC) test involves four phases. Development of an integrated set of QC tests for automotive brake linings (Phase I) was reported earlier. In a continuation of Phase I on differential thermal analysis (DTA), it was found that temperatures of some DTA peaks for linings are pressure-sensitive. Hence, good pressure control is necessary in using this test. It was also found that DTA gives useful information on the state of lining binder cure. A statistical test plan for rapid estimation of natural process limits (Phase II) is described and illustrated with DTA data.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670080
Roy L. Gealer, Bobby H. Biggers
Pyrolytic gas chromatography (PGC) has been applied to the characterization of the organic constituents of brake linings. The test involves the pyrolysis of a sample followed by the instrumental separation and sensing of the products of decomposition. A study of experimental variables, such as pyrolysis temperature, has allowed the selection of conditions which yield excellent reproducibility and sensitivity. The preferred test conditions, which have been incorporated in Ford's brake lining quality control specifications, result in a relatively rapid, meaningful test for constancy of composition.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670071
B. F. Brender, C. J. Canever, I. J. Monti, J. R. Johnson
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670070
Joseph J. Ihnacik,, Jerome F. Meek
The design and development of Mark II GT brake system within the parameters dictated by the Mark I chassis presented many problems. The Mark II GT with its larger 427 cubic inch engine had more weight and much higher performance than the Mark I. Space limitations of the carryover wheels and suspension imposed a severe handicap on individual brake component design. This was compounded by shortening the normal one year development time to a three month period. Part I of this paper is devoted to the consideration of factors which control the design of a brake. The concept of kinetic energy and its effects on brake performance is reviewed briefly. Use of the ventilated rotor design is explained for applications where severe heat is a problem, as in the case of the Mark II GT. The development of the brake system from the 24 hour Daytona endurance race to the Le Mans Grand Prix race is reviewed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670079
A. E. Anderson, Serge Gratch, Hayden P. Hayes
A compact new laboratory friction and wear test machine has been developed. Test procedures have been established for this machine in a constant output (that is, constant friction force) mode of operation. These procedures have been shown to be particularly well suited for quality control of brake lining materials. The test, designated Friction Assessment Screening Test (FAST), has been shown to yield highly reproducible results which correlate well with vehicle performance. The results are highly sensitive to those variations in brake lining properties which are most significant in brake performance.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670076
W. G. Dixon, G. J. Kuchera
Reduction of lead time between design and production is possible through application of modern test techniques. Such techniques involve accurate measurement of customer service load cycle and application of these measured loads to the laboratory and proving ground. Correlation of customer usage with “in house” testing is essential to a realistic projection of test results into anticipated service life.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670151
R. J. Homicz
The X-ray diffraction method for nondestructively measuring residual stresses in metals is advantageous as it does not require a zero stress condition. With the use of a portable X-ray machine and the back reflection film technique, the method becomes even more useful for measuring stresses in components as the component size is no longer a limitation. This paper discusses the fundamentals, basic techniques, and the type of equipment commonly associated with the portable film technique. Bragg's law and its application to residual stress measurements are presented. The single exposure approach for the portable film technique is contrasted with the double exposure method that is commonly employed with the direct-reading diffractometers. The necessity for determining the stress factor for each material and heat treatment is presented. This technique was applied to measuring residual stresses in three 7079-T6 forgings.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670152
Donald A. Bolstad
Several examples are presented where x-ray stress measurements were made with a portable unit. The examples include the measurement of stresses in a welded rocket motor case (maraging steel), heat-treat stresses in a machined part (7079-T611), and stresses in a spot-welded panel (Ti-8Al-IV-1Mo). Each application emphasizes the advantages of stress analysis by x-ray diffraction by the portable method. For the spot-welded panel there is a direct comparison of x-ray diffraction stress measurements and stress measurements by the compliance method. The results show good agreement between the two methods.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670209
Stephen N. Bobo
The need for positive and definitive identification of questionable microwelds is not due to the high number of poor welds made in any production. The need stems from the fact that visual inspection criteria are neither sufficiently uniform nor dependable to guarantee 100% reliability where absolute reliability is a real requirement. At Raytheon, a Weld Research Program has used the technique of IR monitoring to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of welding inspectors. An experimental program has verified that infrared can be useful, not only in welding control, but as a good monitor of weld quality without the necessity of using it to control. The concept of IR monitoring can be extrapolated into structural welding for purposes of continuous 100% quality determination, control, and flaw detection.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670215
Andor J. Kraut
Acceptance of the flat pack as a standard configuration for integrated circuits has stimulated development of new interconnection techniques which necessitated development of new criteria and controls for these techniques. One method being utilized at Martin-Denver is a hot gas soldering process in which the solder joints are made by passing the printed circuit board containing the flat packs under hot gas jets. Specification of this process for a possible space application necessitated development of inspection criteria and controls to ensure the required joint reliability. This was accomplished concurrently with development of the soldering process and qualification method.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670269
Raymond Kerner
An all-mechanical flight control system is potentially adaptable for high-temperature operation, high structural stiffness, lighter weight, and increased reliability. As part of a continued development program of new control system concepts, a mechanical cascade toroidal servo was tested on the North American Aviation, Inc/Los Angeles Division F-100 flight control simulator. This was the second toroidal servo tested. The improvement over its predecessor was primarily the reduction of pilot operating forces. This mechanical servo incorporated a miniature servo into the input control linkage of the original servo configuration. In this way, the pilot controlled the miniature command or pilot servo and subsequently controlled the power servo with reduced input force.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670280
R. L Wann
Testing techniques involving tires and tire components are discussed. New developments such as Super Deep tread design, improved repairs, and portable scale are covered as they relate to improved off-the-road tire performance. These new techniques and developments are the result of extensive investigation and testing in both laboratory and field. The weighing device described here is an effective tool in selecting type, load, and air pressure of high performance tires.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670958
T. F. Lonstrup, J. W. Wilson
This paper describes a laboratory procedure for evaluating gas engine oils using a 6 cyl automotive engine. In addition to the usual engine cleanliness ratings and used oil inspections, the test method provides an accurate way for measuring wear. The test can also be used to establish used oil condemning limits. The authors conclude that a suitably modified automotive engine can be used as a development tool for gas engine oils.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670934
Paul R. Shepler, Carl S. Weinberger
The use of the factorial method of testing is demonstrated for four diesel engines. Each engine was investigated in a series of eight tests for the effect of seven parameters on oil consumption and blowby. This method of testing is shown to be efficient in surveying effects of test parameters. The factorial approach forces well-planned experiments, gives equal weight to each of the factors being studied, forces the experimenter to keep other factors constant, and produces results in an efficient manner.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670943
C. Kuintzle, B. S. Goldwater
A test facility, test rigs, instrumentation techniques, and operating procedures have been developed to provide research and development capability for high temperature air cooled turbine components for gas turbine engines. The installation offers a wide range of flexibility for use as a high pressure air supply and as an experimental compressor test facility. Instrumentation techniques developed include kryptonated turbine parts and fiber optic infrared probes. These are discussed in detail.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670941
R. L Langton, R. E. V. Westerhout
The relative merits of the engine or rig approach to aerodynamic testing of components for small gas turbines are briefly discussed. Rigs were used to test a centrifugal compressor to 91,000 rpm, cold flow turbines to 37,000 rpm, and for development of a plenum type exhaust duct. The latter two cases applied to the PT 6 free turbine engine. Facility, instrumentation, and operating experience are covered.
1967-02-01
Standard
ARP924
This recommended practice cover the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommend standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in Appendix A.
1967-01-31
Standard
AS439
This standard covers stall warning instruments to provide positive warning to the pilot of an impending stall. Stall, as defined for the purpose of this standard, is the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable.
1967-01-01
Standard
ARP891
This recommended practice establishes a procedure for checking the tempers of aluminum alloys through eddy current conductivity measurements and defines criteria for acceptance or rejection.
1966-11-01
Standard
J575D_196611
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods and equipment, and requirements for lighting devices covered by SAE Recommended Practices and Standards. It is intended for devices used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in width. Tests for vehicles larger than 2032 mm in overall width are covered in SAE J2139. Device specific tests and requirements can be found in applicable SAE technical reports.
1966-10-01
Standard
ARP907
This recommended practice covers the requirements and qualification tests for two types of flexible all-metal hose assemblies intended for hydraulic use on missile and rocket applications at rated pressures of 4000 psi. Type I -65° to +650°F service temperature range Type II -65° to +1000°F service temperature range
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