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1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690276
Harlan W. Van Gerpen
This paper discusses experience with a data acquisition system at the John Deere Waterloo Tractor Works Product Engineering Center. This system handles the engineering design calculation load and, on an interrupt basis, logs data from test stands. In addition, several applications are discussed which make use of the high speed acquisition system for more accurate recording of high speed phenomenon.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690264
John A. Larson
An X-ray diffraction analysis involving integrated intensities was applied to a series of 99.85% Cu, 0.15% Cd alloys which had been cold-rolled and annealed. It is shown that the reduction in integrated intensity, due to extinction, can be correlated with tensile strength. In addition, it is shown that the annealing behavior of this alloy can be characterized by a “tempering parameter” containing both time and temperature.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690488
T. Kohno, S. Tsuchiya, N. Komoda
This paper describes experimental and analytical approaches which were developed for the purpose of planning, designing and tuning up not only steady state but also dynamic characteristics of the vehicle maneuvering performance. As regards experimental approaches, outlines of the testing methods and relationship between the measured typical characteristics and the drivers' feeling are presented. They were investigated and developed in order to qualify the general characteristics of produced vehicle dynamics, effectively and accurately, and to apply the results to the vehicle design. As regards analytical approaches, the seven degrees' theoretical model is introduced. It is established for the purpose of analyzing the influences on vehicle performances by changes in design parameters, including the lateral rigidity of tires, the torsional rigidity of the steering system, and some nonlinear dampings in steering and suspension systems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690024
T.O. Wagner, J. W. Gorman
The application of experimental design methods to practical engineering problems is illustrated by an example involving road tests to measure how elevation affects octane requirements of automobiles. The example describes steps involved in developing an efficient statistical design that fits technical requirements of the problem, and describes analysis of data and interpretations of results.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690022
J. D. Hromi
To provide sound answers to specific problems, it is possible to design appropriate test programs using methods developed by mathematical statisticians. A simple factorial design, as applied to the study of green compressive strength of a foundry sand mix, is outlined and discussed in some detail. The efficiency with which conclusions are drawn from the test results is attributed to the fact that factorial and fractional factorial designs enable the test engineer to use every observation in making each conclusion. Furthermore, the same designs provide an opportunity for examining the behavior of one variable at more than one level of each of the other variables included in the test program. Some simple methods of numerical analysis are applied to the test data preliminary to their interpretation.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690521
Samuel K. Clark, Richard N. Dodge
This paper discusses the measurement of cord loads in pneumatic tires using a direct load transducer. Such an instrument is described in detail together with results of numerous tests. Tire engineers will find this paper of value since it outlines methods for determining cord loads under actual tire operating conditions.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690522
Joseph D. Walter, George L. Hall
Two improved versions of a recently developed miniature force transducer were used to measure cord loads at the crown, shoulder, and sidewall of bias and belted-bias automobile tires under different testing conditions. As a transducer at a given location passes through the footprint, a “basic shape” for the cord force pattern is generated for straight ahead rolling and cornering. Factors such as wheel load, inflation pressure, obstacle impact, tire speed, rim width, and frictional properties of the tire-drum interface can affect the total force excursion and/or the base line value but do not affect the basic shape of the patterns. For both bias and belted-bias constructions significant ply-to-ply cord force variations were detected, and the cord force pattern observed in the first ply as the transducer passes through the footprint is nearly a mirror image of that in the second ply at the same location.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690519
Ather A. Quader, Phillip S. Myers, Otto A. Uyehara
Monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, temperature, and pressure histories of unburned gas in a single cylinder CFR engine under motored, fired, and autoignition conditions were recorded on a multichannel magnetic tape recorder. Isooctane, cyclohexane, ethane, n-hexane, n-heptane, 75 octane number (ON), 50 ON, and 25 ON blends of primary reference fuels (PRF) were studied. Under knocking or autoignition conditions a critical absorbance at 2600 A was found, whose magnitude was independent of engine operating variables and dependent only on the knock resistance of the fuel. This absorbance increased rapidly when a certain temperature level was exceeded during the exothermic preflame reactions.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690516
T. J. Sheahan, C. J. Dorer, C. O. Miller
Multifunctional gasoline additives in use today fall in two general categories, the conventional type and the newer detergent-dispersant additives. The value of the detergent-dispersant lies in its ability not only to keep the carburetor clean but also to minimize the buildup of hard refractory deposits on automotive intake valves and to supplement the cleaning power of the engine oil. Engine tests confirm the effect of the detergent-dispersant. Cleanliness is enhanced in standard tests designed to measure lubricant performance under low and medium temperature engine operation. Intake valve deposits are modified in laboratory and field tests. Bench scale tests show that when the detergent-dispersant is properly formulated, treated fuels may be satisfactorily handled by refiners in storage and distribution systems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690526
J. J. Bajer
Propulsion, decelerating, and steering control of ground vehicles using pneumatic tires depends upon road-tire frictional forces developed within a few square inches of the road-tire contact area. Tire and vehicle designers should, therefore, have knowledge of tire distortions and force development in the contact area, and should understand tire hydrodynamics in order to develop tire-vehicle systems with optimum performance on wet, slippery roads. This paper discusses the following testing techniques: road-tire-vehicle system to evaluate skid resistance, skid trailer versus complete vehicle tests, effects of radial stiffness on skid resistance, etc. Data obtained from these tests make it possible to evaluate road grip of tires as a function of the type of tire, tread design, and tread compound.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690523
STANLEY H. MICK, JOHN B. CLARK
For more than a decade, the need for measuring exhaust emissions on the basis of weight of emissions per mile has been known. Because of the complexity involved in mass emission measurements, the original procedures and standards were expressed in terms of concentration. Since adoption of these early concentration standards, there has been continued effort toward development of mass emission measurement techniques. One such procedure has been proposed by the National Air Pollution Control Administration which employs a constant volume blower and yields a concentration measure proportional to the mass flow. This equipment satisfies many of the objections to the previous mass measurement approaches, and is being considered for application in certifying 1972 model passenger cars. This procedure will measure higher mass emissions on both controlled and uncontrolled cars than those calculated using the 1970 procedure.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690570
Saul Herscovici
A simple and economical testing fixture and method that may be used for determining the static and dynamic coefficients of friction and the operating conditions that cause their variation is described in this paper. Its advantages are compared to those of a partial vehicle test fixture. This testing method could provide a basic set of data that can be properly converted by the designer to predict the response of a clutch or brake in a new application.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690614
R. W. Mustain
This paper presents the philosophy and requirements for an integrated aerospace dynamic program. This aerospace dynamic program encompasses a full range of dynamic tests and analyses required to evaluate, develop, and qualify an aerospace vehicle. This presentation commences with a brief history of dynamic tests and analyses conducted during the past two decodes and continues with some notes on the development and design of aerospace vehicles utilizing present-day analytical and test techniques. Analyses are required to establish dynamic criteria and structural integrity of the aerospace vehicle. Dynamic criteria include shock, vibration, and fluctuating pressure excitations during various phases of the vehicle’s life. Thus, criteria should be predicted for the transportation phase as well as for the flight mission.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690617
David Lubman
Nonuniformities of sound level occur in all reverberant rooms including those used in sonic testing. A theory is presented which describes these variations statistically in terms of analysis bandwidth and room reverberation time. The theory applies above a certain cutoff frequency and in regions remote from room boundaries. These nonuniformities produce uncertainty in the room averaged sound spectrum levels leading to potentially serious risk of undertest or overtest. A methodology is proposed whereby the risk of any degree of undertest or overtest can be predicted and controlled in advance. The methodology employs hypothesis testing applied to the known statistics of the sound field.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690595
Lynn E. Nowak
This paper discusses the NORPAK* solid state control system which is manufactured by the Square D Co. The NORPAK system employs a single function approach to logic design. This means that one function, the NOR, is used alone or in combination with other NOR's to achieve all logic functions. Knowing the one NOR logic function permits understanding of at least 90% of the logic components in the system.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690601
John L. Hobson, Kenneth O. Switzer
Accelerated testing has become a very big tool in the product engineering of light industrial machines. Measurements and testing under field and lab conditions produce information to guide the designer on new machines and rapidly measure his success. The availability of advanced computer systems, tape recorders, lab test facilities and life prediction theory has improved the ability to predict life of the machine. This paper outlines some of these techniques being used at the present time.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690655
Alan Yarker, Fred Stanhope
By testing a large bypass ratio fan engine in an altitude test facility the performance under simulated flight conditions can be measured. Good accuracy of the results demands careful selection and use of pressure transducers and load measuring equipment. Such a test measures thrust under quiescent air conditions. Model tests need to be used to determine the changes in engine flow and thrust coefficients brought about by the influence of the free stream flow.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690631
George A. Olsen
This paper concerns the importance of mechanical GSE on current military aircraft and presents the many influences of new aircraft configurations on the next generation of mechanical GSE. Primary emphasis is placed on outlining support philosophy, mechanical GSE configurations, operational site requirements, and aircraft missions with associated support needs. Future applications of the following support concepts are considered: trestle line testing, built-in test, total support packages, containerized shops, single GSE configuration, Rapids software, total weapons system harmonization. Support techniques and mechanical test and support equipment are discussed relative to the following phases of operation: developmental, production and factory test, military operations, organizational level, intermediate level, depot level, unique aircraft carrier and austere base operations.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690690
Nelson G. Freeman, Peter B. Teets
Abstract This paper discusses the development and characteristics of a new digital flight control system (DFCS) being used in the Titan IIIC space launch vehicle. In this system, flight equations for the boost phases and coasting phases are time-shared with guidance equations in a new, general-purpose digital computer. Special software has been incorporated in the DFCS so that it can be used for a broad spectrum of mission and payloads. In addition, malfunction-detection and correction logic has been incorporated into the software for improved mission reliability. The paper describes the special tools and techniques used in developing the DFCS software; it discusses some of the solutions to development problems concerned with digital filter accuracy, environmental noise susceptibility, and bending mode foldover; and it presents flight-test results.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690677
Francis M. Wilson, Brooks W. Maddox
In recent years, several innovations have been made in wind tunnel testing techniques which have significantly improved the testing cost effectiveness. Use of colored water spray in low speed testing causes unsuspected vortices to stand out allowing quick and accurate drag reduction filleting to be prepared. Simultaneous force and pressure model transonic testing has reduced the time and cost to arrive at a low drag airplane configuration by more than 50%. Means are being developed to accurately predict high Reynolds number transonic airloads from low Reynolds number data. The use of accurately sized glass beads to provide boundary layer transition for transonic testing has been found to reduce run-to-run drag data scatter by more than 50%.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690675
Gordon R. Forbes, Herman W. Sisson
The new generation of large transport aircraft require the utilization of improved development test techniques discussed in this paper to ensure timely and efficient development cycles. Although the development test program on the C-5, largest of today's airplanes, has not been completed, a comprehensive accumulation of significant data in all test phases and extensive experience in managing and conducting the testing of these huge transports have been obtained. The C-5 greatly advances the state-of-the-art, but more important to this presentation are the advancements in test techniques. Increased aircraft size and complexity require additional emphasis on early, valid planning for test facilities and support equipment. Improved techniques for data retrieval and additional sophistication in laboratory test loading systems are essential for efficient accomplishment of the program.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690502
Stuart W. Martens
This paper covers progress made by General Motors in development and use of the SHED technique since report of its initial development to SAE in January, 1968. Additional details are given on SHED leakage, interior temperature, and car background emission. Auxiliary equipment developed to facilitate evaporative emission testing is described. Methods of emission control hardware evaluation are discussed, for which the SHED technique has unique capability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690670
A. B. Billet
The 747 airplane, the largest commercial airliner, is the first U. S. airplane for airline service to use fully powered flight controls without manual reversion. The four hydraulic systems permit the highest degree of reliability per system operation with all major controls powered by dual-tandem actuators or having redundancy in location of operation. This airplane has 500 hydraulic hp as compared to the 87 hydraulic hp used on the 707 airplane. Each system is powered by an engine-driven pump and an air-driven pump. The latter is operated during peak demands only. In 17,000 hr of ground and flight tests, the 747 hydraulic systems have achieved and exceeded required performance and reliability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690509
F. S. Vukan, T. P. Kuebler
Tire strength and endurance are two basic tire qualities on which values have been set in various standards as a measure of their performance in actual service. This paper describes the pitfalls in the present methods of measurement and presents data to show the limitations of present equipment and methods.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690510
J. F. Hutchinson, H. D. Becker
A great amount of engineering and development work is under way at the present time on the important subject of tire traction, especially under wet surface conditions. Typical facilities used in the industry for traction testing of tires are described. Tests to date have shown that by far the most important variables affecting tire traction are: 1. Speed. 2. The road surface. 3. Weather conditions as they affect the road surface (wet, dry, icy). 4. The conditions of the tire, particularly whether it is new or worn to the tread wear indicators. By comparing test tires with production tires with known traction qualities, tire manufacturers produce tires which perform satisfactorily for wet traction.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690508
R. H. Spelman
It is necessary to establish separate test procedures that evaluate the many different performance parameters required of pneumatic tires. The ability to operate at high speeds is one of the more important requirements. This paper describes the physical properties needed for various high speed performance potentials. It also shows that, with a relationship established between laboratory and road, laboratory testing permits more accurate evaluation.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690643
F. H. Schubert
TRW, under NASA sponsorship, has developed a water electrolysis module (WEM) designed to provide 3.6 lb/day of oxygen at a current density of 100 amps/sq ft and at a pressure level of 80 psia. Although designed for aircraft application, the concepts employed in the design of the module make its use in other life support systems possible. One of the ten-cell water electrolysis modules fabricated, and designated as WEM No. 1, has been successfully operated for 7525 hr. These hours consist of 300 hr of parametric, 180 hr of cyclic, and 7045 hr of endurance testing, to date. The endurance test program is being conducted at a current density of 80 amps/sq ft, a temperature of 175 F, and a pressure level of 30 psia. This paper describes the cell and module configurations and the materials of construction selected. Results of the parametric and cyclic test programs are presented and cell performance and servicing and maintenance requirements discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690784
J. R. Griffin
Laboratory engine testing for motor oil performance evaluation is a major element of the total cost of motor oil development. Rising test costs and more exacting performance requirements led to the introduction of automated equipment to achieve operational simplicity, better data, and lower costs. This paper describes the design and construction of an automated test stand which provides mechanical and operational reliability at lower cost.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690785
J. J. Gile, R. C. Hercules
This paper describes the application of an automatic control system to the Ford 5B test. A sequence timer and pneumatic controllers are used to accomplish more than 100 changes in engine speed, load, and temperatures throughout the 192 hr of test. Flexibility of the system, its cost, and maintenance are also discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690727
Ronald W. Orme, Garn F. Penfold, Kenneth R. Thomas
A 16 channel, 5 mile range telemetry system has been constructed. This equipment can be easily adapted to a wide variety of vehicle measurement tasks. A modular signal conditioning concept has minimized the time required for initial setup on each measurement project. “Calibrating through” the system on all channels avoids some of the alignment pitfalls present in the day-to-day operation of a complex multichannel system.
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