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1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680112
L. S. Caretto, E. S. Starkman, Ron Chin
A proposal for a tracer method to be used in the investigation of fuel effects is made. In addition, preliminary results of a tracer investigation of exhaust emissions in a Wankel engine which burns an oil-fuel mixture (NSU KKM 507/3) are reported. It is hoped that the tracer technique proposed here will be able to elucidate the nature of the chemistry of the combustion process in engines, in particular those processes leading to atmospheric pollution. The initial study examined the relative contribution of each component of an oil-fuel mixture to incompletely burned material in the exhaust. It was found that the oil contributed a disproportionate amount to the total emissions prior to an engine overhaul when the rotor seals were replaced. Subsequent to this the proportion of incompletely burned material attributed to the oil was the same as the proportion of oil in the initial oil-fuel mixture.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680111
John N. Pattison, Clark Fegraus, A. J. Andreatch, John C. Elston
In support of the Federal regulations which limit hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions from new motor vehicles, the State of New Jersey has passed a law which is intended to require that vehicles with these controls, as well as vehicles without controls, be kept functioning properly. The law states that all motor vehicles subject to inspection pass a test annually to show compliance with standards to be set by the Department of Health. This paper describes the development of a 1 minute test for measuring and evaluating the crankcase and exhaust emissions for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and smoke. It involves putting the vehicle on a simple set of inertia rolls and driving a simple cycle, called the ACID cycle, that was developed for this test. The exhaust is collected by either a variable dilution or variable flow system and analyzed for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680095
Anthony Rieli
U.S. involvement in the limited warfare of Southeast Asia has imposed a new set of environmental problems on automotive engineers engaged in the design and development of military equipment. This paper is addressed, in general, to the identification and solution of the mobility related problems encountered in limited warfare and, in particular, to describing LTV’s approach to providing a response to the specialized and immediate needs of the armed forces in Southeast Asia. Essentially, LTV’s approach involves an initial analysis of the environmental conditions being encountered, and logically identifies the vehicular design parameters necessary to cope with these factors within the framework of the tactical situations encountered in limited warfare.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680232
R. M. Shearer
The landing gear weight of a light, 4-place, commercial airplane was reduced 20 lb when the conventional flat leaf spring was replaced with a tubular type spring. The surface conditions of seamless tubing used as a spring can induce both impact and fatigue stress risers. These stress risers were alleviated by establishing rigid material requirements, improved fabricating and processing practices, and developing additional nondestructive testing procedures. An extensive testing program proved that the resultant tubular landing gear spring was serviceable as a replacement at a substantial weight savings.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680166
Johannes F. Schwar
Planning is proceeding on the research and development programs for Ohio's Transportation Research Center and on its physical layout. This 5600 acre research complex will contain some 60-70 miles of roadways, an extensive building complex and a 6000 ft airstrip. The planning includes: establishing an overall framework within which research and development demands can be related to available and potential resources; determining the nature, magnitude, and urgency of demands and the nature, quality, and quantity of resources; identifying constraints on future operation: establishing the payoff of alternative programs; selecting final short- and long-term programs and optimal physical layout.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680210
W. C. McDonald
This paper discusses the work that the Engineering Div. of Goodyear Aerospace Corp. has been conducting in energy-absorption and how this has been applied to new concepts in fuel containment. The discussion includes various qualitative test methods and compares the test values of the material being investigated to standard fuel tank materials. Hopefully, these values will suggest new design approaches and test procedures for the improvement of fuel tanks, both in crash-resistance and puncture sealing ability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680322
Irwin Koved
A number of specimen life performance tests were conducted on three test lubricants selected to demonstrate their gross ranking capabilities. The results indicated that the test rigs should be used only for gross ranking. A large difference in magnitude of life values were obtained even though agreement in gross ranking was obtained by three out of the five participating laboratories. Further testing is recommended under preselected test conditions and lubricants.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680320
C. M. Murphy
The newly developed Coordinating Research Council oxidation test technique for aircraft gas turbine engine lubricants has been evaluated by a “round-robin” test program. With few exceptions, the participants rated the test oils in the same order by each of the stability criteria. Reproducibilities of the test criteria (percent viscosity increases, neutralization number increases and corrosivities to metals) are considered satisfactory. Information based on test and statistical data suggested revisions in the test procedure that would reduce test variables and further improve reproducibilities.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680321
Harry W. Reynolds
A series of cooperative test programs has resulted in the refinement of a bearing test for evaluating the relative deposit and degradation characteristics of synthetic lubricants under a simulated gas turbine engine environment. Future efforts will be aimed at providing a bearing rig test capability to screen candidate lubricants for advanced high-performance engines at temperatures up to 700 F.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680303
Ernest L. Black
V/STOL wind tunnel testing performed over the past several years has been guided largely by the well established practices of conventional low speed wind tunnel testing. Since this approach has not always been satisfactory, a recent investigation was made to determine the adequacy of current V/STOL testing methods. The study was particularly relevant to tests of a four-propeller tilt-wing airplane configuration, but the knowledge gained from this study is also applicable to other types of V/STOL airplanes. The principal result of the investigation was finding that some testing practices for conventional models are not adequate for V/STOL models. The key factors that separate conventional and V/STOL testing were found to be the balance interference tares, model power, and angle-of-attack range.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680349
R. J. Rackliffe, H. K. LeMar
The term programmed engine and accessory testing systems implies a variety of design options that are available to the activity contemplating computer assisted test operations. Implementation of such systems may be restricted to one specific option or may be a combination of several options. Final design configuration will reflect the results of trade-off studies involving economics, reliability, and the functional nature of the individual test to be conducted. A total testing system complex pertaining to post-overhaul engine test cells and accessories test stands is selected and described.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680342
David James
This paper discusses some of the factors which give rise to the need for continuing surveillance against fatigue in the field of aircraft maintenance. The subject is presented in relation to the limitations of statistically significant data on fatigue producing forces in some areas, and the problem of scatter in fatigue behaviour of structures. Finally, the applications of various non-destructive inspection techniques are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680337
Arne R. Oberg
The Pratt & Whitney Aircraft 43,500 lb thrust turbofan engine will power the Boeing 747 large commercial transport airplane. The JT9D engine is a two-spool, high bypass ratio engine with outstanding performance, high thrust to weight, and low noise levels. This advanced technology gas turbine engine represents a major step in improved maintainability through the use of simplified structural design and unit component construction which will substantially reduce assembly and disassembly time and, in turn, facilitate on-the-wing maintenance. Provisions for borescope or radioisotope inspection, along with improved monitoring of engine parameters, will facilitate installed engine condition monitoring.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680338
J. M. S. Keen
The Rolls-Royce family of large high by-pass ratio engines has resulted from a long study aimed at providing the optimum compromise between first cost, operating cost, weight, and noise level for the new generation of subsonic civil transport airplanes. This paper considers the design approach applied to some aspects of reliability, failure detection, and rectification in these engines and also the mechanical implications of some noise-suppression features.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680538
J. J. Staudt, P. R. Lepisto, J. A. Vitkovits
A technique for evaluating high temperature oxidation and corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants is described. The technique utilizes a versatile bench apparatus which, with a minimum of modification, can be used for either evaluating thermal oxidation stability of gear lubricants or oxidation-corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants. The apparatus is relatively compact and requires a minimal lubricant sample. Design of the apparatus permits close control of all operating parameters and provides satisfactory test data repeatability. Retainable copper-lead test bearings are used as the indicator in predicting a pass or fail of fully formulated crankcase lubricants as in the case of the CRC L-38-559 (Federal Test Method 3405) technique. Engine and bench test data are compared to illustrate the capabilities of this new bench technique.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680565
Donald G. Hubbard, John A. Demcak
An operating system of automatic data acquisition and on-line computation as used in general engine testing is discussed. The considerations for its configuration are developed and operating history is reported. Included in the discussion are the parameters guiding the design of the system, method of operation, data format, and operating costs. An engine performance computer program is also outlined.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680564
Eugene S. Barc, Roger Wellington
To implement a gas turbine development program, an engineering laboratory was expanded to provide five test cells and a process air station capable of delivering 30 lb/sec of air at 50 psig. An on-line computer controlled data system was included to speed data collection, reduce test reruns, and above all provide engineers with calculated results within minutes of the completion of a run. The paper gives a brief description of the facility and its data system, and shows how such a facility can contribute to a gas turbine program.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680563
J. G. Kozlevcar, W. D. Speight
A data acquisition system in conjunction with a digital computer has been applied to engine performance data analysis of gas turbine engine tests. The system described has inputs suitable for scanning 100 pressures and 100 electrical analog inputs. Computed, normalized, and corrected test result quantities are printed out during development test runs. Comments are included concerning the justification for using such a system, and some modifications and additions made to increase the data acquisition system utility are described.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680556
Gerald G. Hoeft
The laboratory testing of large structural components has now become a very important phase of the research and development program at Caterpillar Tractor Co. This paper discusses the need and reasons for laboratory testing, along with specific advantages that this type of testing offers. The history of Caterpillar’s structural testing program is reviewed and several tests are briefly discussed. Finally, the new concrete bedplate located at their Technical Center is thoroughly described and compared with similar bedplates in existence elsewhere.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680438
R. L Stambaugh, A. F. Preuss
The viscosity stability of automatic transmission fluids as measured by the sonic oscillator failed to correlate with that determined in continuous high speed driving. The development of a test based on the use of a power steering pump is described. The effects of motor speed, oil pressure, and oil temperature were determined. Test conditions are described which permit prediction of used oil viscosities for transmission fluids. This test is independent of the chemical class of the V.I. improver.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680435
H. A. Bigley, H. T. Niles, F. A. Sciabica, A. H. Winkler
A test technique has been developed that permits evaluation of passenger car hot start and run characteristics at various severity levels with a minimum of instrumentation. The most critical of several test conditions investigated in five cars at approximately 95 F ambient were a 20-mile warmup at 70 mph followed by a 20-minute engine-off soak period.A hot start and run is defined as an engine start followed by an idle period of at least one minute. The technique gives satisfactory results when using adjusted RVP for two stalls or for a 4 sec start. Two fuel series are desirable but one series, more severe than average commercial summer gasolines, should be satisfactory for survey purposes.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680482
D. L. Veenstra
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680476
R. H. Vansteenkiste, J. N. Bradley, R. C. Norton
This paper discusses factors considered in establishing wheel test methods and describes the tests performed. It also points out that there are positive correlations between laboratory tests, customer’s road tests, and the ultimate evaluation -- customer’s service experiences. Test methods are continually being reviewed. Some of the future plans for improving “wheel evaluations” are described. As an example, wheel transducers are being developed that will measure the dynamic radial and lateral components of wheel loads. This will allow more accurate tests to be established which will duplicate these loads in the laboratory. Once the loads are known, stress analysis techniques and the computer can be used in wheel design. The importance of proper maintenance to obtain good wheel life is also discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680495
Evelyn Simon
A photometric test system has been fabricated which can be programmed over the angular range of interest to automatically record the continuous candlepower distribution of a lighting device. The system is adaptable to most types of automotive lighting devices and readily allows for certification of the device to present SAE lighting requirements while significantly reducing photometric testing time. The system yields considerable information on the lighting pattern of the device, which serves as a valuable tool in the design and development of future devices.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680424
W. D. Ross, E. M. Sharer, A. P. Blomquist, W. B. Herndon
This is a report of the status of the development of a Band Friction Test Machine that will measure friction of automatic transmission band-drum combinations used in current production passenger cars. The fixture’s operating requirements are described, along with a detailed listing of its features. The test procedure and test data from a prototype machine are discussed. It is hoped that this machine will enable greater correlation of data in this area.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680407
Gerhard E. Thien
This paper describes a newly constructed research facility which was specifically designed for noise reduction work on internal combustion engines. Various approaches for reducing engine noise are discussed, and a method which permits locating individual sources of structure-borne sound is reviewed. A measuring system for airborne sound, radiated from the engine surfaces, is described. Some new findings and new problems encountered in noise reduction work are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680584
Shellie O. Williamson
Modern data acquisition methods combined with new testing and analysis techniques are revolutionizing product design and development. Detailed analysis of recorded vehicle drive-line data has given today's engineer new insights into drive-line dynamics. This paper discusses how vehicles can be analyzed as a series of torsional springs and inertia masses. A two axle, 300 hp, 15 cu yd earthmoving tractor scraper (model 621) is used to illustrate significant factors. Main emphasis is on drive-line resonant torsional vibrations and shock loading. Diesel engines as torsional vibration exciters and transmission clutches as the major shock load producers are covered in some detail. How analog computers can effectively be used to facilitate vehicle development is briefly discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680585
H. B. Felder, C. E. Kramer
Primarily a review of hardware details that allow quick changes and high utilization of dynamometers and kindred equipment. Discussed are tachometry, torque measurement quick disconnects (electrical and shaft), desirable control system characteristics, and chassis dynamometers.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680581
Alvin M. Fischer, Herschel J. Anservitz, William T. Deibel
This paper outlines the conception and development of rating brakes. It is related to the adoption of the snub method of rating brakes as described in SAE Recommended Practice J880 and proposes an alternate continuous drag test method utilizing a dynamometer adapted to a road vehicle.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680792
Channing L. Ewing, Daniel J. Thomas, George W. Beeler, Lawrence M. Patrick, David B. Gillis
Abstract An acceleration sled carrying living human subjects was used to measure the dynamic response of the head and neck to —G x impact acceleration. Seated volunteers with complete pelvic and upper torso restraint were subjected to increasing impact accelerations beginning at 2.7 g and increasing in 1 g increments. The volunteers were selected to encompass the 5th to 95th percentile distribution of sitting height according to a selected reference. Precision inertial transducers were used to determine the linear and angular acceleration of the head and the first thoracic vertebra. The inertial system consisted of a biaxial accelerometer and rate gyroscope on a bite-plate, a biaxial acceierometer over the bregma, and a biaxial acceierometer and rate gyroscope over the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra. The transducers on the bite-plate and over the bregma were rigidly connected to one another.
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