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1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670704
H. W. Van Gerpen
A punched paper tape system offers a relatively inexpensive and speedy mean for recording, reading, and storage of data. The recorded data is visible, will withstand rough handling, and if torn, can usually be reconstructed. The equipment used in the John Deere Waterloo Product Engineering Center is described fully.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670876
Terry D. Scharton, Thomas M. Yang
Random vibration transmission from a vibrating source into an instrument package is analyzed using statistical energy analysis techniques. A general outline of these techniques, followed by a specific application to an instrument box attached to a vibrating plate, is presented. Consideration is also given to vibration isolation of the instrument box and to a novel method of performing vibration tests of small instrument packages and components. The experimental results presented agree well with theoretical results and indicate that these new analysis techniques offer new insight into practical high-frequency vibration problems.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670646
Charles H. Plyer, William P. Wood
Covered in this paper are four of the many tasks which make up an in-house process control program. These tasks have special significance in their high payoff in product integrity. Reliability requirements are used to develop quality requirements for process control and a simple method of analysis of in-process data is described. This Reject Pattern Analysis relates the cost of failure to the cost of repair. Data is also presented to prove the need for product burn-in or screening. Both industry and government should take forthright action to more uniformly implement these improvements.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670642
W. B. Rossnagel
Governmental assurance documentation bibliography updated; new tabulation effective as of April 1, 1967. Latest revision indicated in all instances, but no attempt was made to list supplements or amendments. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) published annually in three parts (alphabetic, numerical, and listing of Federal Supply Classification following unclassified documents.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670362
Jay P. Mitchell, Robert C. McMaster
A television X-ray image enlargement system capable of directly detecting images developed by penetrating radiations is serving as an inspection tool for nondestructive testing. This system provides instantaneous X-ray images having 30X enlargement on a television screen. A special television camera tube detects the X-ray image and transforms the X-radiations to a video signal at a 1/30 sec frame rate when using standard television imaging operation. Original development of the television X-ray imaging system was for inspection of weldments and material reliability in aerospace vehicles. The contrast sensitivity of this system has shown 2% thickness change in 1/4 in. steel and 1 in. aluminum thicknesses. Its resolution capability has repeatedly revealed 500 μ in. detail; however, with careful attention to operational techniques, 300 μ in. detail can be visualized. Specimen motion speeds up to approximately 18 in./minute can be used without objectionable image blurring.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670361
A. W. Young
The Universal Endoscope System makes use of the transmission capabilities of a solid, totally internal reflecting quartz rod and precision telescope. The light output is approximately 200 watts. This bright source is aircooled throughout and permits internal viewing of bores, cavities, walls, and assemblies. Standard probes as small as 7/16 in are available.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670483
Walter S. Fagley, Richard R. Nunez
A new method for measuring fuel-air ratio from vehicle exhaust gas has been developed which gives quick and accurate results on both lean and rich mixtures. The method is based on measurement of exhaust gas components using nondispersive infrared and polarographic analyzers.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670479
D. N. Kapadia, G. L. Borman
A study was made to determine the effect of heat transfer from the backface of a poppet intake valve on the flow rate through the valve. All tests were made under steady flow conditions. The results show that for the same lift and same pressure drop across the valve, the flow rate through a hot valve is less than through a cold valve. This effect increases almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and decreases rapidly with lift. The results also show that the effective flow area is independent of pressure drop through the valve. A correlation of heat transfer from the back of the valve surface to the flowing air shows that the Nusselt number varies as the 1.27 power of the Reynolds number.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670454
Terence G. Kirkland, Ralph E. Hopkins
This paper summarizes the present state-of-the-art in U. S. Army research in electrical vehicular propulsion systems. The powerplants discussed are: compression ignition and spark ignition engine generators, hybrid engines, turbine generators, Stirling engines, Rankine cycle engines, fuel cells, and batteries. The liquid hydrogen fuel cell offers the greatest potential for military applications because of the compatibility of the fuel. Also covered are the power conditioning units and drive units. The authors discuss in detail the five electric propulsion test beds being used at USAERDL: the BEST, ultra high speed, a-c electric wheel, d-c brushless and fuel cell.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670537
George Mechlin, C. Robert Brown
Testing the underwater launching of Polaris had to be done from an unmanned and remotely operated underwater facility before test missile launchings from a submarine could be safely and reliably accomplished. The development and operation of equipment to perform these tests rivaled and perhaps surpassed the technical problems of the tactical missile launcher. It was necessary to duplicate the undersea environment of the submarine, including water depth and relative ship-water motion from the effect of surface waves and from the way of the submarine. Further, it was necessary to arrest the fallback of inert test vehicles after launch to avoid damage to the launcher and to allow postlaunch evaluation of the structural integrity of the test vehicle. The servicing of the surfaced launch vessel was accomplished at a catamaran type work barge, and the operation of the submerged launch vessel was accomplished from a monitor barge.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670551
R. C. Weikel
The problem of establishing the configuration and sizing of the primary structure of a large area solar array yielding 20 w/lb is analyzed. Factors affecting the structural design and examined in this paper include: 1. Effects of launch environment. 2. Deploying and deployed phases of a typical mission. 3. Impact of ground support and test equipment upon the design. 4. Fabrication problems affecting structural design. The analyses consider dynamic and internal loads, temperature distribution and thermal control, selection of materials, weight distribution, and interface of the structural and electrical technologies. It is found that the feasibility of design of a 20 w/lb large area solar array is within the present state-of-the-art only if beryllium is used to transmit primary loads.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670485
J. H. Jones, J. C. Gagliardi
The effects of air-fuel mixture quality and cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel distribution on exhaust emissions have been determined on two engine-vehicle combinations. California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board (CMVPCB) test cycle emissions were measured on vehicles using a pre-mixed and pre-heated air-fuel charge supplied by a steam jacketed, nine cubic foot vaporization tank. The vaporization tank provided a near constant air-fuel mixture ratio for all operating modes of the 7-mode CMVPCB test cycle. The two vehicles were evaluated at nominal air-fuel ratios of 14:1, 16:1 and 18:1. Cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel distribution during the transient operation of the 7-mode CMVPCB test cycle was measured on a 200-CID six cylinder and a 289-CID eight cylinder engine. The procedure employed was to record the total carbon emissions (CO + CO2 + CH4 equivalent) for each cylinder during successive test cycles.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670504
R. A. Cellitti
Various induction hardening metallurgical variables for several induction hardening experiments in hardening gears are outlined and related to heat energy inputs and their effect on the bending fatigue strength of gears. The experiments included residual stress measurements by X-ray diffraction and by sectioning and etching techniques; bending fatigue tests; metallurgical examination comprising micro-hardness traverse tests and microstructure-macrostructure evaluations; and dimensional analysis. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that detrimental residual tensile stresses in the fillet surface of the tooth and the presence of dark etching transformation products near the surface can affect the performance of induction hardened gears in bending fatigue, and that metallurgical requirements can be specified to improve the reliability of induction hardened gears.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670510
Albin J. Burkman, Frank H. Hishley
The laboratory evaluation of brake lining materials at General Motors Engineering Staff is discussed. Physical aspects that may occur during test which were of concern are swell, shrinkage, blistering, extrusion, and sloughing. The friction materials test machine and test procedures are described. Frictional characteristics considered in the testing are friction level, uniformity of output, shape of family curves, fade, fade and recovery, and resistance to moisture. Test results are presented in the form of sample plot sheets of good and poor lining performance. Good linings showed fairly uniform coefficient of friction and consistent grouping of the family curves, in contrast to the excessive spread and erratic values of the poor lining example.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670629
John DeVelis, Haresh Shah
The use of entropy concepts in determining the reliability of a given measurement is presented in this paper. In particular, the problem of the analysis and report of given data with respect to some quotation of the degree of confidence is considered. Properties of probabilistic entropy are introduced and its application is demonstrated by means of an example. An entropy of a given one-dimensional Gaussian distribution is discussed. Methods presented are general enough so that the same ideas can be extended to other types of distribution.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670626
Vincent P. Burns
Chrysler's Quality Data Reporting System is primarily designed to collect information on quality defects reported by line inspectors and report them to the production areas so that corrective action may be taken. Individual input machines throughout the production areas feed data to the computer for processing and reporting. Along with this “Production Oriented” approach to Quality Reporting are the built in Quality Control tools for the analysis, summarization and management type reporting of quality conditions that allows plant management to stay in touch with quality at all times.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670571
G. K. Fling
Five XC-142 aircraft have been manufactured to provide operational prototypes of a V/STOL tactical transport for tri-service evaluation. This paper presents a description of the flight control and stability augmentation systems. Special emphasis is placed on the programmed functions which are characteristic of VTOL airplanes. Proposed changes in the control systems of production models of the C-142 are identified, and the simulation and flight test programs are outlined.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670307
John J. Carroll, Raymond Ziesmer
The Supersonic Transport Training Program is being defined through engineering, experimental and operations research and analysis programs. Dynamic simulation of future environment and performance parameters--to be updated later with flight test experience--are developing tomorrow's skills, procedures, and equipment essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SST as a total system.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670311
W. E. B. Griffiths
This paper covers the history of flight simulator acceptance in the United Kingdom. Two key years are 1951 and 1960. In 1951, the Ministry of Civil Aviation allowed the use of Redifon/BOAC Stratocruiser flight simulators to conduct Statutory instrument rating renewal tests. In 1960, the use of simulators was extended to biannual competency tests for pilots and flight engineers. The paper also explains why, with the advent of SSTs and jumbo jets, flight simulators will play an even larger part in pilot training and checking.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670304
Frank H. Borlace
This paper deals with concepts of motion systems which have not been fully utilized for training flight simulators, and which promise to provide a more accurate motion system representation. An examination of the vestibular system is made and the information it gives to the pilot is shown to be of a “phase advance nature” Some programming considerations of motion systems are presented. The desirability of custom designing the motion system to aid in training the pilot for specific tasks is also discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670303
Douglas Wilson
Visual simulation has added a new dimension to flight training simulators. Monochrome T.V. projection preceded the early colour displays which are, in turn, superseded by high definition colour systems incorporating features such as full runway and approach lighting. The paper outlines the progress in visual simulation and high definition colour systems which we have today. The requirements of all-weather operation are detailed. New developments are discussed which will further advance the art of visual simulation.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670305
James D. Goff
The methodology employed in the derivation of simulation equipment requirements for a Deep Submergence Vehicle DS/V is described, together with an outline of the hardware design concepts adopted or considered. The parallel is drawn between methodology and equipment used for a DS/V simulator, and that found in most aircraft or spacecraft simulators. In order to understand better the parallel, a brief discussion of the history and operation of a DS/V is included.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670300
Laurence E. Fogarty
A historical review of developments in flight simulator computation methods indicates that the computation load has been increasing by about a factor of ten every ten years for the last thirty years. From a brief analysis of computation methods used on a typical modern digital flight simulator it is concluded that these methods are more than adequate for the simulation task as presently defined. Additional new simulation requirements such as computer-aided instruction methods and computer-based navigation techniques apparently will require very large additional simulator computer capacity in the near future.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670297
John Rhodes
Training requirements of the current commercial subsonic jet programs and those of the manned space flight projects have dictated rapid expansion in the state of the art of simulation development. A concept of flight realism, before unknown, is being developed into our future simulators. These concepts are being formulated using past experience as a foundation to determine our needs; and technology developed in the space age to be our tools. The realization of training transfer to the high degree required will come with the further development of simulation environment, instrument presentation, motion systems with 6 degrees of freedom for “g” force inputs, and real world visual presentation. Many of these are already realized; the rest are in advanced development stages.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670301
John M. Hunt
A very large increase in the ratio of digital computer capabilities (memory capacity and operating speed) to computer cost is forecast in the next decade. This paper considers a number of aspects of the design, construction and use of modern digital flight and space trainers with the thought of exploitation of presently unobtainable computer capacity to maximize simulator usefulness and to minimize total simulator costs. New methods of visual and radar simulation made feasible only through the use of super computers are discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670339
H. G. Bogart
New developments in nondestructive testing for turbojet engines and aircraft are illustrated and current problem areas are outlined. Development work now underway in this field is described. Future requirements, related to such aircraft as the 747 and SST and their engines are anticipated.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670332
Albert A. Martino, Gaetan J. Mangano
The Aeronautical Engine Laboratory's Containment Evaluation Facility (AELCEF), featuring the government's largest spin chamber, high speed photographic equipment, and impact instrumentation, has been created and has recently become operational. This unique installation is described in detail. The first successful photographs ever taken of the interaction of rotor fragments and a containment ring are presented. Testing techniques and results are discussed. The ultimate goal of the AEL, NASA sponsored, integrated program of theoretical and experimental research work is to provide lightweight containment/control devices that will prevent the fragments of failed turbomachines from injuring personnel and minimize aircraft damage.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670163
J. A. Sturos, C. J. Pietkiewicz
The dynamic rate of a rubber part must be known to predict adequately the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber part while undergoing dynamic excitation. But accurate and convenient testing systems have not been readily available. The resonant beam system, which is used by most engineering groups, has definite drawbacks. The new dynamic rate system at Cadillac Motor Car Div. is an electro-hydraulic actuated system which excites the rubber part under closed-loop control. The system features a built-in analog computer which accurately determines the spring rate and damping coefficient for selected values of mean load, cyclic amplitude, frequency, and temperature. The need for such a facility, a description of and the procedure in using the resonant beam and the new system, the advantages of the new system as compared to the resonant beam, and the availability of a commercially built electro-hydraulic analog readout system are discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670162
A. M. Sogoian, W. V. Paliga
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670161
Robert M. LaBreche
This paper contains a practical discussion of the applications of reverberation chambers to acoustical measurement problems often encountered by noise control engineers. The important characteristics of a reverberation chamber are explained and typical reverberation chamber construction demonstrated. The advantage of the reverberation chamber as a simple method of measuring certain acoustic phenomena and acoustical properties is illustrated by its application in three typical examples. First, the application of the room to measurements involving directional sound sources is illustrated by a study of automotive alternator noise. Second, the use of the room as a nondirectional sound source in measurement of acoustical material properties is illustrated by sound barrier tests of material sample installations.
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