Display:

Results

Viewing 22231 to 22260 of 24128
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740685
Walker H. Flint
The unaltered, commercially available instrumentation described in this paper provides an accurate (close to Type 1 sound level meter tolerances) and lightweight (total system-5.25 lb) sound recording system. In conjunction with commercially available programable calculators, this instrumentation enables accurate determination of dosage to various criteria. The applications include construction equipment, lift trucks, farm or yard tractors, private airplanes, military vehicles, highway trucks, motor boats, snowmobiles, etc.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740967
Narendra J. Sheth, P. Scott Gegesky
As the compliance with noise legislation became more difficult, Ford exhaust system development engineers increasingly encountered variances not only from vehicle-to-vehicle, but on the same vehicle tested in different locations. As a result, a series of tests were conducted to establish the correlation among various sites for vehicle exterior noise measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present the results and the method developed to achieve the correlation in terms of the following: 1. Ford and site equipment differences 2. Driver differences 3. Differences between site physical qualities Seven sites were evaluated in the program where seven vehicles were used with a good spread in exterior noise levels. A representative correlation plot is also presented which can be used to predict the expected noise level of any vehicle at any one of these test sites knowing the level obtained at the Ford site.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740968
John F. Hemdal
The sound pressure level (SPL) measured at a given point varies as a motor vehicle goes through a pass-by noise test such as SAE J986a. The tests described in this paper were intended to assess the magnitude and variability of different motor vehicle noise measurements. All factors which might cause variation in the received SPL were either controlled or monitored. This study was designed to quantify the effects on SPL from wind turbulence.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740962
Norma D. Miller, Dwane Baumgardner, Rudolf G. Mortimer
This paper presents the results of a study directed toward examining the effects of glare resulting from following headlights reflected in rearview mirrors. In particular, the effects of different driving environments are discussed with regard to their effects on glare. The results of a computer analysis predicting the magnitude of glare reflected from rearview mirrors for several headlight systems are also presented. These computations cover a range of intercar spacings and both inside and outside mirrors. An important question is also posed concerning the effects of glare in a driver's peripheral field-of-view and its potential effects on the detection of early warning events.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740964
R. R. Mourant, R. J. Donohue
Driver behavior in obtaining information through rearview mirrors and head turns was analyzed for novice, young experienced, and mature drivers during daytime driving on a freeway route. No significantly different mirror sampling patters were obtained when the horizontal fields of view of the plane left side and inside mirrors were expanded by approximately 25%. Some difference in behavior did occur between the mature and the other drivers, especially in mirror use when driving straight ahead. The total time to obtain information for left merges was significantly larger than for left and right lane changes and a right merge. Finally, the time required to obtain information to make a decision for a left or right lane change without execution was considerably less than the time needed when the maneuver was actually executed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740979
R. A. Vogelei
This paper traces the more than 20-year history of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) as the primary body material for the Chevrolet Corvette. Reasons for the original decision to use FRP are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the difficulties encountered in design, manufacturing techniques, and material compounding. These problems, and the solutions to them, include the progression from the original wet-mat material to low-profile systems. Sheet molded compounds (SMC) are discussed as non-low profile and low-profile applications. Unresolved production problems and outlined with a review of industry attention necessary to assure continued FRP application to Corvette body panels. This paper also discusses the design and application of flexible facias used on both front and rear-end bumper systems and the use of plastic as a bumper energy-managing system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740944
Thomas S. Chelsky
More meaningful laboratory testing can be achieved from test programs designed to better simulate the usage of the component or system in the hands of the consumer. Steering gears and linkages are adaptable to force measurement during vehicle operation. This data can then be used to program laboratory test equipment in a manner which simulates the force environment encountered in vehicle usage.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740946
K. D. Zell
Many techniques are currently being used for different types of road simulation studies. These approaches vary from using a road simulator as an analysis tool for fatigue to durability simulation to predict the life of a complete vehicle in the laboratory. Different inputs to vehicles have been used, from the apparent straightforward approach of vertical inputs through the tire to complete simulation of combined loads through multiple inputs into the vehicle. An overview of these techniques developed over the past decade is presented. The analysis relates to the techniques and application of test equipment and methods of testing rather than the prediction or classification of actual results.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740943
Jürgen Telschow
A servohydraulic test center for the automobile industry is described in this paper. Mechanical, hydraulic, and electronic modular components are assembled for all-purpose test facilities. The fundamental structure of a controlled system with a cylinder-servovalve combination is explained. Some measurements and the quality of the reproducibility of the simulation of random loads encountered in road testing are discussed for two special test stands for axles and driveshafts.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740952
D. Hodgetts, D. W. Parkins
A theoretical and experimental study of the vibrations of the conventional driveline of a car with a rear-wheel drive has identified at least 11 modes of vibration in the range 10-200 Hz. There are indications that a simple theoretical model, which ignores coupling with the vibration modes of the body, is adequate to predict the most important modes. It is found that the model can be improved by the inclusion of the dynamic characteristics of the rubber insulators in the system and the gyroscopic effects of the rotating wheel. A significant increase of the noise level in the interior of the vehicle was attributed to the first bending mode of the rear axle. Random excitation by force inputs at the road surface, and forces and couples at twice the frequency of rotation of the driveshaft and engine crankshaft, cause the major resonance.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740954
P. B. Lake, J. J. Grenawalt
Four families of low-carbon, high-strength cold-rolled (HSCR) sheet are discussed, exhibiting minimum yield strengths of 40 to 140 ksi. The relative merits of the various grades are analyzed in terms of important fabricating and selection criteria: strengthening capability, planar anisotropy, formability, impact loading response, weldability and cost reduction. Paralleling the increase in strengthening capability in HSCR was an increased planar anisotropy and variation in formability within the various families. The impact loading of all cold-rolled grades showed increased yield strengths and energy absorption; the weldability of the different grades varied widely depending upon strengthening mechanisms, strength level, and chemistry; the cost reductions possible with the HSCR decreased as the degree of formability required in the finished part increased. Generally, gauge reductions of 6% to 34% were found to be necessary to offset cost extras for different grades of HSCR sheet.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740941
John R. Peterson
Methods are discussed for obtaining in-service loads, motions, and operational parameters on customer-operated vehicles. Special load measuring transducers and unique unattended monitor recorders were utilized. Some statistics associated with selection of field customers are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740942
Edwin C. Sage
This paper deals with the overall program of vehicle field data collection and instrumentation. In it, the philosophy of the vehicle durability test is discussed relative to the requirement of accurately duplicating customer usage. Advantages and disadvantages of various data collection methods are also discussed. A brief, nonrigorous discussion of data analysis is included.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740939
D. R. Hartdegen
This paper discusses the overall concept and philosophy of field data acquisition and evaluation, incorporating results from an industrial tractor component. Since the scope of the subject is so large, the major part of the discussion is centered on the method of analyzing the data and life prediction. Some methods may or may not conflict with current procedures, and are presented as only one method of evaluation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740940
Milton Baker
This paper discusses the design requirements and operation of two onboard, self-contained, level histogram recording devices that can operate unattended for six months and store data in a removable digital memory. The paper describes the types of data the units record, data sampling and recording techniques, and memory data interrogation procedures.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741002
M. G. MALLOY
Abstract Climatic conditions in parts of North America have created a need for cold weather testing of automotive products for this market. To fulfill this need, a Cold Weather Test Facility has been constructed and is in operation at Kapuskasing, in Northern Ontario. The need for the facility, its design and operation, the types of tests conducted, and typical test results obtained are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740998
Lorna Middendorf, Patrick W. Dineen, Stefan Habsburg
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741004
Richard A. Marshall, Edward F. Miller
This paper describes a new, closed-loop programming system which faithfully transfers road operation to the chassis dynamometer. The system provides stable, rapid, accurate response to programmed speed and throttle position changes. Using a derivative of a torque-related signal, changes in power train performance are compensated realistically by electronic modification of either throttle or speed signals as a function of part or wide open throttle command. Under conditions of minor power loss, part throttle compensation is found to restore such uncontrolled parameters as engine speed and driveline torque to the values measured without engine degradation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740985
R. R. Boltz, R. L. Grzesiak, E. J. Rohn
The Ford Motor Company has developed a mathematical model utilizing electronic data processing techniques to calculate the potential savings to owners of automobiles equipped with energy absorbing bumpers. This model can be used to measure the economic effectiveness of alternative bumper performance requirements and/or system design proposals. Base data for the model has been obtained from surveys conducted by Ford of damage to pre-FMVSS 215 controlled vehicles. A description of the technique utilized to predict bumper system economic effectiveness and the results of Ford Motor Company's bumper cost-effectiveness studies are contained in this report.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740987
T. W. Ruster
The purpose of this study was to define the performance of 1973 vehicles (meeting the requirements of FMVSS 215) in terms of collision losses. The study addresses both unrepaired and repaired damage. In terms of overall dollars per car-year, the results fail to show a difference in losses between 1973 model year vehicles and 1971 model year vehicles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740997
Gordon R. W. Simmonds
Drivers searched for known symbols on a simulation of a dimly lit (5 1x) instrument panel. The symbols, from 2 mm to 25 mm diameter, were in groups of nine. They were randomly selected from 24 used to identify controls and displays on European Ford vehicles. The probability of recognition was related to size for eight symbols. This gives a rational basis for the size used in vehicles. No reliable difference was found between the performance of black symbols on white backgrounds and white on black. Substantial differences exist between the effectiveness of different symbols. Recommendations for improvements were based on confusions between symbols.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740995
Reinhard Lendholt
Clear identification of motor vehicle controls is necessary for safe operation of a vehicle. Identification of some well-known symbols and some new symbols was investigated by inquiries. Differences in identification between trained and untrained subjects are shown (employees of a vehicle manufacturer versus factory visitors). Influences of sex, age, and professional education are evaluated. The learning effect of identification before and after a purposeful training was investigated by an additional inquiry of factory visitors. The result showed no significant influence of sex, age, professional experience, or ownership of a driver license on the identification after training. This improves the chance of eliminating symbols of insufficient identification.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740823
A. Walter Stubner, Ellis Canal
The development of compression systems for advanced twin-spool turbofan engines became increasingly more difficult as stability, performance, weight, and cost reduction goals were increased. Experience indicated that single-spool compressor component tests did not completely duplicate stability limits determined by flight engine tests. A requirement existed for a component test technique to develop the entire twin-spool compression system in a simulated engine environment, with sufficient operating flexibility to reproduce critical operating points that might be incurred during actual engine operation. The Pratt & Whitney Aircraft dual-spool compressor facility was designed and built to meet this requirement. The dual-spool facility has been employed in the development of several advanced models of the JT9D engine, in the JT10D demonstration engine development program, and in a U.S.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740081
J. A. DiCello, R. A. George
One solution to the problem of spiraling automotive weights is the substitution of thinner high strength steels or thicker aluminum alloy outer body panels. In doing so the dent resistance of these panels must not be sacrificed. This study investigates the dent resistance of doubly curved rectangular panels in various steels and aluminum alloys. Dent depth on the order of magnitude of the panel thickness was studied. An empirical equation is developed that relates dent resistance to the yield strengths, metal thickness, and panel geometry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741104
R. L. Leffert, P. M. Riede, R. E. Rasmussen
There are many ways to describe the factors contributing to the directional control dynamics of motor vehicles. The cornering compliance concept is particularly applicable to the tire intermix situation since it helps to separate the front and rear contributions to total vehicle performance. The relationship between cornering compliances and vehicle response properties, discussed in previous papers, is reviewed. The contribution of tire mechanical properties to cornering compliance is described. Typical compliance levels associated with intermix of generic tire types, wear states, and brands are listed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740259
Robert J. Stout
Adhesively bonded metallic laminates are a fabrication concept for providing fail-safe structure. This type of structure was evaluated under Air Force Contract AF33(615)-73-C-3001, “Advanced Metallic Air Vehicle Structures Program.” Development of a bonding process for large-area bonding, adhesives test data, and component test data from the program are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740101
Leonard C. Rowe
It is difficult to avoid the use of bimetallic assemblies in the manufacture of most products. When these combinations of dissimilar metals are exposed to an electrolyte, corrosion of one of the metals can be accelerated; this is referred to as galvanic corrosion. The tendency for it to occur depends on the thermodynamic instability of the metals involved, and the rate at which it occurs depends on the resistance of the system to the corrosion processes. The critical parameters affecting galvanic corrosion are the potential difference between metals, the polarization behavior of the metals in a particular environment, the characteristics of the electrolyte, and the ratio of the cathode to anode areas. Galvanic corrosion can be minimized through good design. Metal combinations that lead to excessive corrosion should be avoided. In some cases a metallic coating can be applied to reduce the potential difference between metals or to provide sacrificial protection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740102
Carl A. Schiele, Stephen F. DeNagel, James E. Bennethum
The development of a variable valve timing (VVT) camshaft was initiated as a potential means of controlling exhaust emissions from a spark ignition piston engine. This approach was based on the fact that valve overlap influences internal exhaust gas recirculation which in turn affects spark ignition engine emissions and performance. The design, fabrication, bench tests and engine durability tests of a unit incorporating splines to allow the intake cams to move relative to the exhaust cams is discussed. Preliminary test data from a 350 CID (5700 cm3) engine fitted with the VVT camshaft are discussed with regard to durability and emissions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740105
T. W. Ryan, S. S. Lestz, W. E. Meyer
The lean misfire limit air-fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine was extended by various modifications of the intake and ignition systems. The effects of long duration spark, extended spark plug gap projections and gap widths, and a vaned collar intake valve are reported. These modifications allowed for reliable operation up to air-fuel ratios of 24:1. The experimental apparatus and procedure used in this study are described. Conclusions are drawn concerning the optimization of the various modifications to extend the lean misfire limit and reduce the exhaust emissions. In general, all modifications extended the lean misfire limit, but increased gap width had the most profound effect. In all cases, the exhaust emissions were reduced by extension of the lean misfire limit.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740118
L. Imparato, F. Berti, G. Mancini, G. Pusateri
The use of several different synthetic lubricants in the formulation of multigrade motor oils is examined from the point of view of their physical and chemical characteristics and their commercial suitability. The influence of synthetic lubricant bases upon some of the performance characteristics of conventional additives has been considered. Engine test results using an SAE 10W/50 oil containing an ester base are compared with the performance of a similar SAE grade motor oil based upon mineral oil alone.
Viewing 22231 to 22260 of 24128

Filter