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2015-04-24
WIP Standard
J211/1
This recommended practice outlines a series of performance recommendations, which concern the whole data channel. These recommendations are not subject to any variation and all of them shall be adhered to by any agency conducting tests to this practice. However, the method of demonstrating compliance with the recommendations is flexible and can be adapted to suit the needs of the particular equipment the agency is using. It is not intended that each recommendation be taken in a literal sense, as necessitating a single test to demonstrate that the recommendation is met. Rather, it is intended that any agency proposing to conduct tests to this practice shall be able to demonstrate that if such a single test could be and were carried out, then their equipment would meet the recommendations. This demonstration shall be undertaken on the basis of reasonable deductions from evidence in their possession, such as the results of partial tests.
2015-04-22
Standard
USCAR40-1
This guideline is applicable to existing lead solder production products that will change to lead-free solder processes to meet the ELV Directive 2000/53/EC Annex II, exemption 8B requirements. This guideline is applicable to similar products used by multiple OEM's that have the same manufacturing processes/equipment. The intent is to streamline the supplier's environmental testing via common qualification to reduce timing, quantities, and costs.
2015-04-21
Article
Schmitt Industries announces availability of the AR 2000 line, with special capabilities for distance measurement on hot surfaces—e.g., red hot, glowing steel, and for outdoor use in bright lighting conditions with high constant or stray light levels.
2015-04-21
WIP Standard
AIR6325
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide comprehensive reference and background information pertaining to aircraft point level sensing
2015-04-17
WIP Standard
AS24509B
An Amendment corresponding to this standard is available at AS24509_A2
2015-04-15
Article
Given the pace of innovation, the goal of autonomy and automation will force more and more features into the electronics of off-highway vehicles, according to Ian Fountain, NI's Director of Application Segments.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Fuel efficiency, or simply put, how to get more mileage out of the same amount of fuel has become one of the main goals to be achieved by new automotive technologies in the future, thanks in part to new government regulations. In the episode “Fuel Efficiency: Racing toward CAFE 2025” (21:24) AVL engineers show simulation and testing being used to design more fuel efficient vehicles, including the equipment that actually analyzes fuel economy.
2015-04-15
Standard
J2455_201504
The product for which data is to be available is for class 6 and larger, i.e., gross vehicle weight ≻ 9.6 kg (19500 lb). The objective is to establish a set of data requirements which powertrain component suppliers would have readily available to facilitate drivetrain system vibration compatibility and control studies.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode “Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing” (12:01), engineers at the EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVL’s technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
2015-04-15
WIP Standard
AS4805A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the general requirements for the design, manufacture, and test of Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs) of both dc and ac ratings for use in electrical power systems. SSPCs conforming to this standard are intended for use in controlling the making and breaking of power circuits for electrically operated equipment and devices, and for providing overload and short-circuit protection.
2015-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP4990B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing with a single full-size sport utility vehicle (SUV) was conducted under controlled real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed, inherent to rollovers, are: pre-trip, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques have been designed which improve the ability to capture and document the unpredictable dynamic events surrounding vehicle rollovers. One such device is an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which utilizes GPS technology along with integrated sensors to report and record measured dynamic parameters real-time. The data obtained from a RT-4003 IMU device are presented and compared along with previous test data and methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Abstract Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases and can reflect the dynamic behaviour, which current approaches are not able. An existing basic system is used, which includes pneumatic cylinders with a controlled hydraulic brake and was developed for non-structural deformable applications only (mainly occupant assessments). The system is extended with a force-distance control. The method contains the analysis of a whole vehicle FEM simulation to develop a methodology for controlled force transmission with the pneumatic cylinders for a structural component test bench.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0430
Frédéric Kihm, Andrew Halfpenny, Benoît Beaum
Abstract As part of the design and validation of engine-mounted components, it is essential to define the vibratory mechanical environment in which these components will operate. This is required in order to optimize the reliability of such components subjected to loading from both the engine and road profile, while minimizing development costs and time scales. This paper presents a methodology that superimposes a swept sine on a power spectral density of acceleration in order to evaluate the mechanical durability of engine mounted or gear box mounted components. The first step in the process is to obtain the wave form of the dominant engine orders by extracting the deterministic signals from the random process using an order tracking method in the time domain. The second step is to assess the fatigue damage and extreme response spectra of a Swept-Sine-On-Random profile.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
Abstract The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0885
Mark B. Murphy, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper details the development of a new dynamic Intake Air Simulator (IAS) for use on single-cylinder test engines, where the gas dynamics are controlled to accurately simulate those on a multi-cylinder engine during transient or steady-state operation. The third generation of Intake Air Simulators (IAS3) continues a development of new technology in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) that replicates the multi-cylinder engine instantaneous intake gas dynamics on the single-cylinder engine, as well as the control of other boundary conditions. This is accomplished by exactly replicating the intake runner geometry between the plenum and the engine intake valve, and dynamically controlling the instantaneous plenum pressure feeding that runner, to replicate the instantaneous multi-cylinder engine intake flow.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple suppliers have developed new cordierite 10.5″ OD substrates in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications to diesel SCR markets. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides typical parameters such as product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration, thermal shock and thermal cycle tests. Flow performance before and after tests was characterized by a hot flow bench. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of multiple properties were made. Conclusions regarding their applicability and recommendations for future work are provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1092
Gabriela Achtenova, Ondrej Milacek
Abstract The purpose of the article is to describe different possibilities of the innovative concept of the closed-loop test rig. The performed tests will be demonstrated with the example of measured data. Firstly the article will describe in detail the design of the test stand and both torque units. The power flow in the closed-loop circuit will be described and measured to find out the power losses of all parts. The measurement will be done for manual and planetary pretensioning mechanism. The comparison of the overall efficiency and demanded power for both torque units will be given. For evaluation of gearbox efficiency, the magnitude of power losses will be evaluated for different revolutions, torque levels and shifted speeds. For a long term tests, the unmanned operation is prepared. For this purpose is the stand equipped with electromechanical shift robots. The description of its concept and functioning will be part of the paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0679
Michele Maria Schirru, Mike Sutton, Rob Dwyer-Joyce, Oliver Smith, Robin Mills
Abstract A novel ultrasonic viscometer for in-situ applications in engine components is presented. The viscosity measurement is performed by shearing the solid-oil contact interface by means of shear ultrasonic waves. Previous approaches to ultrasonically measure the viscosity suffer from poor accuracy owing to the acoustic miss-match between metal component and lubricant [1]. The method described overcomes this limitation by placing an intermediate matching layer between the metal and lubricant. Results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained with the conventional viscometers when testing Newtonian fluids. This study also highlights that when complex mixtures are tested the viscosity measurement is frequency dependent. At high ultrasonic frequencies, e.g. 10 MHz, it is possible to isolate the viscosity of the base, while to obtain the viscosity of the mixture it is necessary to choose a lower operative frequency, e.g. 100 kHz, to match the fluid particle relaxation time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0681
Yuki Ono, Kenji Matsumoto
Abstract The reciprocating frictional test is a common approach for screening the materials of the piston and sleeve of an automobile engine. The frictional speed of this test is, however, limited mainly by the vibration of test apparatus due to the absence of damping factors in engines. Considering that the frictional velocity between the piston and sleeve reaches around 20 m/s, common test conditions at less than 2 m/s are not sufficient to understand the real phenomena at a frictional interface. We therefore developed a high-speed reciprocating test apparatus that can operate at a much higher speed range and examined two materials used for piston rings and sleeves. For the piston ring material, nitrided SUS440C was used. Plates were made of centrifugal cast iron FC250 or cast aluminum AC2B, which were coated with Nikasil. The experimental results showed that the lubrication regimes of the two plate materials were different even at the same reciprocating speeds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0545
Jeong Kyun Hong
Abstract As the automotive industry seeks to remove weight from vehicle chasses to meet increased fuel economy standards, it is increasingly turning to composites and aluminum. In spite of increasing demands for quality aluminum alloy spot welds that enable more fuel efficient automobiles, fatigue evaluation procedures for such welds are not well-established. This article discusses the results of an evaluation Battelle performed of the fatigue characteristics of aluminum alloy spot welds based on experimental data and observations from the literature. In comparison with spot welds in steel alloys, aluminum alloy spot welds exhibit several significant differences including a different hardness distribution at and around the weld, different fatigue failure modes, and more. The effectiveness and applicability of the Battelle structural stress-based simplified procedure for modeling and simulating automotive spot welds has previously been demonstrated by Battelle investigations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0613
Donghong Ning, James Coyte, Hai Huang, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Abstract This paper presents a study on experimental vibration simulation using a multiple-DOF motion platform for heavy duty vehicle seat suspension test. The platform is designed to have 6-DOF with the advantages of high force-to-weight ratio, high dexterity and high position accuracy. It can simulate vehicle vibrations in the x, y and z translational axis and in the roll pitch and yaw axis rotation. To use this platform to emulate the real vibration measured from vehicle seat base under real operation for vehicle seat suspension test in lab, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is applied to collect the acceleration data from a real vehicle. An estimation algorithm is developed to estimate the displacement from the measured acceleration. The estimated displacement is then used to calculate the length of each leg of the platform so that the platform can generate the motion similar to the measured one.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0607
Xincheng Liang, Jingshan Zhao
Abstract This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorbers, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation with satisfying reliability, which is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
Abstract Amid all nondestructive testing (NDT) methods Ultrasound is considered the most practically feasible modality for quality assessment and detection of defects in automobile industry. Pattern recognition of the ultrasonic signals gives us important information about the interrogated object. This information includes size, geometric shape and location of the defect zone. However, this would not be straightforward to extract this information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping signals and also the presence of noise. Here in this study, we suggest a new method for classification of different defects in inspection of adhesively bonded joint. At the first step of this method, the problem of parameter estimation of the reflected echoes is defined in a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. Then a space alternating generalized Expectation Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is implemented to solve the MLE problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
Abstract This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves and acceleration performance following SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The results obtained are compared to a chassis dynamometer test performed on the same vehicle to prove feasibility for a low cost implementation when there is no access to said testing tools.
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