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Viewing 151 to 180 of 23621
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
Abstract Amid all nondestructive testing (NDT) methods Ultrasound is considered the most practically feasible modality for quality assessment and detection of defects in automobile industry. Pattern recognition of the ultrasonic signals gives us important information about the interrogated object. This information includes size, geometric shape and location of the defect zone. However, this would not be straightforward to extract this information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping signals and also the presence of noise. Here in this study, we suggest a new method for classification of different defects in inspection of adhesively bonded joint. At the first step of this method, the problem of parameter estimation of the reflected echoes is defined in a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. Then a space alternating generalized Expectation Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is implemented to solve the MLE problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
Abstract This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves and acceleration performance following SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The results obtained are compared to a chassis dynamometer test performed on the same vehicle to prove feasibility for a low cost implementation when there is no access to said testing tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Abstract This research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the road input for road load data generation for variants of a vehicle as vehicle parameters are modified. This is important to the design engineers while the vehicle variant is still in the initial stages of development, hence no prototypes are available and accurate proving ground data acquisition is not possible. ANNs are, with adequate training, capable of representing the complex relationships between inputs and outputs. This research explores the implementation of the ANN to predict road input for vehicle variants using a quarter vehicle test rig. The training and testing data for this research are collected from a validated quarter vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1673
Seunghyun Lee, Yoonwoo Lee, Sungmoon Lee, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi
Abstract In this study, a correlation between the maximum heat release rate and vibrations from a diesel engine block was derived, and a methodology to determine the maximum heat release rate is presented. To investigate and analyze the correlation, an engine test and an actual road vehicle test were performed using a 1.6-L diesel engine. By varying the engine speed, load and main injection timing, the vibration signals from the engine block were measured and analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The results show that the maximum heat release rate has a strong correlation with the magnitude of the vibrations. A specific bandwidth, the vibration signals between 0.3∼1.5 kHz, was affected by the variation in the heat release rate. The vibrations excited by combustion lasted over 50 CAD; however, the signals during the period of 35 CAD after the start of injection had a dominant effect on the maximum heat release rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1562
Matts Karlsson, Roland Gårdhagen, Petter Ekman, David Söderblom, Claes Löfroth
Abstract There is a need for reducing fuel consumption and thereby also reducing CO2 and other emissions in all areas of transportation and the forest industry is no exception. In the particular case of timber trucks special care have to be taken when designing such vehicles; they have to be sturdy and operate in harsh conditions and they are being driven empty half the time. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and four areas in particular, front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each. In order to address these issues a wind tunnel investigation was initiated where a 1:6 scale model of a timber truck was designed to operate in a 3.6 m wind tunnel. The present model resembles a generic timber truck with a flexible design such that different configurations could be tested easily.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1625
Frederic Boissinot, Jerome Bellavoine, Andrew Shabashevich, Siegfried Puster
Abstract Today, OEMs are challenged with an increasing number of powertrain variants and complexity of controls software. They are facing internal pressure to provide mature and refined calibrations earlier in the development process. Until now, it was difficult to respond to these requests as the drivability's calibration tasks are mostly done in vehicles. This paper describes a new methodology designed to answer these challenges by performing automated shift quality calibration prior to the availability of vehicles. This procedure is using a powertrain dynamometer coupled with a real-time vehicle dynamics model. By using a Power Train Test Bed (PTTB), a physical vehicle is not required. As soon as the vehicle dynamics model and its parameters have been defined, it can be simulated on the PTTB and drivability calibrations can be developed. A complete powertrain is coupled with low inertia and highly dynamic dynamometers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1615
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, John Huber, Jeff Wallace
The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-1 vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364 kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1-liter 3-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) sound package design and testing. Lightweight design actions on radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin typically cause vehicle interior acoustic degradation due to the reduction of panel surface mass.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Abstract Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
Abstract As electric technique develops fast, steering system changes from conventional mechanic steering system to Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS). Flowing HPS, Electrically Controlled Steering (ECS) system, including Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Active Front Steering (AFS) system and Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. ECS makes it easy for a driver to control a steering wheel using a less torque at a low speed, which is usually called steering portability Besides, ECS could also help a driver steer a vehicle stably at a high speed, which is usually called steering stability ECS provides an optional method to solve the contradiction between steering portability and steering stability. [1] [2] The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on. Researches of ECS need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) and real vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu, Abhijit Bansal, James C. McKeever
Abstract Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM's. Tula's Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders required to achieve desired torque. Validation of the DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. The testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM Hardware in the loop (HIL) API standard. Following the HIL-API standard gives the flexibility of choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0486
Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares
Abstract Performance data offers a powerful tool for system condition assessment and health monitoring. In most applications, a host of various types of sensors is employed and data on key parameters (describing the system performance) is compiled for further analysis and evaluation. In ensuring the adequacy of the data acquisition process, two important questions arise: (1) is the complied data robust and reasonable in representing the system parameters; and (2) is the duration of data acquisition adequate to capture a favorable percentage (say for example 90%) of the critical values of a given system parameter? The issue related to the robustness and reasonableness of data can be addressed through known values for key parameters of the system. This is the information that is not often available.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
Abstract A 3D-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to determine trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured results on the completed body unit (CBU). Since design data is used as the input, it was hypothesized that the difference between predicted and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens® Variation Analysis software, the CBU was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. In addition, the study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
Abstract This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as input data. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behavior. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two separate stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration. First, a random road type profile is generated from the four different road types that are considered in the WLTP database: urban, rural, motorway and high-motorway, each of them with sub-road types based on different velocity bins.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Abstract Adhesive bonding technology has gained ever-increasing significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum (Al) alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. Though these challenges were recently overcome for steel-adhesive joints using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, the difference in acoustic impedances of steel and Al leads to a lack of robustness in utilizing the same algorithm for Al-adhesive joints. Here, we present the results from using a modified version of this technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 15-MHz, 52-pixel, 10 mm × 10 mm matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain ultrasonic pulse echoes from joint interfaces, analysis of which produced C-scan images of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
Abstract In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1303
Wenli Li, Xiao-Hui Shi, Dong Guo, Peng Yi
Abstract This paper discusses the development of engine and vehicle model for performing dynamic emulation experiments on vehicle transmissions. In order to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time, vehicle simulation on the driveline test bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads is a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) procedure, which can be used as a supplement of the conventional simulations in testing of the operation of algorithms without the need for the prototypes. The combustion engine is replaced by an electric drive dynamometer, which replicates the torque and speed signature of an actual engine. The road load resistance of the vehicle on a real test road is accurately simulated on Load dynamometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
Abstract Nowadays, as an irreplaceable means alongside CAD and testing, CAE is more and more widely applied with advanced material modeling and simulation methods continuously being explored, so as to get more accurate result as testing. In vehicle product development process, door slam durability evaluation is an important measurement for body closure structure. So far numerous effort has been taken to develop more mature methods to well define door slam simulation in stress and fatigue life analysis. Overall all methods ever being applied can be summarized as two categories, linear stress based method and nonlinear stress based method. The methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, can be included in linear stress based method with linear material properties as symbol in CAE model. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area with consideration for more realistic load transfer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1431
Mark H. Warner, Jon E. Bready, Wyatt Y. Warner, Alan F. Asay
Abstract Snowmobile acceleration, braking and cornering performance data are not well developed for use in accident reconstruction. Linear acceleration and braking data published by D'Addario[1] gives results for testing on 4 snowmobiles of various make and model. This paper presents the results of on-snow tests performed in 2014 which include acceleration and cornering maneuvers that have not been published previously. Maximum and average cornering speeds and corresponding lateral accelerations are presented for turns of radius 20, 35 and 65 feet (6.1, 10.7 and 19.8 meters) on level, packed snow. Performance values for acceleration, braking, and cornering are determined in tests with and without a passenger. Results of linear acceleration and braking tests were found to be comparable to the previously published work. The data are useful in snowmobile accident reconstruction for certain types of snowmobile motion analyses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
Abstract The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been well recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.”
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1445
Wesley Vandiver, Robert Anderson, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles, Christopher Furbish
Abstract The 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) with an Event Data Recorder (EDR) function to record crash related data. However, 2013 is the first model year supported by the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. Even with the same make and model, using the Kia EDR tool to image data from an unsupported model year calls into question whether some or any of the data has been properly translated. By way of example, a method for evaluating the usability of the crash related data obtained via coverage spoofing a 2012 Kia Soul is presented. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests were analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract Automotive knee bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A three-piece cellular structural knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 0.7 Kg), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be restrained (from 50 Kg/152 cm 5th percentile female to 100 Kg/188cm 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana, Jose Eduardo Mautone Barros, Matheus Guilherme França Carvalho, Helder Alves de Almeida, Jr.
Abstract A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gases, the speed of combustion, the ignition delay time of fuel and air mixture exact moment at which ignition will occur. The automobilist industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in numerical modeling and simulations in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance control the emission of pollutants and formulate new fuels. This study aimed to general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring shock wave. As specific objective was determined reaction rate and ignition delay time of diesel, biodiesel and ethanol doped with different levels of additive enhancer cetane number. The results are compared with the ignition delay times measured for other authors.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1164
Aimee N. Duhon, Kris S. Sevel, Steven A. Tarnowsky, Peter J. Savagian
Abstract Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1166
Elena Paffumi, Michele De Gennaro, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
Abstract The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as on-road tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different on-road routes, ranging from 60 to 90 km each, with a driving time ranging from approximately one and half to two and half hours.
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