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Viewing 151 to 180 of 23597
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0636
Yu Zhang, Lifu Wang, Bangji Zhang, Nong Zhang
Abstract Effectively obtaining physical parameters for vehicle dynamic model is the key to successfully performing any computer-based dynamic analysis, control strategy development or optimization. For a spring and lump mass vehicle model, which is a type of vehicle model widely used, its physical parameters include sprung mass, unsprung mass, inertial properties of the sprung mass, stiffness and damping coefficient of suspension and tire, etc. To minimize error, the paper proposes a method to estimate these parameters from vehicle modal parameters which are in turn obtained through full-car dynamic testing. To verify its effectiveness, a visual vehicle with a set of given parameters, build in the Adams(Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems)/Car environment, is used to perform the dynamic testing and provide the testing data for the parameter estimation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0647
Rafael Fietzek, Stephan Rinderknecht
Abstract During the last years mechatronic systems developed into one of the biggest drivers of innovation in the automotive industry. The start of production of systems like dual clutch transmission, lane departure warning systems and active suspensions proves this statement. These systems have an influence on the longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics of the vehicle. That is why the interaction on vehicle level is crucial for an optimal result in the fields of efficiency, comfort, safety and dynamics. To optimize the interaction of mechatronic systems, in this paper a new test rig concept for a complete vehicle is presented. The so-called Car-in-the-Loop-concept is capable of realistically reproducing the loads, which act on the powertrain, the steering and the suspension during a test drive.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1342
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
Abstract A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is extremely important for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in a shorter time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes when calculating the drag coefficient, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain key parameters for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel in Sindelfingen by using a microscope and a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
Abstract The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1517
David Stalnaker, Ke-Jun Xie, Terence Wei
Abstract Tire manufacturers need to perform various types of testing to determine tire performance under representative vehicle load conditions. However, test results are influenced by a number of external variables other than tire construction. Vehicle load distribution and suspension properties are some of those external variables which can have a significant effect on tire wear rate and durability. Therefore, in order to measure real world tire performance in a controlled and repeatable manner, a representative vehicle and associated tire load conditions are needed. Laboratory or indoor tire testing offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. It provides a well-defined test environment and repeatable results without influence from external factors. Indoor testing has been largely developed around the process of simulating tire wear performance on a specific reference vehicle, including its specific weight distribution, suspension characteristics, and alignment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1525
Rocky Khasow, Scott Best, Martin Agelin-Chaab, John Komar, Gary Elfstrom
Abstract Underbody vehicle flows are poorly understood given the comparatively small field of research to draw upon; even more so in the case of crosswinds. With the advent of electric and hybrid electric vehicles and their increased cooling demands, there is a need for a link between the aerodynamic flow field and the thermodynamic response. Thus underbody research considering a yawing vehicle was conducted on a Chevrolet Aveo5 hatchback. The vehicle was outfitted with a heat source to provide a baseline analysis along thermocouples, pressure probes and flow visualization tufts. The climatic wind tunnel at the University Of Ontario Institute Of Technology's Automotive Centre of Excellence provided video data of the tufts and thermal imaging data of the heat source.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1530
Todd Lounsberry, Joel Walter
Abstract In recent years, there has been renewed attention focused on open jet correction methods, in particular on the two-measurement method of E. Mercker, K. Cooper, and co-workers. This method accounts for blockage and static pressure gradient effects in automotive wind tunnels and has been shown by both computations and experiments to appropriately adjust drag coefficients towards an on-road condition, thus allowing results from different wind tunnels to be compared on a more equitable basis. However, most wind tunnels have yet to adopt the method as standard practice due to difficulties in practical application. In particular, it is necessary to measure the aerodynamic forces on every vehicle configuration in two different static pressure gradients to capture that portion of the correction.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1557
Reinhard Blumrich, Nils Widdecke, Jochen Wiedemann, Armin Michelbach, Felix Wittmeier, Oliver Beland
Abstract For many years FKFS has operated the full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of University of Stuttgart. To keep this wind tunnel as one of the most modern ones of its kind, it has again been upgraded significantly. The upgrade improved the aerodynamic as well as the aeroacoustic performance and accelerated the operational processes. Additionally, new innovative features have significantly enlarged the test capabilities. A new patented, modular belt system (FKFS first®) allows high performance measurements for race cars in a 3-belt mode as well as efficient measurements for production vehicle development in a 5-belt mode. The belt system is accompanied by a new, larger turntable and a new under-floor balance which enables high-accuracy measurements of forces and moments also for a high resolution in time. For the elimination of parasitic forces generated at the wheel drive units, a specific correction procedure has been implemented, which is patented, too (FKFS pace®).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0834
Mark Sellnau, Wayne Moore, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Matthew Foster, Harry Husted
Abstract A 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDi-like injection pressures. At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while increasing exhaust temperatures greatly. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions after the oxidation catalyst were very low. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 267 g/kWh was measured at the 2000 rpm-2bar BMEP global test point.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1672
Clemens Biet, Roland Baar
Abstract Acoustic measurements, especially interesting for new bearing concepts such as ball bearings, are an important part of the evaluation of turbochargers. Typically, acoustic benchmarking is done at standard conditions, neglecting possible negative effects of very low temperatures, as they might be encountered in real-world applications. For realistic turbocharger measurements at cold environment conditions down to −10 °C, special adjustments to the turbocharger test bench have been made. This article introduces a soundproofed climate chamber built in the turbocharger test bench which is able to achieve low component and oil supply temperatures while still providing adequate conditions for acoustic measurements. In the first part of the paper, the concept of the acoustic climate chamber is presented. Layout calculations are shown as an indicator for the performance of the acoustic and thermal isolation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1697
Daniel Freudenhammer, Brian Peterson, Carl-Philipp Ding, Benjamin Boehm, Sven Grundmann
Abstract Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) measurements are performed in 1:1 scale models of a single-cylinder optical engine to investigate the differences in the inlet flow due to geometrical changes of the cylinder head. The models are steady flow water-analogue of the optical IC engine with a fixed valve lift of 9.21 mm to simulate the induction flow at 270° bTDC. The applicability of MRV to engine flows despite the differences in experimental operating parameters between the steady flow model and the optical IC engine are demonstrated and well addressed in this manuscript and in a previous work [1]. To provide trust into the MRV measurements, the data is validated with phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed within the optical engine. The main geometrical changes between the cylinder heads include a variation of intake valve diameter and slight modifications to the exit of the intake port.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0680
Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
Abstract In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1164
Aimee N. Duhon, Kris S. Sevel, Steven A. Tarnowsky, Peter J. Savagian
Abstract Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1157
Namwook Kim, Jongryeol Jeong, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract For electrified vehicles, understanding the impact of temperature on vehicle control and performances becomes more important than before because the vehicle might consume more energy than conventional vehicles due to lack of the engine waste heat. Argonne has tested many advanced vehicles and analyzed the vehicle level control based on the test data. As part of its ongoing effort, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was tested in thermal environmental chamber, and the vehicle level control and performances are analyzed by observing the test results. The analysis results show that the control of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is similar with Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) when the vehicle is under a charge sustaining mode, and the vehicle tries to consume the electric energy first under a charge depleting mode.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1167
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
Abstract The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 °C and −7 °C), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1166
Elena Paffumi, Michele De Gennaro, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
Abstract The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as on-road tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different on-road routes, ranging from 60 to 90 km each, with a driving time ranging from approximately one and half to two and half hours.
2015-04-13
Article
The Ohio State University student team revealed the vehicle it will use to try to break its own world land speed record—307 mph—with an over 400-mph mark. The 38-ft-long (11.6-m) vehicle contains 2000 A123 pouch cells and runs a four-wheel-drive system with two motors design-rated at 3000 hp (2238 kW).
2015-04-10
WIP Standard
J2663
This test method is intended for measuring fuel permeation at elevated temperature through low permeating hose or tubing samples of elastomeric or composit construction. The expected accuracy of the method is about +/- 10% of the sample permeation rate.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
AS5975C
Scope is unavailable.
2015-04-09
Standard
J1339_201504
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the approximate performance of engine-driven cooling fans. This performance would include flow, pressure, and power. This flow and pressure information is used to estimate the engine cooling performance. This power consumption is used to estimate net engine power per SAE J1349. The procedure also provides a general description of equipment necessary to measure the approximate fan performance. The test conditions in the procedure generally will not match those of the installation for which cooling and fuel consumption information is desired. The performance of a given fan depends on the geometric details of the installation, including the shroud and its clearance. These details should be duplicated in the test setup if accurate performance measurement is expected.
2015-04-08
WIP Standard
AIR1168/4B
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
2015-04-08
WIP Standard
ARP1907C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
2015-04-02
WIP Standard
ARP4249A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to evaluate corrosion inhibiting properties of synthetic gas turbine lubricants and gearbox oils. This ARP is a modified form of a method developed in the United Kingdom as DERD Test Method/1, Method No. 18, Issue 1 of January 1984.
2015-03-31
Article
Gill Sensors & Controls offers the GScondition monitoring sensor range family to reduce unplanned breakdowns in industrial machine applications.
2015-03-31
WIP Standard
J551/17
This SAE Standard specifies the test methods and procedures for testing passenger cars and commercial vehicles to magnetic fields generated by power transmission lines and generating stations. SAE J551-1 specifies general information, definitions, practical use, and basic principles of the test procedure.
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