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Viewing 91 to 109 of 109
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1517
Cole R. Young, David J. King, James V. Bertoch
Abstract The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinematics of four Chevrolet Tracker rollover tests and to determine their average and intermediate deceleration rates while traveling on concrete and dirt. Single vehicle rollover tests were performed using four 2001 Chevrolet Trackers fitted with six degree of freedom kinematic sensors. Tests were conducted using a rollover test device (RTD) in accordance with SAE J2114. The test dolly was modified (resting height of the vehicle wheels was raised) between tests 1, 2, and 3. The RTD was accelerated to 15.6 m/s (35 mph) and then decelerated rapidly by an energy absorbing crash cushion (EA) to cause the vehicle to launch and roll. The vehicles initially rolled on a smooth concrete surface and continued into loose dirt. This paper adds to the body of work identifying phases of constant deceleration during staged RTD tests and compares these phases to the overall deceleration rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1559
Francesco Vinattieri, Tim Wright, Renzo Capitani, Claudio Annicchiarico, Giacomo Danisi
Abstract The adoption of Electrical Power Steering (EPS) systems has greatly opened up the possibilities to control the steering wheel torque, which is a critical parameter in the subjective and objective evaluation of a new vehicle. Therefore, the tuning of the EPS controller is not only becoming increasing complicated, containing dozens of parameters and maps, but it is crucial in defining the basic DNA of the steering feeling characteristics. The largely subjective nature of the steering feeling assessment means that EPS tuning consists primarily of subjective tests on running prototypes. On account of that, this paper presents an alternative test bench for steering feeling simulation and evaluation. It combines a static driving simulator with a physical EPS assisted steering rack. The end goal is to more accurately reproduce the tactile feedback to the driver by including a physical hardware in lieu of complicated and difficult to obtain software models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1549
Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Francesco Castellani, Alberto Garinei
Knocking noise is a transient structural noise triggered by piston rod vibrations in the shock absorber that excite the vibration of chassis components. Piston rod vibrations can be caused by valve motion (opening and closing) and dry friction during stroke inversions. This study investigates shock absorber knocking noise in twin tube gas-filled automotive shock absorbers and its aim is to define an acceptance criterion for a sample check of the component. If, in fact, the damper comes from a large mass production, it may happen that small mounting differences lead to different behaviors that result in higher or lower levels of knocking noise. To achieve this goal, experimental tests were carried out using a hydraulic test bench; accelerometers were placed in proximity to the rebound valve and on the piston rod. The vibration phenomenon was then isolated through a post-processing analysis and a damped and unforced lumped mass model was used to characterize the vibration.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
Abstract A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of manufacturing derived methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements and existing working practices in the product development environment. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution [1]. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result subject to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Abstract Aerogels are nanoporous structures with physical characteristics that make them promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems: highly porous with low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) - features that provide favorable characteristics for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (∼0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand high temperatures. Aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. This paper provides a brief overview of the rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method employed in this work for aerogel preparation, describes in detail the benchtop scale testbed and methods used to assess the catalytic activity of RSCE fabricated aerogels, and presents data on the catalytic ability of some promising aerogel chemistries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1019
Arunandan Sharma, Fabien Redon
Abstract After having tested basic transient maneuvers such as load-step changes on the 4.9L three-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine [1], a similar test-engine was subjected to a more aggressive test-routine - a hot-start heavy-duty FTP (Federal Test Procedure) transient cycle for the on-road engines. The three main objectives of this exercise were: 1 To assess the ability of the engine to meet the transient cycle requirements while maintaining close to the cycle-average BSFC for the FTP cycle derived from steady-state torque-to-fuel map.2 To attain engine-out brake-specific emission levels that are compatible with US2010 EPA requirements with a conventional after-treatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system.3 To compare hot-start FTP transient cycle fuel economy with a publicly available benchmark.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1026
Silvia Marelli, Simone Gandolfi, Massimo Capobianco
Abstract Today turbocharging represents a key technology to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and diesel engines, moreover improving performance. 1D models, generally employed to compute the engine-turbocharger matching conditions, can be optimized basing on certain information about turbine and compressor behavior. Because of difficulty in the correct evaluation of turbine isentropic efficiency with direct techniques, turbocharger turbine efficiency is generally referred to thermomechanical efficiency. To this aim, the possibility to accurately estimate power losses in turbocharger bearings can allow the assessment of the turbine isentropic efficiency starting from the thermomechanical one. In the paper, an experimental and theoretical study on turbocharger mechanical losses is presented. The proposed model, developed in the MATLAB environment, refers to radial and axial bearings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei Wang, Qi Chen, Si Liu
Abstract Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0985
Christian Gruenzweig, David Mannes, Florian Schmid, Rob Rule
Abstract Neutron imaging (NI) is an alternative non-destructive inspection technique compared to the well-known X-ray method. Although neutron imaging data look at a first glance similar to X-ray images it must be underlined that the interaction mechanism of the sample material with neutrons differs fundamentally. X-ray interaction with matter occurs with the electrons in the atomic shells whereas neutrons interact only with the atomic nuclei. Hence, both methods have a different and to great extent complementary contrast origin. Neutron imaging allows for a higher penetration through heavier elements (e.g. metals) whereas a high contrast is given for light elements (e.g. hydrogen). By the use of neutrons instead of X-rays exhaust after-treatment systems can be successfully examined non-destructively for their soot, ash, urea and coating distributions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1355
Jeffrey R. Hodgkins, Walter Brophy, Thomas Gaydosh, Norimasa Kobayashi, Hiroo Yamaoka
Abstract Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Abstract Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters requires heavy investment especially when test wind tunnel is not available in the country where vehicle development center is present. Hence to save cost and to compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands prediction of aerodynamic drag and lift coefficients (CD,CL) within an accuracy of a few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in a short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1607
David Soderblom, Per Elofsson, Ann Hyvärinen
Abstract The effect of blockage due to the presence of the wind tunnel walls has been known since the early days of wind tunnel testing. Today there are several blockage correction methods available for correcting the measured aerodynamic drag. Due to the shape of the test object, test conditions and wind tunnel dimensions the effect on the flow may be different for two cab variants. This will result in a difference in the drag delta between so-called open-road conditions and the wind tunnel. This makes it more difficult to evaluate the performance of two different test objects when they are both tested in a wind tunnel and simulated in CFD. A numerical study where two different cab shapes were compared in both open road condition, and in a digital wind tunnel environment was performed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1588
Abdalla Abdel-Rahman, Martin Agelin-Chaab, Gary Elfstrom, John Komar
Abstract Wind tunnels with integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing with yaw capabilities are not common. In this study however, an integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing system with yaw capabilities is developed and applied in the climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario-Institute of Technology (UOIT). This was done by installing an incremental force measuring system (FMS) on the large turntable that features a chassis dynamometer. The testing system was utilized to implement an integrated aero-thermal test on a full-scale race car. An efficient testing protocol was developed to streamline the integrated testing process. The FMS was used to enhance the test car’s stability, cornering speed, and fuel efficiency by using aerodynamic devices. These objectives were achieved by installing a high rear wing to increase the rear downforce, a modified front splitter extension to produce a front downforce gain, and front canards to contribute to drag reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1582
Dirk Wieser, Sabine Bonitz, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Christian Nayeri, Christian Paschereit, Lars Larsson
Abstract Flow visualization techniques are widely used in aerodynamics to investigate the surface trace pattern. In this experimental investigation, the surface flow pattern over the rear end of a full-scale passenger car is studied using tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded with a DSLR still camera, which continuously takes pictures. A novel and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to extract the tuft orientations in each image. This allows the extraction of the mean tuft angle and other such statistics. From the extracted tuft angles, streamline plots are created to identify points of interest, such as saddle points as well as separation and reattachment lines. Furthermore, the information about the tuft orientation in each time step allows studying steady and unsteady flow phenomena. Hence, the tuft image processing algorithm provides more detailed information about the surface flow than the traditional tuft method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1581
Felix Wittmeier, Armin Michelbach, Jochen Wiedemann, Victor Senft
Abstract With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable three-belt / five-belt-system (FKFS first®) in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the five-belt system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for production vehicle development work. The five-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the five-belt system have already been published in SAE 2015-01-1557 [1]. The three-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with very low ground clearances, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1594
Petter Ekman, Roland Gardhagen, Torbjorn Virdung, Matts Karlsson
Abstract Considerable amounts of the everyday goods transports are done using light trucks. In the last ten years (2005-2015), the number of light trucks has increased by 33 % in Sweden. The majority of these light trucks are fitted with a swap body and encounter the same problem as many other truck configurations, namely that several different manufacturers contribute to the final shape of the vehicle. Due to this, the aerodynamics of the final vehicle is often not fully considered. Hence there appears to be room for improving the aerodynamic performance. In this study the flow around a swap body fitted to a light truck has been investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The focus has been on improving the shape of the swap body in order to reduce both the aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption, while still keeping it usable for daily operations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Abstract Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Abstract Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins…), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as a cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0139
Andreas Himmler, Klaus Lamberg, Tino Schulze, Jann-Eve Stavesand
Abstract Increasing productivity along the development and verification process of safety-related projects is an important aspect in today’s technological developments, which need to be ever more efficient. The increase of productivity can be achieved by improving the usability of software tools and decreasing the effort of qualifying the software tool for a safety-related project. For safety-critical systems, the output of software tools has to be verified in order to ensure the tools’ suitability for safety-relevant applications. Verification is particularly important for test automation tools that are used to run hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests of safety-related software automatically 24/7. This qualification of software tools requires advanced knowledge and effort. This problem can be solved if a tool is suitable for developing safety-related software. This paper explains how this can be achieved for a COTS test automation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0232
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Song Lan, Richard Stobart
Abstract Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0235
Serenat Karagoz, Murat Karaer, Nurettin Ali Dasdemir
Abstract In this paper a combined energy recovery system is suggested for engine test facilities. System consists of two semi loops which are being active according to the temperature of the air feeded to the test cell. Winter and summer semi loops are introduced with the system requirements and equipments. Working principle of both semi-loops and components with the selection critera are explained. Also cost and benefit analysis is given in detail. It is evident that hot exhaust gases of the combustion processes is the main source that a large amount of energy wastes through it. Researchers confirm that more than 30% - 40% of fuel energy in the internal combustion engines wastes from the exhaust and just 12% -25% of the fuel energy converts to useful work. In the other hand, statistics show that producing numbers of the internal combustion engines growth very fast and the concern of decreasing the fossil fuels will be appeared.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0268
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Ling Zheng, Helen Yu, Yazhou Jiang, Hui Zhao, Jie LI
Abstract Computer modeling and simulation have significantly facilitated the efficiency of product design and development in modern engineering, especially in the automotive industry. For the design and optimization of car models, optimization algorithms usually work better if the initial searching points are within or close to a feasible domain. Therefore, finding a feasible design domain in advance is beneficial. A data mining technique, Iterative Dichotomizer 3 (ID3), is exploited in this paper to identify sets of reduced feasible design domains from the original design space. Within the reduced feasible domains, optimal designs can be efficiently obtained while releasing computational burden in iterations. A mathematical example is used to illustrate the proposed method. Then an industrial application about automotive structural optimization is employed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results show the proposed method’s potential in practical engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0293
Jaspreet Singh, Vishnu Agrawal
Abstract The paper expresses an important issue of optimum selection of a supercharger for a given application from the global market in the presence of a variety of superchargers available commercially off the shelf (COTS). Coding scheme suggested is based on developing an attribute based scheme for all superchargers available off the shelf. N-digit coding scheme provides in-depth understanding of all the attributes to be considered by the customers, designers, engineers and engineers of the industry for further improvement. We also aim to create exhaustive database of superchargers along with their attributes. The paper adopts a MADM-TOPSIS (Multiple Attribute Decision Making -Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) technique and graphical methods that are being used widely in different disciplines and are published. The method ensures that the optimum supercharger is closest to the hypothetically best solution and farthest from the worst solution.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0278
Philipp Bergmeir, Christof Nitsche, Jürgen Nonnast, Michael Bargende
Abstract In order to achieve high customer satisfaction and to avoid high warranty costs caused by component failures of the power-train of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), car manufacturers have to optimize the dimensioning of these elements. Hence, it is obligatory for them to gain knowledge about the different types of vehicle usage being predominant all over the world. Therefore, in this paper we present a Data Mining system that employs a Random Forest (RF) based dissimilarity measure in the dimensionality reduction technique t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) to automatically identify and visualize different types of vehicle usage by applying these methods to aggregated logged on-board data, i.e., load spectrum data. This kind of data is calculated and recorded directly on the control units of the vehicles and consists of aggregated numerical data, like the histogram of the velocity signal or the traveled distance of a vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0796
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0670
José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Roberto Navarro, Javier Gómez, Marc Michel, Bénédicte Thomas
Abstract Upcoming emissions regulations will force to optimize aftertreatment system to reduce emissions looking for lack of fuel penalty. Despite advances in purely aftertreatment aspects, the performance of the diverse aftertreatment devices is very dependent on the operating temperature. This makes them rely on the engine design and calibration because of the imposed turbine outlet temperature. The need to reach target conversion efficiency and to complete regeneration processes requires controlling additional parameters during the engine setup. For that reason, exploring the potential of different solutions to increase inlet aftertreatment temperature is becoming a critical topic. Nevertheless, such studies cannot be tackled without considering concerns on the engine fuel consumption. In this paper, the influence of several design parameters is studied by modelling approach under steady state operating conditions in a Diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0323
Sashank Mani Vedula, Nabal Kishore Pandey, KumarPrasad Tellikepalli, Satish Thimmalapura
Abstract OEMs these days are focusing on front loading the activities to Virtual Test Environment (VTE) based development owing to high development cost and complexity in achieving repeatability during testing phase of vehicle development,. This process not only helps in reducing the cost and time but also helps in increasing the maturity and confidence level of the developed system before actual prototype is built. In the past, extensive research has happened for increasing the fidelity of VTE by improving plant model efficacy which involves powertrain and other vehicle systems. On the other hand, improving the precision of driver model which is one of the most complex nonlinear systems of virtual environment still remains a challenge. It is apparent that various drivers show different behavior in real world for a given drive profile. While modelling a driver for a VTE, the real world driver attributes are seldom considered.
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