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2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0357
Huize Li, Predrag Hrnjak
This paper presents a method of utilizing infrared images to quantify the distribution of liquid refrigerant mass flow rate in microchannel heat exchangers, which are widely used in automobile air conditioning systems. In order to achieve quantification, a relationship is built between the liquid mass flow rate through each microchannel tube and the corresponding air side capacity calculated from the infrared measurement of the wall temperature. After being implemented in a heat exchanger model, the quantification method is validated against experimental data. This method can be used for several types of heat exchangers and it can be applied to various heat exchanger designs.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0495
Shohei Mikami, Georgi Chakmakov
Designing a lightweight and high-strength engine product is universally important from the standpoints of fuel consumption, power, and cost; however, it is difficult to find an optimal solution accomplishing these characteristics in products such as the cylinder heads that are simultaneously affected by a thermal load and various mechanical loads. We focused on an optimization means called “nonparametric optimization” and created a method of cylinder head design that utilized it. Our optimization process was divided into topological optimization and shape optimization. In the topological optimization process, we searched for a structure with the highest theoretical stiffness in the given design space. This provided an efficient structure when pursuing both lightweight and high-strength characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process. Strain energy and displacement of the combustion chamber were used as the parameters for controlling stiffness.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
A Catia-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to predict trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured CBU results. Since design data was used for the study, it was hypothesized that the difference between study and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens VSA software, the vehicle was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. The study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
The goal of this work is to develop a tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench for type approval testing. The WLTC database was used as input data. This database was created with the help of a number of European countries that collaborated and provided real world driving measurements. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behaviour. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two different stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0500
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Torne, Alberto Fraile
This paper is collaboration between the Research Group on Sustainable Means of Transport and Systems (SMITS) of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and the Spanish company, Zytel Automotive S.L. (ZYTEL). The analysis and decision making on design, behaviour and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus has been pursued in this paper. It was modelled a prototype electric vehicle, called Gorila EV, as from the software tool Adams/Car (MSC Software Corporation). The way it decided to tackle this paper was by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). Conduct an analysis of the vehicle by CAE allows increasing the quickness and convenience when getting results and reduce costs incurred testing with real prototypes. In this study it considers urban driving, where the vehicle trajectory is constrained by the infrastructure (road signs) and other vehicles (traffic).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0528
Armin Abedini, Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick, Timothy Skszek
The development of stress state dependent fracture surfaces and damage models to predict failure in automotive forming and crash simulations has created great interests in developing experimental tests to characterize failure in constant stress states. The stress state is defined by the three invariants of the stress tensor that are typically expressed in terms of the stress triaxiality and lode parameters. The shear loading condition is critical to the development of the fracture surfaces since it corresponds to the origin of the surface with a stress triaxiality and lode parameter of zero. Numerous types of in-plane shear tests have been proposed in the literature that are suitable to automotive sheet materials with the butterfly-like specimens becoming popular in recent years. The butterfly shear test involves through-thickness machining of the specimen to create a reduced section where fracture will initiate.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to estimate the effects of advanced technology in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The ALPHA model requires inputs of vehicle component efficiencies and operations. Although some model inputs must be estimated, many can be determined by benchmarking vehicles and their components that are currently in production. However, a full, standalone benchmarking procedure of each driveline component separately can be costly and time-consuming. The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0647
Rafael Fietzek, Stephan Rinderknecht
During the last years mechatronic systems developed into one of the biggest drivers of innovation in the automotive industry. The start of production of systems like dual clutch transmission, lane departure warning systems and active suspensions proves this statement. These systems have an influence on the longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics of the vehicle. That is why the interaction on vehicle level is crucial for an optimal result in the fields of efficiency, comfort, safety and dynamics. To optimize the interaction of mechatronic systems, in this paper a new test rig concept for a complete vehicle is presented. The so-called Car-in-the-Loop-concept is capable to realistically reproduce the loads, which act on the powertrain, the steering and the suspension during a test drive.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1342
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is very helpful for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in less time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain important information for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel by using a microscope and by using a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in accordance with Solicitation No. DTNH22-12-R-00574. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach, in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1517
David Stalnaker, Ke-Jun Xie, Terence Wei
Tire manufacturers need to perform various types of testing to determine tire performance under representative vehicle load conditions. However, test results are influenced by a number of external variables other than tire construction. Vehicle load distribution and suspension properties are some of those external variables which can have a significant effect on tire wear rate and durability. Therefore, in order to measure tire performance in a controlled and repeatable manner, a representative vehicle and associated tire load conditions are needed. Laboratory or indoor tire testing offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. It provides a well-defined test environment and repeatable results without influence from external factors. Indoor testing has been largely developed around the process of simulating tire wear performance on a specific reference vehicle, including its specific weight distribution, suspension characteristics, and alignment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1525
Rocky Khasow, Scott Best, Martin Agelin-Chaab, John Komar, Gary Elfstrom
Underbody vehicle flows are poorly understood given the comparatively small field of research to draw upon; even more so in the case of crosswinds. With the advent of electric and hybrid electric vehicles and their increased cooling demands, there is a need for a link between the aerodynamic flow field and the thermal patterns. Thus underbody research considering a yawing vehicle was conducted on a Chevrolet Aveo5 hatchback. The vehicle was outfitted with a heat source to provide a baseline analysis along thermocouples, pressure probes and flow visualization tufts. The climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology’s Automotive Centre of Excellence provided video data of the tufts and thermal imaging data of the heat source.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1530
Todd Lounsberry, Joel Walter
There has been a lot of attention in recent years on open jet correction methods, in particular on the two-measurement method set forth by E. Mercker, K. Cooper, and co-workers. This method accounts for blockage and static pressure gradient effects in automotive wind tunnels and has been shown by both computations and experiments to appropriately adjust drag coefficients towards an on-road condition, thus allowing results from different wind tunnels to be better compared. However, most wind tunnels have yet to adopt the method as standard practice due to difficulties in practical application. In particular, it is necessary to measure the aerodynamic forces on every vehicle configuration in two different static pressure gradients to capture that portion of the correction. Building on earlier proof-of-concept work, this paper demonstrates a practical method for implementing the two-measurement procedure and demonstrates how it can be used for production testing.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1557
Reinhard Blumrich, Nils Widdecke, Jochen Wiedemann, Armin Michelbach, Felix Wittmeier, Oliver Beland
For many years FKFS has operated the full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Stuttgart University. In order to keep this wind tunnel as one of the most modern ones of its kind, it has again been upgraded significantly. The upgrade improved the aerodynamic as well as the aeroacoustic performance and accelerated the operational processes. Additionally, new innovative features have significantly enlarged the test capabilities. A new patented, modular belt system (FKFS first) allows high performance measurements for race cars in a 3-belt mode as well as efficient measurements for production vehicle development in a 5-belt mode. The belt system is accompagnied by a new, larger turntable and a new underfloor balance which enables measurements of forces and moments in a high resolution in time. A new type of boundary layer conditioning system rounds up the enhanced road simulation. Unsteady aerodynamics can be investigated by means of a unique, active side wind generator (FKFS swing).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0502
Zhicheng Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xingzhi Sun, Yongqiang Ge, Min Hua, Haobo Xu
For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods of melting ice with inefficiency. Above methods have insidious influence on the environment and may be inclined to damage the pavement. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although its effect is favorable, the deicing speed is slow with high energy consumption. This study adopts the method of combination of microwave and vapor. The de-icing action is produced in both the top surface and the bottom surface of the ice layer at the same time which could speed up the melting of the ice. First of all, the mathematical model of surface melting process between the ice and road intersections was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0490
Ryosuke Saito
We discuss the achievement of accurate and rapid appearance evaluation of a commodity from a design perspective. In design development, it is important to evaluate the quality of products in accordance with the customer’s viewpoint. Appearance evaluation using an actual model, such as a Mock-Up Model, is the optimal means. However, in order to respond to flaws or design changes quickly, we use a digital model. Therefore, we developed a graphic tool, TOPS, which can be used to obtain correct rendering results equivalent to an actual model, enabling a high level of precision and efficiency in digital design development.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0028
Jihyun An, Seungwon Yoo, KwangChan Ko, Jongchan Park
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0005
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, A. K. Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N. B. Chougule
Abstract Depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation put forward attention of world towards use of alternate fuels. The ever increasing demand for ecologically friendly vehicles can be met by use of clean fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). Lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of CNG makes it a cleaner fuel, due to this CNG is gaining popularity as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel in transport sector. Hydrogen fuel for IC engines is also being considered as a future fuel due to its simple carbon less structure. However, several obstacles have to be overcome before widespread utilization of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can occur in the transport sector. The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and could be considered a first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0019
Heeyun Lee, Suk Won Cha, Hyunsup Kim, Seok-Joon Kim
Abstract This paper is concerned with the energy management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle using stochastic dynamic programming. The aim is the control strategy of the power distribution for hybrid electric vehicle powertrains to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining drivability. The fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicle is strongly influenced by power management control strategy. Rule-based control strategy is popular strategy thanks to its effectiveness in real-time implementation, but rule should be designed and efficiency of entire drive trains is not optimized. Dynamic programming, one of optimization-based control strategy presents outstanding performance, but cannot be used as real-time control strategy directly, since its non-causal property and drawback that global optimal solution can only be obtained for specific driving cycle.
2015-02-27
WIP Standard
AS6116A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for externally swaged aluminum tube fittings on aluminum tubing with flareless separable fitting ends for use in hydraulic supply and return aerospace fluid systems including pneumatic, coolants, and fire extinguishers up to a maximum operating pressure of 1500 psig (10 340 kPa) and a maximum operating temperature range of -65 to +225 °F (-54 to +107 °C).

This specification covers a common aluminum fitting that may be used for a range of operating pressures up to 1500 psi with different tubing materials and tubing wall thicknesses, and is assembled with the same tooling in accordance with AS6124. Table 12 shows applicable aerospace fitting part number standard and tubing materials and operating pressures.

2015-02-27
WIP Standard
AS6121B
Scope is unavailable.
2015-02-26
WIP Standard
J3074
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Lumbar Flexion test to the Hybrid III 50th Male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand from industry to have a certification test which characterizes the lumbar without interaction of other dummy components. In the past there has not been any tests to document the performance of Hybrid III 50th lumbar.
2015-02-25
Article
Delcam’s 2015 version of its PowerINSPECT inspection system includes automatic collision avoidance, faster import of large CAD files, quicker preparation of longer inspection reports, and improved display of results from point-cloud data, plus many other customer-requested enhancements.
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