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2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0680
Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
Abstract In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1404
Arda Kurt, Güchan Özbilgin, Keith A. Redmill, Rini Sherony, Ümit Özgüner
Abstract In this paper, a series of design, development, and implementation details for testing and evaluation of Lane Departure Warning and Prevention systems are being discussed. The approach taken to generate a set of repeatable and relevant test scenarios and to formulate the test procedures to ensure the fidelity of the collected data includes initial statistical analysis of applicable statistics; growth and probabilistic pruning of a test matrix; simulation studies to support procedure design; and vehicle instrumentation for data collection. The success of this comprehensive approach strongly suggests that the steps illustrated in this paper can serve as guidelines towards a more general class of vehicular safety and advanced driver assistance systems evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
Abstract As electric technique develops fast, steering system changes from conventional mechanic steering system to Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS). Flowing HPS, Electrically Controlled Steering (ECS) system, including Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Active Front Steering (AFS) system and Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. ECS makes it easy for a driver to control a steering wheel using a less torque at a low speed, which is usually called steering portability Besides, ECS could also help a driver steer a vehicle stably at a high speed, which is usually called steering stability ECS provides an optional method to solve the contradiction between steering portability and steering stability. [1] [2] The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on. Researches of ECS need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) and real vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Abstract Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases and can reflect the dynamic behaviour, which current approaches are not able. An existing basic system is used, which includes pneumatic cylinders with a controlled hydraulic brake and was developed for non-structural deformable applications only (mainly occupant assessments). The system is extended with a force-distance control. The method contains the analysis of a whole vehicle FEM simulation to develop a methodology for controlled force transmission with the pneumatic cylinders for a structural component test bench.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Abstract Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1625
Frederic Boissinot, Jerome Bellavoine, Andrew Shabashevich, Siegfried Puster
Abstract Today, OEMs are challenged with an increasing number of powertrain variants and complexity of controls software. They are facing internal pressure to provide mature and refined calibrations earlier in the development process. Until now, it was difficult to respond to these requests as the drivability's calibration tasks are mostly done in vehicles. This paper describes a new methodology designed to answer these challenges by performing automated shift quality calibration prior to the availability of vehicles. This procedure is using a powertrain dynamometer coupled with a real-time vehicle dynamics model. By using a Power Train Test Bed (PTTB), a physical vehicle is not required. As soon as the vehicle dynamics model and its parameters have been defined, it can be simulated on the PTTB and drivability calibrations can be developed. A complete powertrain is coupled with low inertia and highly dynamic dynamometers.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0357
Huize Li, Predrag Hrnjak
Abstract This paper presents a method of utilizing infrared images to quantify the distribution of liquid refrigerant mass flow rate in microchannel heat exchangers, which are widely used in automobile air conditioning systems. In order to achieve quantification, a relationship is built between the liquid mass flow rate through each microchannel tube and the corresponding air side capacity calculated from the infrared measurement of the wall temperature. After being implemented in a heat exchanger model, the quantification method is validated against experimental data. This method can be used for several types of heat exchangers and it can be applied to various heat exchanger designs.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
Abstract A 3D-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to determine trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured results on the completed body unit (CBU). Since design data is used as the input, it was hypothesized that the difference between predicted and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens® Variation Analysis software, the CBU was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. In addition, the study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
Abstract This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as input data. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behavior. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two separate stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration. First, a random road type profile is generated from the four different road types that are considered in the WLTP database: urban, rural, motorway and high-motorway, each of them with sub-road types based on different velocity bins.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0528
Armin Abedini, Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick, Timothy Skszek
Abstract Two different shear sample geometries were employed to investigate the elastoplastic and failure behaviour of three automotive alloy rolled sheets; a highly anisotropic magnesium alloy (ZEK100) and two relatively isotropic dual phase steels (DP600 and DP780). The performance of the so-called butterfly type specimen (Mohr and Henn 2007, Dunand and Mohr 2011) was evaluated at quasi-static conditions along with the shear geometry of Peirs et al. (2012) using in situ 3-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain measurement techniques. It was shown that both test geometries resulted in similar trends of the load-displacement response; however, the fracture strains obtained using the butterfly specimen were lower for the ZEK100 and DP780. It was demonstrated that the ZEK100 exhibits strong anisotropy in terms of the shear work hardening rate and failure strain.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0556
Wenkai Li, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Abstract The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0679
Michele Maria Schirru, Mike Sutton, Rob Dwyer-Joyce, Oliver Smith, Robin Mills
Abstract A novel ultrasonic viscometer for in-situ applications in engine components is presented. The viscosity measurement is performed by shearing the solid-oil contact interface by means of shear ultrasonic waves. Previous approaches to ultrasonically measure the viscosity suffer from poor accuracy owing to the acoustic miss-match between metal component and lubricant [1]. The method described overcomes this limitation by placing an intermediate matching layer between the metal and lubricant. Results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained with the conventional viscometers when testing Newtonian fluids. This study also highlights that when complex mixtures are tested the viscosity measurement is frequency dependent. At high ultrasonic frequencies, e.g. 10 MHz, it is possible to isolate the viscosity of the base, while to obtain the viscosity of the mixture it is necessary to choose a lower operative frequency, e.g. 100 kHz, to match the fluid particle relaxation time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana, Jose Eduardo Mautone Barros, Matheus Guilherme França Carvalho, Helder Alves de Almeida, Jr.
Abstract A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gases, the speed of combustion, the ignition delay time of fuel and air mixture exact moment at which ignition will occur. The automobilist industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in numerical modeling and simulations in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance control the emission of pollutants and formulate new fuels. This study aimed to general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring shock wave. As specific objective was determined reaction rate and ignition delay time of diesel, biodiesel and ethanol doped with different levels of additive enhancer cetane number. The results are compared with the ignition delay times measured for other authors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract Automotive knee bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A three-piece cellular structural knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 0.7 Kg), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be restrained (from 50 Kg/152 cm 5th percentile female to 100 Kg/188cm 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
Abstract The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1303
Wenli Li, Xiao-Hui Shi, Dong Guo, Peng Yi
Abstract This paper discusses the development of engine and vehicle model for performing dynamic emulation experiments on vehicle transmissions. In order to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time, vehicle simulation on the driveline test bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads is a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) procedure, which can be used as a supplement of the conventional simulations in testing of the operation of algorithms without the need for the prototypes. The combustion engine is replaced by an electric drive dynamometer, which replicates the torque and speed signature of an actual engine. The road load resistance of the vehicle on a real test road is accurately simulated on Load dynamometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora, Rakesh Khanger
Abstract A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learning which was accomplished for one such development process. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1431
Mark H. Warner, Jon E. Bready, Wyatt Y. Warner, Alan F. Asay
Snowmobile acceleration, braking and cornering performance data are not well developed for use in accident reconstruction. Acceleration and braking data were published by D’Addario et. al. in SAE 2011-01-0287 which reported results of acceleration and braking testing on 4 snowmobiles of various make and model. This paper expands on the previous work and presents the results of new on-snow tests which include acceleration, braking and cornering maneuvers that have not been published previously. Maximum and average cornering speeds and resulting lateral accelerations are presented for turns of radius 15, 30 and 60 feet on level packed snow. Variation is reported between novice and expert riders in cornering applications. Performance values are also reported for acceleration, braking, and cornering tests where a passenger is included. All tests were performed on a level surface with consistent snow conditions throughout.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing with a single full-size sport utility vehicle (SUV) was conducted under controlled real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed, inherent to rollovers, are: pre-trip, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques have been designed which improve the ability to capture and document the unpredictable dynamic events surrounding vehicle rollovers. One such device is an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which utilizes GPS technology along with integrated sensors to report and record measured dynamic parameters real-time. The data obtained from a RT-4003 IMU device are presented and compared along with previous test data and methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1445
Wesley Vandiver, Robert Anderson, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles, Christopher Furbish
Although the 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) that was designed to record crash data, the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. provides coverage for the Kia Soul that begins with model year 2013. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests was analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation including a Racelogic VBOX, TDAS Data Acquisition System, and Vericom VC4000DAQ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.” The Standard requires minimum data elements, recording times, and sample rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollovers to gain further understanding of vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle's pre-trip motion. The current study consisted of two rollover tests utilizing instrumented test vehicles and instrumented ATDs to investigate occupant kinematics and injury response throughout the entire rollover sequences, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the position of rest. The two steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollover tests utilized a mid-sized 4-door sedan and a full-sized crew-cab pickup truck. The pickup truck was equipped with seatbelt pretensioners and rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1157
Namwook Kim, Jongryeol Jeong, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract For electrified vehicles, understanding the impact of temperature on vehicle control and performances becomes more important than before because the vehicle might consume more energy than conventional vehicles due to lack of the engine waste heat. Argonne has tested many advanced vehicles and analyzed the vehicle level control based on the test data. As part of its ongoing effort, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was tested in thermal environmental chamber, and the vehicle level control and performances are analyzed by observing the test results. The analysis results show that the control of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is similar with Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) when the vehicle is under a charge sustaining mode, and the vehicle tries to consume the electric energy first under a charge depleting mode.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1164
Aimee N. Duhon, Kris S. Sevel, Steven A. Tarnowsky, Peter J. Savagian
Abstract Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 23516

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