Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 24118
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0417
Wan Xu, Xinfeng Shi, Tian Bai, Guobiao Yang, Lianxiang Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Yongjun Zhou
Abstract In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
Abstract The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
Abstract The performance of a structural design significantly depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design and development stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers and analysts invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. These theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. Due to the errors associated with the assumption of design load, several components might have more weight or may have less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load (lab or theoretical studies) and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to give engineers insight to understanding the complex real world loading of their structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are the very important tools to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure the dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be certificated. In the neck certification procedure, the head angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neck base. To get the head angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummy head. The rotation is then calculated from those potentiometer readings. There are two potentiometers mounted in the Hybrid III family dummies, while three potentiometers mounted in ES2, ES-2re, SID-IIs, and WorldSid 50th dummies. In the certification, maximum head angle and time occurred should be within certain ranges in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2 and WorldSid 50th dummies, not only the maximum head angle, but also the other angles and their timings should meet the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Abstract Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1196
Yazhou Guo, Maji Luo, Jia Zou, Yunpeng Liu, Jianqiang Kang
Abstract Traction batteries are operated in severe working conditions of wide temperature range as the vehicles run in different seasons and regions, which effects battery performance deeply. Investigation on the effect of temperature under such circumstances on battery performance is very significant to promote the application of traction battery. In this paper, some tests are conducted on a ternary-material lithium-ion battery at various temperatures. The cycling performance and some significant parameters are evaluated at the whole temperature range, especially at the extreme temperatures (below -10°C or above 45°C). The results show that the battery performance becomes poor obviously at low temperatures, which is reflected in the decreased terminal voltage and the faded discharge capacity, and at too high temperatures (above 45°C), power and capacity also decrease, which happens in the later period of discharge process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1300
Jacob Milhorn, Vincent Rovedatti, Richard DeJong, Gordon Ebbitt
Abstract Road tests on a pickup truck have been conducted to determine the acoustic loads on the back panel surfaces of the vehicle. Surface mounted pressure transducers arrays are used to measure both the turbulent flow pressures and the acoustic pressures. These measurements are used to determine the spatial excitation parameters used in an SEA model of the transmission loss through the back panel surfaces. Comparisons are made between tests on different road surfaces and at different speeds to identify the relative contributions of acoustic and wind noise.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1310
Yitian Zhang, David W. Herrin, T. Wu, Xin Hua
Abstract Prior research on assessing multiple inlet and outlet mufflers is limited, and only recently have researchers begun to consider suitable metrics for multiple inlet and outlet mufflers. In this paper, transmission loss and insertion loss are defined for multiple inlet and outlet mufflers using a superposition method that can be extended to any m-inlet n-outlet muffler. Transmission loss is determined assuming that the sources and terminations are anechoic. On the other hand, insertion loss considers reflections. For both metrics, the amplitude and phase relationship between the sources should be known a priori. This paper explains both metrics, and measurement of transmission and insertion loss are demonstrated for a 2-inlet 2-outlet muffler with good agreement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1313
Brian Pinkelman, Woo-Keun Song
Abstract Most methods of vibration analysis focus on measuring the level of vibration. Some methods like ISO-2631 weigh vibration level based on human sensitivity of location, direction, and frequency. Sound can be similarly measured by sound pressure level in dB. It may also be weighted to human frequency sensitivity such as dBA but sound and noise analysis has progressed to measure sound quality. The characteristic and the nature of the sound is studied; for example equal or near equal sound levels can provide different experiences to the listener. Such is the question for vibration; can vibration quality be assessed just as sound quality is assessed? Early on in our studies, vibration sensory experts found a difference in 4 seats yet no objective measurement of vibration level could reliably confirm the sensory experience. Still these particular experiences correlated to certain verbal descriptors including smoothness/roughness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0833
Lei Meng, Yuqiang Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Timothy Lee, Chunnian Zeng, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0796
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0806
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Ronald Reese, Asim Iqbal, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
Abstract Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
Abstract In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0908
Norifumi Mizushima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
Abstract In the conventional approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles currently in use in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating the instantaneous fuel consumption rate referred from a look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, the transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method for fuel consumption in which the map-based fuel consumption rate is corrected using the transient characteristics of individual engines was developed. The method and its applicability for a heavy-duty diesel engine that complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation were validated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0905
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates the fuel economy implication of powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. In a companion paper, a fully integrated GT-Power engine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of one plausible series of engine technologies, including valve train improvements such as dual cam phasing and discrete variable valve lift, and engine downsizing with turbocharging and cooled EGR. In this paper, those engine efficiency/performance results are used in a vehicle drive cycle simulation to estimate the impact of engine and transmission technology improvements on light duty vehicle fuel consumption/economy over the EPA’s FTP and HWY test schedules. The model test vehicle is a midsized sedan based on the MY2012 Ford Fusion.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0889
Chuang Fan, Sunyu Tong, Xiaohong Xu, Jing Li, Xiao Yu He, Jun Deng, Liguang Li
Downsizing gasoline direct injection engine with turbo boost technology is the main trend for gasoline engine. However, with engine downsizing and ever increasing of power output, a new abnormal phenomenon, known as pre-ignition or super knock, occurs in turbocharged engines. Pre-ignition will cause very high in-cylinder pressure and high oscillations. In some circumstances, one cycle of severe pre-ignition may damage the piston or spark plug, which has a severe influence on engine performance and service life. So pre-ignition has raised lots of attention in both industry and academic society. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. The auto-ignition characteristics of different lubricants are studied. This paper focuses on the ignition delay of different lubricants in Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA) combustion system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0894
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Yuki Ono, Yuji Mihara
Abstract A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0896
Masami Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamori, Satoshi Hirano, Teri Kowalski, James Linden
Abstract Fuel economy improvement has been one of the most important challenges for the automotive industry, and the oil and additive industries. The automotive, oil, and additive industries including related organizations such as SAE, ASTM, and testing laboratories have made significant efforts to develop not only engine oil technologies but also engine oil standards over decades. The API S category and ILSAC engine oil standard are well known and widely used engine oil specifications [1] [2]. The development of an engine oil standard has important roles to ensure the quality of engine oils in the market and encourage industries to improve the engine oil performance periodically. However, the progress of technology advancement can go faster than the revision of engine oil standard. An introduction of new viscosity grades, SAE 0W-16 and 5W-16 is one good example. The 16 grade was added into the SAE J300 standard that defines viscosity grades for engine oils in April 2013 [3].
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
Abstract Catalyst aging is presently one of the most important aspects in aftertreatment development, with legislation stating that these systems must be able to meet the relevant emissions legislation up to a specified mileage on the vehicle, typically 150,000 miles. The current industry approach for controlling aging cycles is based solely on the detailed specification of lambda (air-fuel mixture concentration ratio), flow rate and temperature without any limitations on gas mixture. This is purely based upon the experience of engine-based aging and does not take into account any variation due to different engine operation. Although accurate for comparative testing on the same engine/engine type, inconsistencies can be observed across different aging methods, engine types and engine operators largely driven by the capability of the technology used.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
Abstract A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of manufacturing derived methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements and existing working practices in the product development environment. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution [1]. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result subject to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper proposes a method to recover species concentrations at the tail pipe exit of heavy-duty vehicles during chassis dynamometer tests, and investigates its effect in the calculation of emissions from their raw exhaust streams. It was found that the method shown in this paper recovered the sharp peaks of the gas species. The effect on calculations was significant, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transport of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and deformed due to mixing and diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in g/mile.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0985
Christian Gruenzweig, David Mannes, Florian Schmid, Rob Rule
Abstract Neutron imaging (NI) is an alternative non-destructive inspection technique compared to the well-known X-ray method. Although neutron imaging data look at a first glance similar to X-ray images it must be underlined that the interaction mechanism of the sample material with neutrons differs fundamentally. X-ray interaction with matter occurs with the electrons in the atomic shells whereas neutrons interact only with the atomic nuclei. Hence, both methods have a different and to great extent complementary contrast origin. Neutron imaging allows for a higher penetration through heavier elements (e.g. metals) whereas a high contrast is given for light elements (e.g. hydrogen). By the use of neutrons instead of X-rays exhaust after-treatment systems can be successfully examined non-destructively for their soot, ash, urea and coating distributions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0987
Mike M. Lambert, Belachew Tesfa
Abstract Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abstract Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, to address upcoming real-world driving emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to target this issue is by applying virtual sensors which utilize available sensor information in an engine control unit (ECU) and provide estimates of the not measured emissions. For real-world application it is important that the virtual sensor has low complexity and works under varying conditions. Naturally, the choice of suitable inputs from all available candidates will have a strong impact on these factors. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of design of experiments (DOE) and iterative identification of polynomial models is augmented with a novel input candidate selection strategy.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
Abstract The future emission regulation (BS V) in India is expected to create new challenges to meet the particulate matter (PM) limit for diesel cars. The upcoming emission norms will bring down the limit of PM by 80 % when compared to BS IV emission norms. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technologies to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detailed on-road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (≤350ppm sulfur) & BS IV (≤50ppm sulfur) fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
Abstract The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0045
Takanori Uno, Akahori Ichiro, Yoichiro Hara
Abstract In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of the BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of a BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with a winding ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in each wire. This model can also be applied when the leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that the S-parameters for dozens of wires clamped in the BCI probe can be generated using the S-parameter measurement results from when one wire is in the BCI probe.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 24118

Filter