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WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This AS provides a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS 1428) anti-icing fluids.
Standard
2014-04-03
This method is designed to evaluate the coking propensity of synthetic ester-based aviation lubricants under two phase air-oil mist conditions as found in certain parts of a gas turbine engine, for instance, bearing chamber vent lines. Based on the results from round robin data in 2008-2009 from four laboratories, this method is currently intended to provide a comparison between lubricants as a research tool; it is not currently a satisfactory pass/fail test. At this juncture a reference oil may improve reproducibility (precision between laboratories); a formal precision statement will be given when there is satisfactory data and an agreed on, suitable reference oil if applicable.
Standard
2014-04-03
This specification provides dimensional standards for crimp type contact wire barrel design and is a replacement for MS3190. Some wire barrel designs may exist in AS39029 but are not considered approved for future use, therefore, will not appear in this specification. The crimp barrel sizes listed in this document have been standardized in AS39029 and AS22520 specifications, tools and contacts are available to support these listed sizes. These crimp barrel requirements shall be used for any contact, regardless of whether it is a standard or non-standard contact configuration. The specification lists details for three types of wire barrels: A, B, and C. Wire barrel type A is not recommended for new design. Table 4 lists each AS39029 detail sheet wire barrel type.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
The Measurement of Coolant Hose task group conducted a round-robin study to determine the measuring capability of automotive suppliers and users to measure Inside Diameter (ID), Outside Diameter (OD), Wall Thickness (Wall) and wall thickness variation of hose using traditional measuring devices and techniques. Seven companies (five suppliers and two end users) participated in this testing. Based upon the round-robin study this information report will detail procedures, test measuring devices, results and recommendations.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This specification provides a standard set of procedures for sampling and testing to meet the requirements of material specifications for wrought titanium and titanium alloy products except forgings and forging stock. It is applicable to the extent specified in a material specification.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
The Hose Measurement Task Force conducted a round-robin study to determine the measuring capability of automotive suppliers and users to simultaneously measure the Inside Diameter (ID), Outside Diameter (OD), Wall Thickness (Wall), and Wall thickness Variation (WV) of hose using a laser-based, non-contact LOTIS QC-20 gauging device. Three (3) companies (all end users) participated in this testing with one of the three companies performing the GR&R calculations presented herein. Based upon the round-robin study this report will detail procedures, test measuring devices, results, and conclusions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Golimbioschi, Giampiero Mastinu, Luca Cordioli, Massimiliano Gobbi, Davide Tagliabue, Giorgio Previati, Francesco Braga
Abstract A new electric powertrain and axle for light/medium trucks is presented. The indoor testing and the simulation of the dynamic behavior are performed. The powertrain and axle has been produced by Streparava and tested at the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport of the Politecnico di Milano. The tests were aimed at defining the multi-physics perfomance of the powertrain and axle (efficiency, acceleration and braking, temperature and NVH). The whole system for indoor tests was composed by the powertrain and axle (electric motor, driveline, suspensions, wheels) and by the test rig (drums, driveline and electric motor). The (driving) axle was positioned on a couple of drums, and the drums provided the proper torques to the wheels to reproduce acceleration and braking. Additionally a cleat fixed on one drum excited the vibration of the suspensions and allowed assessing NVH performance. The simulations were based on a special co-simulation between 1D-AMESIM and VIRTUAL.LAB. The contact between the wheels and the drums of the test rig were simulated by means of VIRTUAL.LAB.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Satyam Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Abstract In this paper, initial results of Li-ion battery performance characterization through field tests are presented. A fully electrified Ford Escape that is equipped by three Li-ion battery packs (LiFeMnPO4) including an overall 20 modules in series is employed. The vehicle is in daily operation and data of driving including the powertrain and drive cycles as well as the charging data are being transferred through CAN bus to a data logger installed in the vehicle. A model of the vehicle is developed in the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software based on the available technical specification of the vehicle components. In this model, a simple resistive element in series with a voltage source represents the battery. Battery open circuit voltage (OCV) and internal resistance in charge and discharge mode are estimated as a function of the state of charge (SOC) from the collected test data. It is shown that although the OCV should be measured under no-load condition, still it can be estimated with an acceptable accuracy (∼5%) from the driving data.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ashish Vora, Haotian Wu, Chuang Wang, Yili Qian, Gregory Shaver, Vahid Motevalli, Peter Meckl, Oleg Wasynczuk, Haiyan Zhang
Abstract Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition. It describes the team's efforts towards developing a complete vehicle model of a Parallel-through-the road PHEV which can leverage SIL and HIL simulation platforms for control development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shawn Salisbury, Thomas Bradley, Jake Bucher, Benjamin Geller
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) offer the benefits of both home charging from grid electricity and extended range from fuels. Fuel cell PHEVs in a range-extending (FCEREV) configuration build upon the advantages of PHEV by producing zero emissions while driving. The Colorado State University Vehicle Innovation Team (CSU VIT) successfully designed, built, and demonstrated a FCEREV named ‘H2eV’ for Year Two of the 3-year EcoCAR 2 collegiate competition. The demonstrated FCEREV is based on the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and features a 15 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell system, an 18.9 kWh/177 kW Li-Ion battery, and a 145 kW motor for all-electric drive. Operational data was taken during driving on a closed course, following a cycle that approximates the Environmental Protection Agency's 5-cycle test procedure. This paper provides an overview of the CSU VIT's FCEREV and a detailed analysis of vehicle performance during its successful demonstration. Analysis of fuel cell system operation provides proof-of-concept for the CSU VIT's FCEREV and highlights the emissions and energy consumption advantages of the designed vehicle for future development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chenaniah Langness, Michael Mangus, Christopher Depcik
Abstract In order to perform cutting-edge engine research that applies to modern Compression Ignition (CI) engines, a sophisticated test cell is needed that allows control of the engine and its auxiliary systems. The primary obstacle to the completion of such a test cell is the up-front expense. This paper covers the construction of a low cost, single-cylinder engine test cell while demonstrating the type of research that can be accomplished along the way. The components necessary for the construction, instrumentation, and operation of such a test cell, neglecting emissions analysis equipment, can be obtained for less than $150,000. The engine utilized, a naturally-aspirated single-cylinder Yanmar L100V, was purchased as an engine-generator package. Major upgrades to the engine include an Alternating Current (AC) dynamometer, a Variable-Geometry Turbocharger (VGT), a gaseous-additive fuel injection system, external cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), in-cylinder pressure measurement, and an electronically controlled common-rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jong Ho Lee
Abstract Since vehicle NVH reduction technology has improved dramatically, buzz, squeak and rattle (hereafter referred to as “BSR”) noise quantification from interior and exterior of the vehicle becomes an important factor to measure the quality of the vehicle. (The cost rate of BSR noise claims take around 10-15%, moreover BSR noise negatively affects customers to purchase vehicles.) Therefore, a research of BSR evaluation comes to the fore to make a premium car. In this paper, we would like to introduce the development of a vehicle excitation test mode, the full-vehicle BSR test system, and a sound acoustic camera to detect BSR noise. The test profiles were correlated with various road severities such as the domestic field test sites including 5,000km cross-country off road, 19 test tracks for BSR in R&D test center, and quality test tracks in domestic factories. These test modes were classified into 4 levels (Low-Normal-High-Crazy) by judging degrees of GRMS values. The full-vehicle test system can reproduce various field road profiles of the BSR for chassis parts, interior, and exterior for temperatures of −40∼60°C.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, David Good, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony
Abstract According to pedestrian crash data from 2010-2011 the U.S. General Estimates System (GES) and the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS), more than 39% of pedestrian crash cases occurred at night and poor lighting conditions. The percentage of pedestrian fatalities in night conditions is over 77%. Therefore, evaluating the performance of pedestrian pre-collision systems (PCS) at night is an essential part of the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation. The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is conducting research for the establishment of PCS test scenarios and procedures in collaboration with Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a reconfigurable road lighting system to support the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation for night road lighting conditions. First, the test conditions of the road lighting (light intensity and uniformity) are generated by combining recommendations from road lighting design standards and the average measured lighting levels at various crash locations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil KV, Sunil Sheepri, Kiran Kandula, Amit Kumar
Abstract The durability evaluation of overhanging components of a vehicle (Ex: horn, radiator) is a challenge to durability engineers as resonance plays an important role in determining their fatigue life. As resonance cannot be avoided always, it is desirable to develop methods to evaluate life of the component in the presence of resonance. Though the existing vibration test standards suggest test profiles to evaluate resonance failures, there are cases in which, these methods do not yield the proving ground results. This may lead to unnecessary overdesign or unrealistic failures. In such cases it is suggested to generate a sweep endurance test procedure customized to the proving ground or actual roads. This paper studies a methodology for generating a sweep endurance test procedure for evaluation of resonating components. Responses like stress and accelerations were measured in test components in proving ground. Contribution of each frequency band towards overall damage is determined.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Songgang Li, Guobiao Yand, Weiming Zeng
Abstract The port structure consisting of spur pile, vertical pile and beam is subjected to impact loads, so its internal stress state of each point will rapidly change over time. Dynamic photoelastic method is used to study the dynamic stress and stress wave propagation. With epoxy resin and other materials, a photoelastic model of beam to column connection structure is processed and product. The dynamic response of the model under the impact load by the free fall is researched by the dynamic photoelastic method, and recorded by the new digital dynamic photoelastic system with a laser source and high-speed photography system. The internal dynamic stress propagation and distribution, the maximum shear stress and the dynamic stress concentration problems can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic response. Researching on the key part under impact load using dynamic photoelastic method can furnish the experimental evidence of transient stress phenomenon for theoretical research and engineering applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hang Yin, Weiming Zeng, Guobiao Yang, Songgang Li
Abstract When an object was subjected an impact loading, stress wave was produced in the object. Studying the regularity of stress-wave propagation was significant to the study of objects subjected to impact loading. When stress wave travelled in the object, principal stress on free boundary was useful to theoretical analysis and calculation. In this article, a new kind of dynamic photoelastic apparatus was used. Isochromatic and isoclinic of the object subjected to impact loading could be obtained combining dynamic photoelastic experiment and related test equipment. By analyzing the isoclinic, there would be a conclusion that the angle between the isoclinic and the free boundary was not 0°or 90°. So the values of the two principal stress on the boundary were all not 0. The result obtained from the electrometric method came to the same conclusion. Analysis showed the result of dynamic photoelastic method was compatible with the result of electrometric method. So the method in this article was feasible and accurate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ping Zhong, Kang Zhang, Xu Chen, Yunlong Shi, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer. During the inspection procedure, a rotation invariance detection scheme based on circular projection matching algorithm has been used for fast recognizing and locating detected object with the help of these feature areas.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Li Yanhua, Jianping Lin
Abstract Similar laser welded blanks with same material and same gauge have been extensive applied in automobile body for improving the material utilization and extending maximum coil size. It is known that, for TWBs with dissimilar material and thicknesses, the difference of material properties and/or thickness of the welded blanks, change of the material properties in the weld seam and heat-affected zones (HAZ) as well as location and orientation of the weld seam are reasons for reduced formability. However, the plastic deformation capacity of TWBs is reduced even when the material and thickness are the same. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the deformation behaviors of similar laser welded joints. Uniaxial tensile of five laser welded joints, with 90°,60°,45°,30°and 0°weld orientations, were tested by using optical measurement-DIC (Digital Image Correlation). Strain /strain ratio distribution and evolution of each joint was analyzed and compared with base material. In addition, mechanical property of weld was determined using rule of mixture and hardness testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shulian Zhang, Weiping Wang
Abstract This paper reports the extraordinary properties and industry applications of Nd: YAG Microchip Laser Feedback Interferometer, Nd: YAG LFI. The Michelson interferometer has been invented for more than a century and is widely used in science and industry today. The Nd: YAG LFI, which is based on laser feedback effect instead of ordinary interferometry, has the different structure from Michelson interferometer, and then extraordinary properties. Therefore the Nd: YAG LFI can be used as a traditional laser interferometer with nano-meter resolution and a few meters measurement range. At the same time Nd: YAG LFI can also measure the displacement of light, thin, black, transparent (water, alcohol, glass surface) objects, even liquid evaporation rate. Some actual applications are described in this paper, including the displacement measurement with nano-meter resolution for black machine parts, measurement of evaporation rate of liquids, measurement of the hysteretic curves of PZT and displacement measurement of cylinder surface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Guobiao Yang, Jingyu Wang, Qirong Zhu, Ruhua Fang, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent. The epoxy resin sheet or block was solidified at room temperature and could be poured accurately once.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaobo Yang
Abstract An outrigger is the device that is mounted on a test vehicle to protect it and/or its driver during handling test maneuvers, such as double lane change, constant radius cornering, J-turn, etc. The design of the outrigger is challenged by the constraints associated with its size, installation flexibility, strength, weight, and moment of inertia for a minimum or negligible impact on the test vehicle dynamics. To achieve an appropriate design of an outrigger for a specific vehicle, it is essential to determine the appropriate dynamic loads that the outrigger needs to support after its geometry and installation scheme have been determined. In this study, a flexible representation of an outrigger is mounted on a military vehicle that is simulated on a NATO double lane change maneuver at the given forward speeds. With the closed-loop driver/vehicle system simulation scheme, various drivers' choices of previewed paths are potentially applied by the ones with different levels of driving experiences and skills, which may further affect the vehicle dynamics and the outrigger contact forces.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrew Hall, John McPhee
Abstract Physical rig testing of a vehicle is often undertaken to obtain experimental data that can be used to ensure a mathematical model is an accurate representation of the vehicle under study. Kinematics and Compliance (K&C) testing is often used for this purpose. The relationship between the hard point locations and compliance parameters, and K&C characteristics of a suspension system is complex, and so automating the process to correlate the model to the test data can make the exercise easier, faster and more accurate than hand tuning the model. In this work, such a process is developed. First, the model parameters are adjusted, next a simulation is run, before the results are read and post processed. This automation processed is used in conjunction with an optimization procedure to carry out the K&C correlation. MATLAB scripts are created to modify the model parameters, run simulations and read the results so that MATLAB optimization algorithms can be used to identify the most appropriate suspension parameter values.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrea Matrisciano, Michal Pasternak, Xiaoxiao Wang, Oleksiy Antoshkiv, Fabian Mauss, Peter Berg
Abstract In this work are presented experimental and simulated data from a one-cylinder direct injected Diesel engine fuelled with Diesel, two different biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel at one engine operating point. The modeling approach focuses on testing and rating biodiesel surrogate fuel blends by means of combustion and emission behavior. Detailed kinetic mechanisms are adopted to evaluate the fuel-blends performances under both reactor and diesel engine conditions. In the first part of the paper, the experimental engine setup is presented. Thereafter the choice of the surrogate fuel blends, consisting of n-decane, α-methyl-naphtalene and methyl-decanoate, are verified by the help of experiments from the literature. The direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) is employed to simulate combustion and engine exhaust emissions (NOx, HC, CO and CO2), which are compared to the experimental data. For this the mixing time is used as main modeled parameter, which is deduced from regular Diesel experiments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthony Samy, Piyush mani Sharma
Abstract Fierce competition in India's motorcycle industry has led to constant product innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the lifecycle of the vehicle and has driven the manufacturers to alter the product design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continued to challenge motorcycle designers is ride comfort in vertical and longitudinal direction. An essential tool in the motorcycle development process is the ability to quantify and grade the ride comfort behavior. This is performed either through subjective or objective tests. Subjective tests have the disadvantage that numerous factors influence test drivers' opinion while objective measures have the advantage of repeatability. However, objective methods provide only an approximate grading of vehicles and it is difficult to get consistent results that we can rely upon It is proposed that consistent result could be achieved if the motorcycle is run over the pave track in similar repeated cycles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Giorgio Previati
A method for the measurement of the full mass properties of vehicles and subsystems is presented. The knowledge of the center of gravity location and of the inertia tensor of vehicles and subsystems is fundamental for performing accurate dynamic simulations, ranging from handling to durability. The accurate estimation of the inertia tensor can be achieved primarily via experimental tests. Given a rigid body and its mass, the proposed method allows to measure the center of mass location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the vehicle or the subsystem is connected. The body under test is made rotating around three axes passing nearby the body center of mass with a highly non linear motion. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the mass properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joshua L. Every, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Anmol S. Sidhu, Dale A. Andreatta, Ronald A. Bixel
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height. When designing a system with increased capacity there are many different factors and properties that must be considered.
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