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Viewing 31 to 60 of 23479
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1543
Petter Ekman, Roland Gårdhagen, Torbjörn Virdung, Matts Karlsson
Road transportation by trucks is the major part of the goods transportations system in the European Union (EU). With increased fuel prices and a simultaneous demand for significantly reduced emissions there is a need for increased fuel efficiency. While truck manufacturers already spend significant resources in order to reduce the emissions from their vehicles, most truck manufacturers do not control the shape of the trailer and/or swap bodies. These devices are bodies that are usually manufactured by different, sometimes several different, manufactures that cannot consider the overall aerodynamics around the complete vehicle. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and that four areas (front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear) of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1562
Matts Karlsson, Roland Gårdhagen, Petter Ekman, David Söderblom, Claes Löfroth
There is a need for reducing fuel consumption and thereby also reducing CO2 and other emissions in all areas of transportation and the forest industry is no exception. In the particular case of timber trucks special care have to be taken when designing such vehicles; they have to be sturdy and operate in harsh conditions and they are being driven empty half the time. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and four areas in particular, front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each. In order to address these issues a wind tunnel investigation was initiated where a 1:6 scale model of a timber truck was designed to operate in a 3.6 m (diameter) wind tunnel. The present model resembles a generic timber truck with a flexible design such that different configurations could be tested easily.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1625
Frederic Boissinot, Jerome Bellavoine, Andrew Shabashevich, Siegfried Puster
In today’s competitive automotive market, car manufacturers and transmission suppliers are challenged with an increasing number of powertrain variants and complexity of controls software. They are facing internal pressure to provide mature and refined calibrations earlier and earlier in the development process. Until now, it has been difficult to respond to these requests as the calibration tasks linked to drivability are still mostly done in vehicles. This paper describes a new methodology designed to answer these challenges by performing automated shift quality calibration for transmissions prior to the availability of test vehicles. This procedure allows development of accurate and representative transmission calibrations focused on drivability by using a powertrain dynamometer coupled with a real-time vehicle dynamics model. By using a Power Train Test Bed (PTTB), a physical vehicle is not required.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Durability performance of vehicles in the automotive industry is assessed by extended proving ground (PG) testing on vehicle prototypes to ensure the optimum performance of the vehicle system in service. Since these PG tests are time and cost intensive, laboratory testing using road simulators and software testing with Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modelling have been adopted in order to ensure timely product release while reducing the cost of testing. A road simulator is used for extended testing of a prototype while the CAE is used prior to the availability of the prototype. As vehicle parameters are modified, the road input loads for that vehicle also changes to account for the modified parameters. Hence, the data collected from PG testing of one variant of a vehicle is not accurate enough for use in the CAE testing of another variant since the variant hasn’t been manufactured yet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
As the electric technique develops fast, steering systems change from conventional mechanic steering systems to electrically controlled steering (ECS) systems, including electric power (EPS) system, active front steering (AFS) system and steer-by-wire (SBW) system. ECS could improve vehicles’ steering portability at a low speed and handing stability at a high speed. The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on, which need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on hard-ware-in-the-loop (HIL) and real vehicles. Because tests on real vehicles have many short cuts, such as a higher cost, a longer period, etc. HIL is gradually taking the place of real vehicles to carry out kinds of experiments in order to reduce test times, cycles and cost, which has been a main means to research and develop ECS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1092
Gabriela Achtenova, Ondrej Milacek
The closed-loop stand has its main advantage in a small power demand. The electromotor has to provide the sum of power losses in the stand, which are 20 to 40 % of the test power – depending on configuration of the test stand. This is especially important value when performing endurance long-run tests. That is the reason, why the closed-loop test stands are widely used for life-cycle tests of one speed (one or more stages) gearboxes. At CTU in Prague exists the closed loop test stand with a unique design, dedicated for testing of the complete automotive gearbox for transversal disposition of the drivetrain. The transmission is mounted in the test stand in the same manner as in the vehicle (with use of rubber silentblocks and reactional strut). Only one output from the differential is used. The differential is locked.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract: Knee Bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 2 lbs), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be protected( from a 50 Kg/5ft 5th percentile female to a 100 Kg/6ft 2 in 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora, Rakesh Khanger
A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learnings which were accomplished for one such development processes. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1673
Seunghyun Lee, Yoonwoo Lee, Sungmoon Lee, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi
In this study, the correlation between the maximum heat release rate and the vibration of the diesel engine block was derived, and a methodology for determination of maximum heat release rate was presented. In order to investigate and analyze the correlation, the bench test and the real road vehicle test were carried out with a 1.6 l diesel engine. By varying the engine speed, load and main injection timing, the vibration signals were measured on engine block and was analyzed through continuous wavelet transform. It is shown that the maximum heat release rate had stronger correlation with magnitude of vibration rather than peak in-cylinder pressure and maximum in-cylinder pressure rise. A specific bandwidth, vibration signal of 0.1~2 kHz, was affected by the variation of heat release rate. The vibrations excited by combustion were lasted over 50 CAD, however, the signals in period of 35 CAD after start of injection had dominant effect on maximum heat release rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu, Abhijit Bansal, James C. McKeever
Abstract Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM's. Tula's Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders required to achieve desired torque. Validation of the DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. The testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM Hardware in the loop (HIL) API standard. Following the HIL-API standard gives the flexibility of choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
HKMC has implemented the term of guarantee as 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train in order to expand a share in the North American market in 1999. Warranty data of 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train is 10-year field data of sales volume in North America which is important to confirm the durability of power train parts. In addition, it is meaningful that HKMC has collected data for ten years first in the world. However, there are some difficulties in warranty data analysis because it is hard to access to warranty repair data containing life information of parts and data is not opened to the public. Although the importance of warranty data has been recognized, the accuracy of data and analysis methods have not been systematically studied in the automobile business world. Unlike warranty data on electronics, failure time of automobile warranty data is given in the two dimensions with mileage and duration of use.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0501
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
The cost of fuel for commercial trucks takes up a great proposition in the total vehicle operating costs. In order to improve the power performance and fuel economy of a domestic self-dumping truck, an optimization matching method of the powertrain system was presented in this paper. A vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then the power performance and fuel economy simulations were executed according to China National Standard GB/T 12543-2009 “Acceleration performance test method for motor vehicles” and GB/T27840-2011 “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”. Moreover, the simulation results were compared with the road test results, which were measured on proving ground, to verify the validity of the vehicle performance simulation model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0357
Huize Li, Predrag Hrnjak
This paper presents a method of utilizing infrared images to quantify the distribution of liquid refrigerant mass flow rate in microchannel heat exchangers, which are widely used in automobile air conditioning systems. In order to achieve quantification, a relationship is built between the liquid mass flow rate through each microchannel tube and the corresponding air side capacity calculated from the infrared measurement of the wall temperature. After being implemented in a heat exchanger model, the quantification method is validated against experimental data. This method can be used for several types of heat exchangers and it can be applied to various heat exchanger designs.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0495
Shohei Mikami, Georgi Chakmakov
Designing a lightweight and high-strength engine product is universally important from the standpoints of fuel consumption, power, and cost; however, it is difficult to find an optimal solution accomplishing these characteristics in products such as the cylinder heads that are simultaneously affected by a thermal load and various mechanical loads. We focused on an optimization means called “nonparametric optimization” and created a method of cylinder head design that utilized it. Our optimization process was divided into topological optimization and shape optimization. In the topological optimization process, we searched for a structure with the highest theoretical stiffness in the given design space. This provided an efficient structure when pursuing both lightweight and high-strength characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process. Strain energy and displacement of the combustion chamber were used as the parameters for controlling stiffness.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
A Catia-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to predict trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured CBU results. Since design data was used for the study, it was hypothesized that the difference between study and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens VSA software, the vehicle was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. The study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
The goal of this work is to develop a tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench for type approval testing. The WLTC database was used as input data. This database was created with the help of a number of European countries that collaborated and provided real world driving measurements. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behaviour. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two different stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0500
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Torne, Alberto Fraile
This paper is collaboration between the Research Group on Sustainable Means of Transport and Systems (SMITS) of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and the Spanish company, Zytel Automotive S.L. (ZYTEL). The analysis and decision making on design, behaviour and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus has been pursued in this paper. It was modelled a prototype electric vehicle, called Gorila EV, as from the software tool Adams/Car (MSC Software Corporation). The way it decided to tackle this paper was by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). Conduct an analysis of the vehicle by CAE allows increasing the quickness and convenience when getting results and reduce costs incurred testing with real prototypes. In this study it considers urban driving, where the vehicle trajectory is constrained by the infrastructure (road signs) and other vehicles (traffic).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0528
Armin Abedini, Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick, Timothy Skszek
The development of stress state dependent fracture surfaces and damage models to predict failure in automotive forming and crash simulations has created great interests in developing experimental tests to characterize failure in constant stress states. The stress state is defined by the three invariants of the stress tensor that are typically expressed in terms of the stress triaxiality and lode parameters. The shear loading condition is critical to the development of the fracture surfaces since it corresponds to the origin of the surface with a stress triaxiality and lode parameter of zero. Numerous types of in-plane shear tests have been proposed in the literature that are suitable to automotive sheet materials with the butterfly-like specimens becoming popular in recent years. The butterfly shear test involves through-thickness machining of the specimen to create a reduced section where fracture will initiate.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to estimate the effects of advanced technology in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The ALPHA model requires inputs of vehicle component efficiencies and operations. Although some model inputs must be estimated, many can be determined by benchmarking vehicles and their components that are currently in production. However, a full, standalone benchmarking procedure of each driveline component separately can be costly and time-consuming. The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana
A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gas, the combustion speed and time delay ignition of fuel air mixture. The automotive industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in simulations and numerical modeling in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance, control emissions and in formulating new fuels. This work aimed at general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring the fuel ignition delay time. Specific objectives determined the reaction raté and delay time of ignition Diesel S25, ethanol with 5 % additive enhancer cetane number, B100 biodiesel and Diesel reference. The results were correlatéd with the number of cetane fuels and compared with the times of known delays ignition of Diesel and biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1672
Clemens Biet, Roland Baar
Acoustic measurements, especially interesting for new bearing concepts such as ball bearings, are an important part of the evaluation of turbochargers. Typically, acoustic benchmarking is done at standard conditions, neglecting possible negative effects of very low temperatures, as they might be encountered in real-world applications. For realistic turbocharger measurements at cold environment conditions down to -10°C, special adjustments to the turbocharger test bench have been made. This article introduces a soundproofed climate chamber built in the turbocharger test bench which is able to achieve low component and oil supply temperatures while still providing adequate conditions for acoustic measurements. In addition to that, with the shown concept all of the regular turbocharger test bench measurement points stay untouched as well.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Abstract Adhesive bonding technology has gained ever-increasing significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum (Al) alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. Though these challenges were recently overcome for steel-adhesive joints using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, the difference in acoustic impedances of steel and Al leads to a lack of robustness in utilizing the same algorithm for Al-adhesive joints. Here, we present the results from using a modified version of this technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 15-MHz, 52-pixel, 10 mm × 10 mm matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain ultrasonic pulse echoes from joint interfaces, analysis of which produced C-scan images of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, Xinfeng Shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
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