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Viewing 31 to 60 of 23416
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0502
Zhicheng XU, Gangfeng Tan, Xingzhi Sun
For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods of melting ice with inefficiency. Above methods have insidious influence on the environment and may be inclined to damage the pavement. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although its effect is favorable, the deicing speed is slow with high energy consumption. This study adopts the method of combination of microwave and vapor. The de-icing action is produced in both the top surface and the bottom surface of the ice layer at the same time which could speed up the melting of the ice. First of all, the mathematical model of surface melting process between the ice and road intersections was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0430
Andrew Halfpenny, Frédéric Kihm, Benoît Beaum
Rotating machinery are found in every industry. While some machines are designed for constant-speed operation, others, such as the engines and transmission systems used in ground vehicles, are designed for varying speeds. The vibration environment of a varying speed engine or transmission system is best represented using a ‘Swept-Sine-On-Random’ vibration profile. The vibration profile comprises a mixture of deterministic signals, due to the engine rotation orders, superimposed on a background of Gaussian stochastic noise. Components mounted on these rotating machines are designed to survive these vibration levels over their entire service life. In the past many vibration test specifications were based on either a Power Spectral Density (PSD) function of random noise or as a series of discrete sine sweeps. The advantage of a Swept-Sine-On-Random profile is it is more characteristic of the real vibration environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, DAJUN ZHOU, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, xinfeng shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue NARAINEN, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1342
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is very helpful for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in less time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain important information for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel by using a microscope and by using a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the turbocharger reliability and durability. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. It can use the self-circulation manner to realize high and low speed switching as well as satisfy the temperature upper limit of turbine entry without the large air compressor. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data can be used to validate the model. By utilizing the model, the relation between the valve opening and the flow distribution was obtained. Then, the dynamic simulation model is established in MATLAB/Simulink.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1092
Gabriela Achtenova, Ondrej Milacek
The closed-loop stand has its main advantage in a small power demand. The electromotor has to provide the sum of power losses in the stand, which are 20 to 40 % of the test power – depending on configuration of the test stand. This is especially important value when performing endurance long-run tests. That is the reason, why the closed-loop test stands are widely used for life-cycle tests of one speed (one or more stages) gearboxes. At CTU in Prague exists the closed loop test stand with a unique design, dedicated for testing of the complete automotive gearbox for transversal disposition of the drivetrain. The transmission is mounted in the test stand in the same manner as in the vehicle (with use of rubber silentblocks and reactional strut). Only one output from the differential is used. The differential is locked.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1166
Elena Paffumi, Michele De Gennaro, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as on-road tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different on-road routes, ranging from 60 to 90 km each, with a driving time ranging from approximately one and half to two and half hours.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1167
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 ºC and -7 ºC), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu
Abstract: Knee Bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 2 lbs), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be protected( from a 50 Kg/5ft 5th percentile female to a 100 Kg/6ft 2 in 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Adhesive bonding technology has gained increased significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as the variability in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. These issues have recently been resolved for steel-adhesive joints through the use of an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The difference in acoustic impedance of steel and Al, however, leads to a lack of robustness in using the same technique for Al-adhesive joints. In this paper, we present the results from utilizing a modified version of this pulse-echo algorithm to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 52-element, 10 mm X 10 mm, 15-MHz matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain the echotrains, analysis of which produced a C-scan image of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
A Catia-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to predict trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured CBU results. Since design data was used for the study, it was hypothesized that the difference between study and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens VSA software, the vehicle was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. The study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0607
Xincheng Liang, Jingshan Zhao
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorber, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation that is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1157
Namwook Kim, Jongryeol JEONG, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Argonne has analyzed control behaviors of advanced vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) to develop simulation models and reproduce vehicle performances with simulation technique. Many of novel studies about transportation technologies conducted at Argonne utilize the simulation techniques, so well validated models are really necessary to conduct and support the advanced studies. In order to improve the research ability, Argonne has built a new testing facility, which is able to test vehicles under different thermal conditions such as -7C or 35C and has analyzed controls and performances of several advanced vehicles under the different thermal conditions. Further, the analyzed results were used to develop thermal component models that reproduce the thermal behaviors of the vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0680
Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
In automotive industry, door slam CAE fatigue life analysis is very important in door durability evaluation and optimization to dramatically reduce the design cycle and minimize the expensive durability testing. Couple of linear stress based methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, have been applied in CAE. Linear material properties are used in these linear stress based methodologies. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area. Then the stress time history is retrieved and input to further fatigue life analysis or firstly converted to nonlinear stress with Neuber’s rule to consider plastic deformation effect. But under some circumstances, the structure may have large local area plastic deformation. So the linear stress based methodology can’t precisely predict the load path, and further affect the accuracy of fatigue analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE softwares. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0492
Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta, Ashutosh Dubey, Nitin Chopra
The need to develop products faster and to have designs which are first time right have put enormous pressure on the product development timelines, thus making Computer Aided Optimization one of the most important tool in achieving this targets. In this paper, a Design of Experiments (DOE) study is used, to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of Front Suspension & Steering of a Passenger Bus affect its kinematic properties & thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of Handling parameters such as bump steer, roll steer, percent Ackermann, Lock to Lock rotation angle. The Conventional Hit & Trial method is time consuming and monotonous & still is an approximate method, whereas in Design of Experiments (DOE), a model is repeatedly run through simulations in a single setup, for various combinations of parameter settings. Effects and interactions of the design variables of the model are then studied, which provides an insight to help design an optimized model.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
ARP6320
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) consists of methodologies for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. The methods describe means of sampling and measuring particle mass concentration, particle number concentration and reporting of emissions indices through the use of an appropriate sampling system and instrumentation that goes beyond the measurements of visible obscuration as described in ARP 1179 for Smoke Number (SN).
2015-01-26
Standard
AS7119B
This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for suppliers of Electronics Printed Circuit Boards to be accredited by Nadcap. Nadcap accreditation is granted in accordance with SAE AS7003 after demonstrating compliance with the requirements herein. These requirements may be supplemented by additional requirements specified by Nadcap Electronics Task Group. Using the audit checklist (AC7119) will ensure that accredited Electronics Printed Circuit Boards suppliers meet all of the requirements in this standard and all applicable supplementary standards.
2015-01-23
WIP Standard
AIR6236
The standard will apply to (but not necessarily be limited to) cables, line impedance stabilization networks, pre-amplifiers, attenuators, current probes, etc.
2015-01-22
WIP Standard
ARP5996C
This method is designed to evaluate the coking propensity of synthetic ester-based aviation lubricants under single phase flow conditions found in certain parts of gas turbine engines, for instance in bearing feed tubes. This method is applicable to lubricants with a coking propensity, as determined by this method, falling in the range 0.01 to 3.00 mg.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS81969/15
The specification/product is required to support connector specification applications.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS81969/13
The specification/product is required to support connector specification applications.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS81969/12
The specification/product is required to support connector specification applications.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS22520/5
AS22520/5 IS A HAND CRIMPING TOOL USED TO CRIMP INSULATED AND UNINSULATED AS7928 TERMINALS, SPLICES, END CAPS, AND AS81824 SPLICES.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS81969/21
The specification/product is required to support connector specification applications.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
AS81969/22
The specification/product is required to support connector specification applications.
2015-01-16
WIP Standard
J845
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for omnidirectional and selective coverage optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but is not limited to, surface land vehicles.
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