Display:

Results

Viewing 271 to 300 of 24215
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0894
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Yuki Ono, Yuji Mihara
Abstract A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0908
Norifumi Mizushima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Daisuke Kawano, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii
Abstract In the conventional approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles currently in use in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating the instantaneous fuel consumption rate referred from a look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, the transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method for fuel consumption in which the map-based fuel consumption rate is corrected using the transient characteristics of individual engines was developed. The method and its applicability for a heavy-duty diesel engine that complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation were validated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The on-board PM analyzer is a combination of a partial flow dilution system (PFDS) particulate sampler and a diffusion charger sensor (DCS) for real-time PM signals. The measuring technology and basic performance of the analyzer will be explained. Acceleration of the vehicle can cause uncertainty of flow measurement in the PM sampler.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1072
Peter Schaal, Byron Mason, Sotiris Filippou, Ioannis Souflas, Mark Cary
Abstract The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1019
Arunandan Sharma, Fabien Redon
Abstract After having tested basic transient maneuvers such as load-step changes on the 4.9L three-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine [1], a similar test-engine was subjected to a more aggressive test-routine - a hot-start heavy-duty FTP (Federal Test Procedure) transient cycle for the on-road engines. The three main objectives of this exercise were: 1 To assess the ability of the engine to meet the transient cycle requirements while maintaining close to the cycle-average BSFC for the FTP cycle derived from steady-state torque-to-fuel map.2 To attain engine-out brake-specific emission levels that are compatible with US2010 EPA requirements with a conventional after-treatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system.3 To compare hot-start FTP transient cycle fuel economy with a publicly available benchmark.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1088
Julio Carrera
Abstract The increasingly restrictive emission standards in the automotive industry require higher thermal requirements in the EGR loop in terms of gas mass flow, gas temperature and lower coolant flow rate. Also, their performance has to be sustained over a longer period of time. Therefore, thermal load for EGR components, especially EGR coolers, has been increased and thermal fatigue durability is now a critical issue during their development. One of the most challenging issues during product validation is to define a thermal fatigue test with the same field cumulative fatigue damage in order to guarantee durability during vehicle life. A new analytical procedure has been developed in order to define the equivalent thermal fatigue test which has the same cumulative damage as the real application in the field or to estimate durability in the field on the basis of a previous thermal fatigue test result.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
Abstract The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0048
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Anil Kumar Velagapudi, Raghavendra Nese, Satish Thimmalapura
Abstract The effort involved in automotive software test/calibration at road level is very high and cost involved is also commendable because of the involved proto level samples. Further the on-road test/calibration process is sensitive to external factors like drive pattern and environmental conditions. It is always a challenge for any OEM, to come up with an efficient process, which optimizes development cost, time and reliability of the product. The model based test/calibration process is always a dream for any engineer to work on, as it has big advantage of cost, reproducibility and repeatability of test cases [1]. But the challenge lies in achieving the closeness to reality with limited availability of crucial data for model parameterization. Activity at test bed level bridges the gap between the on-road and model based test/calibration achieving high maturity level at optimal cost/time. Current vehicle has many systems, which work in synergy to create an impact on end customer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0051
Hongyu Zheng, Mingxin Zhao
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS), active front wheel steering (AFS) and steer by wire systems (SBW) can enhance the handling stability and safety of the vehicle, even in dangerous working conditions. Now, the development of the electric control steering system (ECS) is mainly based on the way that combines the test of the electric steering hardware-in-loop (HIL) test bench with real vehicle tests. However, the real vehicle tests with higher cost, long cycle and vulnerable to space weather have the potential safety problems at early development. On contrast, electronic control steering HIL test bench can replace real vehicle tests under various working conditions and make previous preparations for real vehicle road tests, so as to reduce the number of real vehicle test, shorten the development cycle, lower development costs, which has gradually become the important link of research and development of electronic steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0045
Takanori Uno, Akahori Ichiro, Yoichiro Hara
Abstract In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of the BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of a BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with a winding ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in each wire. This model can also be applied when the leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that the S-parameters for dozens of wires clamped in the BCI probe can be generated using the S-parameter measurement results from when one wire is in the BCI probe.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Abstract Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
Abstract HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0055
Mark Steffka, Cyrous Rostamzadeh
Abstract Automotive systems can generate un-intentional radio frequency energy. The levels of these emissions must be below maximum values set by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for customer satisfaction and/or in order to meet governmental requirements. Due to the complexity of electromagnetic coupling mechanisms that can occur on a vehicle, many times it is difficult to measure and identify the noise source(s) without the use of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) receiver or spectrum analyzer (SA). An efficient and effective diagnostic solution can be to use a low-cost portable, battery powered RF detector with wide dynamic range as an alternative for automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and design engineers to identify, locate, and resolve radio frequency (RF) noise problems. A practical circuit described here can be implemented easily with little RF design knowledge, or experience.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0099
Deepak Venkatesh, Arockia Selvakumar
Abstract The concept of camless engines enables us to optimize the overall engine efficiency and performance, as it provides great flexibility in valve timing and valve displacement. This paper deals with design of camless engines with pneumatic actuator. The main objective is to build a prototype and test its performance at different engine speeds. Also an extensive research on the sensors is done to detect the various sensors that could be used to identify the crankshaft position. Here the features and advantages over conventional engines are discussed. In addition the overview of the camless system in the engine is focused along with the design principle and the components used. The system thus designed is capable of actuating at 1500 rpm and demonstrates the ability of pneumatic actuators to be used in an internal combustion engine with low rpm needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Abstract Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0105
Yogesh Chandra Sharma
Abstract This technical paper aims to provide a framework for simulating the thermal behavior of an automotive electrical connector with the current flow across each terminal. An automotive electrical connector uses multiple terminals fitted in the respective cavity of a connector. Temperature at terminal increases with the current flow level across it. This temperature rise occurs due to resistive heat loss in the terminal. Due to this, temperature in the surrounding cavities also rises; hence, the current carrying capacity of those cavities reduces. Analysis of similar scenarios for design alternatives and design decisions is important to develop reliable and optimized solutions. The reliable and optimized solution helps to save the cost. There is a large variation of different terminals used in the wiring harness, and there are various parameters attributing to this variation (shape, size, material, plating etc…).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0120
Libo Huang, Huanlei Chen, Zhuoping Yu, Jie Bai
Abstract Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins…), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as a cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0670
José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Roberto Navarro, Javier Gómez, Marc Michel, Bénédicte Thomas
Abstract Upcoming emissions regulations will force to optimize aftertreatment system to reduce emissions looking for lack of fuel penalty. Despite advances in purely aftertreatment aspects, the performance of the diverse aftertreatment devices is very dependent on the operating temperature. This makes them rely on the engine design and calibration because of the imposed turbine outlet temperature. The need to reach target conversion efficiency and to complete regeneration processes requires controlling additional parameters during the engine setup. For that reason, exploring the potential of different solutions to increase inlet aftertreatment temperature is becoming a critical topic. Nevertheless, such studies cannot be tackled without considering concerns on the engine fuel consumption. In this paper, the influence of several design parameters is studied by modelling approach under steady state operating conditions in a Diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
Abstract This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0139
Andreas Himmler, Klaus Lamberg, Tino Schulze, Jann-Eve Stavesand
Abstract Increasing productivity along the development and verification process of safety-related projects is an important aspect in today’s technological developments, which need to be ever more efficient. The increase of productivity can be achieved by improving the usability of software tools and decreasing the effort of qualifying the software tool for a safety-related project. For safety-critical systems, the output of software tools has to be verified in order to ensure the tools’ suitability for safety-relevant applications. Verification is particularly important for test automation tools that are used to run hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests of safety-related software automatically 24/7. This qualification of software tools requires advanced knowledge and effort. This problem can be solved if a tool is suitable for developing safety-related software. This paper explains how this can be achieved for a COTS test automation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0268
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Ling Zheng, Helen Yu, Yazhou Jiang, Hui Zhao, Jie LI
Abstract Computer modeling and simulation have significantly facilitated the efficiency of product design and development in modern engineering, especially in the automotive industry. For the design and optimization of car models, optimization algorithms usually work better if the initial searching points are within or close to a feasible domain. Therefore, finding a feasible design domain in advance is beneficial. A data mining technique, Iterative Dichotomizer 3 (ID3), is exploited in this paper to identify sets of reduced feasible design domains from the original design space. Within the reduced feasible domains, optimal designs can be efficiently obtained while releasing computational burden in iterations. A mathematical example is used to illustrate the proposed method. Then an industrial application about automotive structural optimization is employed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results show the proposed method’s potential in practical engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0272
Huairui Guo, David Dronzkowski
Abstract Pre-production vehicle validation is a critical step in understanding what potential issues end customers may find. Road profiles used in vehicle level tests are critical in finding failures. Clearly, if all the vehicles are tested only on highway, many failures will not be discovered. Therefore, using the right road profiles is very important. Traditionally, customer survey data is used to identify an appropriate road profile by defining a route that represents the Xth percentile customer. In this paper, a clustering method is applied to group all the customers into several groups. Each group is represented by a single road profile, and the entire customer population can be represented by multiple road profiles. If vehicles are tested using these profiles, then the road test can better represent the field condition, and hopefully failures can be discovered more efficiently.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0270
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Michael Start, Litang Gao
Product validation and reliability demonstration require testing of limited samples and probabilistic analyses of the test data. The uncertainties introduced from the tests with limited sample sizes and the assumptions made about the underlying probabilistic distribution will significantly impact the results and the results interpretation. Therefore, understanding the nature of these uncertainties is critical to test method development, uncertainty reduction, data interpretation, and the effectiveness of the validation and reliability demonstration procedures. In this paper, these uncertainties are investigated with the focuses on the following two aspects: (1) fundamentals of the RxxCyy criterion used in both the life testing and the binomial testing methods, (2) issues and benefits of using the two-parameter Weibull probabilistic distribution function.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0293
Jaspreet Singh, Vishnu Agrawal
Abstract The paper expresses an important issue of optimum selection of a supercharger for a given application from the global market in the presence of a variety of superchargers available commercially off the shelf (COTS). Coding scheme suggested is based on developing an attribute based scheme for all superchargers available off the shelf. N-digit coding scheme provides in-depth understanding of all the attributes to be considered by the customers, designers, engineers and engineers of the industry for further improvement. We also aim to create exhaustive database of superchargers along with their attributes. The paper adopts a MADM-TOPSIS (Multiple Attribute Decision Making -Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) technique and graphical methods that are being used widely in different disciplines and are published. The method ensures that the optimum supercharger is closest to the hypothetically best solution and farthest from the worst solution.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 24215

Filter