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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
In applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, C class evaluation by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests in terms of safety restrictions (avoid the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is close to the performance limit of the vehicle. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class classification method by an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. First, we confirmed the possibility that expert riders can evaluate C class. The riding maneuvers of expert and ordinary riders on the test were compared, assuming normal running. The comparison result demonstrated that expert riders could evaluate C class from an ordinary rider’s perspective. Next, we considered a test procedure that used an evaluation sheet as the C class evaluation technique for an actual hazardous event.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture to be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro donated by General Motors to the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. The process used to implement the hybrid electric vehicle architecture from the stock Camaro will be the primary focus of the research. Beginning with baseline testing, our team will develop a reference for the performance of the vehicle before the architecture has been implemented using the US06 and HWFET drive cycles. Furthermore, the implementation methods and safety considerations are going to be a large focus of integration as we validate the functional operating modes of the architecture. A charge depleting driving mode is tested for energy consumption using three different electric motor control strategies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2285
Chun Guan, Xinling Li, Zhuyue Zhuang, Zhen Huang
In the present study, the effects of oxygenated fuels on particulate-phase organic pollutants including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were investigated on a diesel engine test bench w/o and with a particle oxidation catalyst (POC) device. Two kinds of oxygenated fuels with different oxygenated functional groups, that are biodiesel and ethanol, were selected as the target fuels to be blended with diesel by various volume percentages. POC performance was also studied to further demonstrate the effect of aftertreatments on diesel engine emissions. The results indicated that diesel-biodiesel (DB) blends presented a good linearship between alkanes suppression and blended ratios, while diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) blends only presented a better suppression on alkanes at a lower blended ratio. Meanwhile, both DB and DBE blends presented an effective suppression on particulate-phase PAHs.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2328
Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu, Michael Gee, Rod Williams
The discrepancies between certification and on-road vehicle performance is becoming increasingly important as emissions and fuel consumption estimates are proving inaccurate predictors of in-service behaviour. The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse these differences and the work forms the first phase of a project aiming to create new, highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in powertrain performance whilst being representative of real world conditions. These new methodologies will be developed on an advanced chassis dynamometer facility and facilitate the development of future fuel technologies focussed on delivering real world benefits. The engine controller of a 2.0L Diesel vehicle with active de-NOx and particular filter (DPF) has been monitored over WLTC and NEDC cycles and 12000km of on-road driving. Different filtering and data representation methods are compared to aid in the analysis and understanding of on-road data.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a kind of lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler because of the particulate matters and other components present in diesel exhaust, which are serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of the lacquer deposition has been investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer, which allows for in situ measurements of the surface of the depositing lacquer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to perform detail observation of the lacquer. Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 353 K and 393 K in ATR-FTIR that was set to a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of the diesel engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2324
Xiaoguo Tang, Dan McBryde
When IC engine (gasoline & diesel) and hybrid powertrain operating off the desired conditions, the combustion process, therefore the exhaust components (chemical / physical info) will be different. A modern motor vehicle has to have well controlled engine feed_gas and very high catalyst efficiency to meet EPA standards, only few percent (x%) engine output emissions allowed to emit. When ECM_Cat emission control failed, vehicle tailpipe will have ((100%)/(x%)) times change (10~50 times), or more (ECM off stoich). If engine emission control system fails or a defeat device existed, the ICE exhaust will show different signatures (on TWC failure, unexpected enrich, less SOC swing in real driving, failed De-NOx…). A simple short piece of exhaust pipe equipped with: a thermocouple, NOx_lambda sensor can pick up the information for pattern recognition analysis.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2356
Shaopeng Tian, Geng Li, tongliang que
A set of test bench of manual transmission efficiency is designed,which is used to research the transmission efficiency of manual transmission in different working conditions. This paper introduces the basic structure and control principle of the test bench and analyzes the impact of the gearbox lubricating oil temperature and load on the transmission efficiency according to the measured data. The bench adopts two AC asynchronous motor to simulate the driving and load of the vehicle,the upper computer of test bench uses C++ to write the control program,the lower computer adopts PLC to control S120 Control cabinet which is used to adjust the speed of driving motor and the torque of load motor,the upper computer and the lower computer communicate through the OPC protocol.The bench collects experimental data signal and outputs the corresponding control signal by NI PCI-6221 data acquisition card.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2329
Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven Rogak
Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are highly sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector instability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of 0.1 millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes, sampled synchronous with engine crankshaft encoder.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
With government mandates, OEMs are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids (engine oil, transmission fluid, and gear oil) that can deliver efficiency improvements. Demonstrating real gains becomes quite complex given the intricacies of these systems, and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that can occur when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. Lubrizol has tested at several independent laboratories and found that ignoring the magnitude of the impact of variation in average operating conditions between tests can mislead as to which fluid is delivering greater efficiency benefit.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8019
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
The main objective of this project was to compare the fuel consumption and dynamic performances of direct-drive and overdrive transmission tractors. Fuel consumption was evaluated at constant high speed and on various road profiles, while the dynamic performances were assessed on various road profiles only. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) was used for constant high speed fuel consumption track test evaluations. The tests were conducted with loaded two-axle van semi-trailers. The direct-drive transmission tractors consumed less than the overdrive transmission tractor, even though they were roughly 450 kg and 750 kg heavier, respectively.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8057
Michael Glensvig, Heimo Schreier, Mauro Tizianel, Helmut Theissl, Peter Krähenbühl, Fabio Cococcetta, Ivan Calaon
Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) are in development in several sectors of the commercial vehicle industry for on-road and off-road applications. It is considered to be a viable technology to achieve future CO2 or fuel consumption legislation. This paper covers the results of more than 2 years of development covering simulation, layout, control development, safety, DVP, testbed testing, vehicle integration and on-road testing of a WHR system using ethanol as fluid and a piston expander into a Euro VI long haul Iveco Stralis vehicle. The main focus of this paper is the detailed description of the on-road vehicle testing combined with holistic vehicle simulation in parallel to precisely evaluate and optimize the WHR system for real life driving cycles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
In order to predict the fatigue life of heavy commercial vehicles thrust rod made of rubber material dumbbell specimens and uniaxial tensile fatigue tests. Based on the measured data samples to the maximum principal strain injury parameters established rubber uniaxial fatigue life prediction models. In the longitudinal tension and compression loading, fatigue life V rods were predicted, and by the uniaxial fatigue test verification, the results show that the maximum principal strain prediction model, the maximum error is less than 10% predicted better results. Show by dumbbell specimen data, the establishment of a spherical hinge rubber life prediction model method, it is possible to predict the fatigue life of the thrust rod.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8042
Danna Jiang, Ying Huang, Xiaoyi Song, Dechun Fu, Zhiquan Fu
In order to enhance vehicle safety and improve the braking performance, commercial vehicles are usually equipped with electronically braking systems (EBS). But the system is very complex not only because there are many functionalities such as Anti-lock Braking (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC), but also many electro-pneumatic components such as front axle module and rear axle module. What’s more, there are many different EBSs With different compositions for different vehicle types. These factors bring different requirements for the test rig. This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation test rig for the different types of the EBSs. It is also applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Some special things are as follow. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2123
Matthias Busch, Benedikt Faupel
The integration of omega stringers to panels made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) by adhesive bonding, which are joined together in an autoclave, must be subject to high quality standards. Defects such as porosity, kissing bonds, voids or inclusion must be detected safely to guaranty the functionality of the component. Therefore, an inspection system is required to verify these bonds and detect different kinds of defects. In this contribution, the advantages of a robotic inspection system, which will be achieved through continuous testing, will be introduced. The testing method is the active thermography. The active thermography has major advantages compared with other non-destructive testing methods. Compared to testing with ultrasonic there is no coupling medium necessary, thus testing will be significantly enhanced.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8144
John Lacey
The trucking industry is being encouraged by environmental and cost factors to improve fuel efficiency. One factor that affects fuel efficiency is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; that is, the vehicles with lower aerodynamic drag will get better fuel mileage, reducing both costs and carbon emissions. The automobile industry has made great improvements in fuel efficiency in part by using wind tunnels to achieve lower aerodynamic drag. Those wind tunnels are not optimum for testing the larger, longer heavy truck designs. Most of these wind tunnels are too small and/or too short for full scale tests, and subscale tests are problematic at best due to the high operating costs and availability of those wind tunnels. In addition, the wind tunnel design factors for the testing of long trucks are not well established.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8153
Prashanth Gururaja
To investigate the feasibility of various aerodynamic test procedures for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency commissioned, through Southwest Research Institute, constant-speed torque tests of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53 ft dry-van trailer. Torque was measured at the transmission output shaft and, for most tests, also on each of the drive wheels. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. Measuring wind-averaged drag from on-road tests has historically been a challenge. By collecting data in various wind conditions at multiple speeds over multiple days, a regression-based method was developed to estimate wind-averaged drag with a high level of confidence for multiple tractor-trailer combinations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8154
Abhijith Balakrishna, Gang Wang
The aerodynamic performance between the gap of a tractor-trailer mounted with a refrigeration unit is studied while another trailer passes by on a freeway using transient computational fluid dynamics. Dynamic Meshing methodology available in Ansys Fluent was used to understand the dynamic pressure and flow regimes in and around the tractor trailer gap in general and refrigeration unit in particular, at various vehicle speeds. The influences of distance between the crossing trailers, speed and gap between the tractor trailers on the pressure distribution on the refrigeration unit have been studied.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8151
Prashanth Gururaja
To investigate the feasibility of various aerodynamic test procedures for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency commissioned, through Southwest Research Institute, coastdown testing of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53 ft dry-van trailer. Three vehicle configurations were tested, two of which included common trailer drag-reduction technologies. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. One vehicle configuration was tested over several days to evaluate day-to-day repeatability and the influence of changing wind conditions.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering, Sean Wyatt
The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the possibility of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and therewith socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle and it is an established process in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, there are different barriers and conceptual difficulties engineers have to face: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including Radar, Ultrasonic, Video or Lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8010
M. Kamel Salaani, David Mikesell, Chris Boday, Devin Elsasser
Rear-end collisions account for roughly 20% of all police-reported heavy truck crashes in 2004, and the heavy truck was the striking vehicle in 60% of these cases. In light of this, Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB), an electronically-assisted means of avoiding or mitigating frontal collision, could have significant safety benefits. Field testing of such systems using real vehicles is necessarily limited by the danger and expense inherent in crash-imminent scenarios, especially when the system is not designed to eliminate all collisions but rather reduce their severity. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL system.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8023
Bernard Tanguay
The quality of the aerodynamic data obtained from track tests hinges on the ability to determine the free-stream speed and yaw angle that the test vehicle experiences. Due to the turbulent nature of the terrestrial wind, the use of on-board anemometry for quantifying free-stream velocity is of paramount importance. However, the aerodynamic perturbation induced by the vehicle’s presence causes a significant bias in the velocity sensed by a conventional boom-mounted anemometer, relative to the sought free-stream value. It was shown that an anemometer located 2.5 metres forward of the nose of a HDV and at mid-height can report a wind speed 10% lower than the free-stream value and a yaw angle almost twice as large, resulting in a 20% overestimate of CD. A method was developed to predict the free-stream (unperturbed) velocity based on track-side anemometric measurements, resulting in a calibration function to correct the onboard anemometer readings through post-processing.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8016
Devaraj Dasarathan, Matthew Ellis, Surya Chinnamani, Ray Ayala, James Haws
In 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released their proposal for the second phase of regulations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from on-road heavy duty vehicles. This second phase of proposed regulations is similar to the first phase of regulations, that went in to effect on model year 2014 heavy duty vehicle, in that the proposals continue to push for further reductions in GHG emissions. One difference is that this new proposal takes a more systematic approach to reducing emissions by considering the impact that trailers have on the fuel efficiency, and therefore the emissions. The new proposed regulations will continue to allow manufacturers to evaluate aerodynamic performance of designs using alternative methods such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel tests. It is important for the industry to have confidence in these alternative methods.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8017
Eric Wood, Adam Duran, Kenneth Kelly
In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom’s commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8018
Houshun Zhang, L. James Sanchez, Matthew Spears, Jayant Sarlashkar, Dennis Robertson, Michael Ross
In June of 2015 the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued a Notice of Proposal Rulemaking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The agencies proposed that vehicle manufacturers would certify vehicles to the standards by using the agencies’ Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM). The agencies also proposed a steady-state engine test procedure for generating GEM inputs to represent the vehicle’s engine performance. In the proposal the agencies also requested comment on an alternative engine test procedure, the details of which were published in two separate 2015 SAE Technical Papers1,2. As an alternative to the proposed steady-state engine test procedure, these papers presented a cycle-average test procedure. The papers also explored how a range of vehicle configurations could be defined and selected for generating the engine duty cycles for this test procedure.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8061
Thomas Howell, Bruce Swanbon, Justin Baltrucki, Alan Steines, Nancy Neff, Biao Lu
Heavy duty valvetrains continue have evolved over the last 20 years with the integration of engine braking into the valvetrain. Jacobs Vehicle Systems have developed the High Power Density engine brake that doubles the low speed retarding power and increases high speed retarding power. The system works by converting the engine from a 4 stroke during positive power into a 2 stroke for retarding. This provides substantial retarding power at cruise engine speeds reducing the need to downshift in order to control the vehicle, compensates for reduction in natural vehicle retarding due to aerodynamic and friction enhancements, and enables the same vehicle retarding power with a smaller displacement engine as engine downsizing becomes prevalent.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8152
Brian R. McAuliffe, David Chuang
In an effort to support Phase 2 of Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, a track-based test program was jointly supported by Transport Canada (TC), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Research Council Canada (NRC) to assess aerodynamic evaluation methodologies proposed by the EPA and to provide a site-verification exercise against a previous test campaign with the same vehicle. Coast-down tests were conducted with a modern aerodynamic tractor matched to a conventional 16.2 m (53 ft) dry-van trailer, and outfitted with two drag reduction technologies. Enhanced wind-measurement instrumentation was introduced, consisting of a vehicle-mounted fast-response pressure probe and track-side sonic anemometers that, when used in combination, provided improved reliability for the measurements of wind conditions experienced by the vehicle.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
In this paper we discuss about the design and development of an “Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)” that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated multi-copter with tilt rotor capability to facilitate easy landing, navigation and maneuver on water. A 3D CAD model has been designed and analyzed. A specific propulsion system has been devised and lab tested. A proof of concept model has been made and tested in the field with its instruments to ascertain its technical/ operational feasibility. This system can also be tailored to collect and store the water samples from the polluted sites for further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is the novel solution to the polluted environment through a complete integrated system. This will be an effective alternative for the conventional water sampling techniques.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
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