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Viewing 1 to 30 of 15584
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0447
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Francesco Calabrese, Remco Mansvelders
A sudden pressure loss can lead to an instability of the car. This instability can lead - without aid of systems such as e.g. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) - to an emergency situation, possibly resulting in an accident. But also with an ESC system such a situation is an unusual application case, because the vehicle system (car+tires) properties change very rapidly, resulting in a highly dynamic response of the system and moreover to a fuzzy and unclear description of the vehicle system. From this point of view, a proper validation and verification of an ESC system for such an application seems to have a big safety relevance. The authors have set up a simulation case to simulate a sudden tire inflation pressure loss and its consequences to the car stability. Using this simulation setup enables a CAE engineer to pre-develop ESC systems and/or to validate and test these systems for a realistic and relevant use case.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0446
Chen liang, Guolin Wang, Zhou Zheng
A three-dimensional finite element model of radial tire 205/55R16,established by ABAQUS software,is used to simulate tire force and moment properties. Drum tests are designed to validate the simulation model’s reliability. To investigate the impacts of PCR contour design theory on tire force and moment, a modified string balance contour theory is presented, based on string balance contour theory, which simplifies the belts pressure share ratio as trapezium. And a program for calculating tire’s contour is compiled. Different tire contours are designed according to different belt pressure share ratios. One of the contours is selected according to the positive affect to cornering stiffness. Compare the selected newly designed tire with the original one, it is found that the newly designed tire’s contact area, longitudinal stiffness,lateral stiffness,camber stiffness and cornering stiffness increase while its radial stiffness decreases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0418
Xin Xie, Danielle Zeng, Junrui Li, Jeffrey Dahl, Qiancheng Zhao, Lianxiang Yang
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large strain measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under several hundred percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0442
Xing Xu, Zou Nannan
Interconnected air suspension system can change vehicle’s operation characteristics by exchanging gas of air springs. In this paper, we analyze the structure and working principle of interconnected air suspension based on thermodynamics and vehicle dynamics. Then air suspension’s mathematical model including interconnected characteristics is established to study gas exchange principle of air suspension system. Interconnected pipeline parameters and excitation phase differences’ influence on characteristics of air suspension system in whole vehicle are calculated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the stiffness of air suspension is reduced when air springs of suspension system interconnected, as well as it decreases gradually with the increase of interconnected pipeline diameter; the stiffness of air springs is minimum if the excitation phase difference of both sides of air springs is 180 degree.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0408
Sagar Polisetti, Siddesh Gowda, Nitin Kumar Khanna, Manjul Jyoti
A semi-trailing arm (STA) suspension is an independent rear suspension system for automobiles where each wheel hub is located only by a large, roughly triangular arm that pivots at two points onto the chassis or the body. STA is subjected to three directional loads viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in service. Damper rests onto a pin welded to the STA. The pin acts like a cantilever beam on which the damper forces act and is susceptible for a failure. Test procedures available define the testing of the entire system under tri-axial loads where loads are applied at tire dynamic rolling radius (DRR) which is usually complex including up to three servo hydraulic actuators. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a simple test method to validate the damper pin using a single servo hydraulic linear actuator at the component level considering the forces induced by the damper onto the pin which are velocity sensitive.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0412
Mathialgan balaji, Jaiganesh B, Selvakumar Palani, Somasundaram K, Srinivasa Rao
Tractors are self-propelled vehicle finds its major application and in agriculture, haulage and Costruction equipment applications. Product development life cycle of developing a tractor is more as against the automobiles, since tractors as to undergo rigorous field testing. Bringing more realistic component/system level test in the test lab will drastically reduce the product development cycle time. Non availability of standard usage pattern and customer correlated proving ground possess a greatest challenge for bringing field to lab. As a result, every time tractor has to be instrumented with sensors and load-timehistory needs to be acquired in various field as per usage pattern. Raw data from field cannot be used directly for lab testing, since the number of cycles will be very high. This data as to be edited based on damage editing/fatigue sensitivity analysis technique.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are very important tools to evaluatethe vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be calibrated. In the neck calibration procedure, the flexion angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neckbase. To get the flexion angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummies. The flexion angle is then calculated from those angles. There are two potentiometers in the Hybrid III family dummies, three potentiometers in ES2, ES2-RE, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies. In the calibration certification,maximum flexion angle and time occurred should be within certain range in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies, not only the flexion angle, but also the otherangles should meet the maximum angle and timeoccurred corridors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The technologies which realized miniaturization and higher performances will be explained. Basic performances such as flow and dilution ratio accuracies and proportionality between raw exhaust and sample flows have been evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0670
José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Roberto Navarro, Javier Gómez, Marc Michel, Bénédicte Thomas
Upcoming type approval regulations will force to optimize aftertreatment system to reduce emissions looking for lack of fuel penalty. Despite advances in purely aftertreatment aspects, the performance of the diverse aftertreatment devices is very dependent on the operating temperature. This makes them rely on the engine design and calibration because of the imposed turbine outlet temperature. The need to reach target conversion efficiency and to complete regeneration processes requires controlling additional parameters during the engine setup. For that reason, exploring the potential of different solutions to increase inlet aftertreatment temperature is becoming a critical topic. Nevertheless, such studies cannot be tackled without considering concerns on the engine fuel consumption. In this paper, the influence of several design parameters is studied by modelling approach under steady state operating conditions in a Diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1581
Felix Wittmeier, Armin Michelbach, Jochen Wiedemann, Victor Senft
With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable 3-belt / 5-belt-system in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the 5-belt-system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for day to day passenger car development work. The 5-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the 5-belt-system have already been presented in SAE 2015-01-1557. The 3-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with low ground clearance, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0295
Sentao Miao, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Boxiao Chen, Xiuli Chao, Erica Klampfl, Michael Tamor
With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol, and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways, provides some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means of achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generating sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the societal cost of GHG reductions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite into martensite during forming of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain in TRIP steels with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased use of lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0810
Massimo Cardone, Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The interest of the vehicle producers in fulfill the emission legislations without adopting after treatment systems is driving to the use of non-conventional energy sources for modern engines. A previous test campaign on the use of blends of diesel and propane in a CI engine has pointed out the potential of this non-conventional fuel for diesel engines. The soft adaptation of the common rail injection system and the potential benefits, in terms of engine consumption and pollutant emissions, encourage the use of propane/diesel blends if an optimization of the injection strategies is performed. In this work, the performances of a propane/diesel preformed mixture in a research diesel engine have been investigated. The injection strategies of Euro 5 calibration have been used as reference for the develop of optimized strategies. The aim of the optimization process was to gather the same engine power output and reduce the pollutant emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in lab. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road. This paper discusses about generation of drive files as inputs for poster actuation with virtual model(as a substitute for actual model)which is applicable in areas of vehicle durability and ride comfort studies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Debris are progressively generated through wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements into engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, they can interfere with the normal operation of such components even generating more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are devices susceptible to interact with such very fine debris concentrated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many testing advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to study three-body abrasion of hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been applied for elastomeric materials assessment. The paper presents a study of three-body abrasion of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions by using a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1196
Yazhou GUO, Maji LUO, Jia ZOU, Yunpeng LIU, Jianqiang KANG
Traction batteries are operated in severe working conditions of wide temperature range as the vehicles run in different seasons and regions, which effects battery performance deeply. Investigation on the effect of temperature under such circumstances on battery performance is very significant to promote the application of traction battery. In this paper, some tests are conducted on a ternary-material lithium-ion battery at various temperatures. The cycling performance and some significant parameters are evaluated at the whole temperature range, especially at the extreme temperatures (below -10°C or above 45°C). The results show that the battery performance becomes poor obviously at low temperatures, which is reflected in the decreased terminal voltage and the faded discharge capacity, and at too high temperatures (above 45°C), power and capacity also decrease, which happens in the later discharge process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
The introduction of new automotive after treatment systems relies heavily on expensive and time consuming engine and vehicle based testing to ensure that the emissions meet legislative requirements throughout the specified life. The catalyst degradation behaviour is critical to ensuring emission targets are met over time. Given the criticality, it would be prudent to slightly over specify catalyst loadings to ensure these targets are achieved. The majority of catalyst development work is typically done either experimentally on cores at the micro-chemical level or comparatively using bespoke rapid ageing cycles on engines. The data from these tests is generally applied to a catalyst model for better understanding and optimisation of the catalyst bricks. As a result of years of testing (and successfully delivering) different powertrains and after treatment systems to the same test cycle, the OEMs have excellent comparative analysis databases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
As part of active safety systems, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS) is being studied currently by several vehicle manufactures to help reduce bicyclist fatalities and injuries. This paper describes the development of surrogate bicycle with a bicyclist mannequin on top to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicyclist is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicycles and cyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch mountain bike which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the 10 different adult sized bicycles. The surrogate bicycle is constructed with detachable components with shatter resistant material to prevent structural damage during collision, and matches the look and RCS of a real 26 inch mountain bicycle from all 360 degree angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1482
Paul Montalbano, Daniel Melcher, Rachel Keller, Thomas Rush, Jay Przybyla
There have been a number of methods presented previously in the literature that attempt to address the challenging process of determining the actual impact speed of a motorcycle at its point of contact with another, typically larger and heavier, vehicle or object. Published works specifically addressing the impact speed portion of the event have included the utilization of the conservation of rotational momentum, the use of crush-based methodologies utilizing the damage profiles of both the motorcycle and the struck vehicle, the application of the conservation of linear momentum, or computer simulation modeling. However, all of the introduced methods to date have known limitations and challenges in gathering adequate data. Unlike passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles, most motorcycles and scooters carry no on-board electronic data recorders to provide insight into the impact phase of the collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0410
Joseph V. Gabiniewicz, Douglas M. Baker, Michael Testani
Real-world testing is a critical component in the development of vehicle drive trains, particularly in the context of an all-new vehicle and application. A full system evaluation is important when trying to manage torque loads from the engine through the automatic transmission, drive shaft and axles under various vehicle ballast conditions. Drive shaft torque data is important to automatic transmission hardware design and control logic development to optimize comfort and maximize performance through shift map and calibration parameter setting. Torque data is also critical to understanding strength and fatigue limits of ATM components and systems.   Historically, driveshaft torque data has been obtained using slip rings. Slip rings, however, are expensive, and require time-intensive driveshaft modifications for proper installation. In addition, the time and expense involved in field servicing units is prohibitive. For these reasons, ATCA investigated a viable telemetry solution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0448
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Zhihong Dong, Yunquan zhang
To improve the vehicle NVH performance, reduce the vibration of the exhaust system, average driving DOF displacement (ADDOFD) and dynamic analysis are used to optimize hanger locations. Based on the finite element analysis and rigid-flexible coupling analysis, exhaust system analysis model was established. According to the finite element model of the exhaust system, the free-free modal analysis is carried out, and the position of the hanging point of the exhaust system is optimized by using the ADDOFD method. Furthermore, through the dynamics analysis, the force of each hanger to the body is calculated by the dynamic analysis, then verify the rationality of the hanging position. The combination of the two methods can effectively determine the better NVH performance of the exhaust system with hanger locations in the earlier vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0575
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Shyam Jade
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust manifold is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate the turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters is a late stage in vehicle development. Hence to save cost and compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands to predict aerodynamics drag and lift coefficients(CD,CL) within the accuracy of few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations. Hence, correlation level for numerical prediction depends on factors viz; type of meshing, boundary conditions, turbulent models, CAD geometry and wind tunnel used for correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0409
Fatih Unal, Cem Sorusbay
In an effort to support engine design and engine testing activities during product development lifecycle of the engine, proper duty cycle is required. This study is conducted to develop trailer truck prototype engine duty cycle that represents driving conditions in Turkey. For engines that are in development phase, there are not any vehicles present at the customer/field to collect data and develop accurate duty cycles. For that reason, in this paper, a discrete drive cycle development methodology that supports duty cycle generation using prototype vehicles and professional drivers that can mimic customer usage is applied. The methodology is based on defining the real-world customer driving profile, discretizing defined real-world drives into separate events, collecting vehicle data from each discrete drive, determining the weight of discrete events by conducting customer surveys and creating a representative cycle by data analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0441
Aref M. A. Soliman
ABSTRACT An active suspension system has better performance than a passive suspension. However, it requires a significant amount of energy and is constructed from high cost components. To solve the problem of the power required, a switchable damper suspension system has been studied. In this paper, control strategies for the switchable damper suspension system and passive are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities. Practical limitations involving switching time delay and threshold delay values are modeled and their effect on the ride performance are evaluated. The four setting switchable damper is compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers. The control strategies are used to maintain suspension working space level within design limit and to minimize body acceleration level. The results showed that the four setting switchable damper gives better ride improvements compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates the effect of time alignment in the calculation of emissions from the raw exhaust stream of heavy-duty vehicles when tested on a chassis dynamometer. The effect of time alignment is significant in this case, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transportation of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and ‘flattened’ due to diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in grams/mile. The convolution of the concentration data is corrected by the following method: the analyzer response (output) to a step change in the concentration of the species at the probe tip (input) is recorded to determine the ‘convolution function’.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 15584