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Viewing 1 to 30 of 15630
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8010
M. Kamel Salaani, David Mikesell, Chris Boday, Devin Elsasser
Rear-end collisions account for roughly 20% of all police-reported heavy truck crashes in 2004, and the heavy truck was the striking vehicle in 60% of these cases. In light of this, Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB), an electronically-assisted means of avoiding or mitigating frontal collision, could have significant safety benefits. Field testing of such systems using real vehicles is necessarily limited by the danger and expense inherent in crash-imminent scenarios, especially when the system is not designed to eliminate all collisions but rather reduce their severity. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu FENG, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
In order to predict the fatigue life of heavy commercial vehicles thrust rod made of rubber material dumbbell specimens and uniaxial tensile fatigue tests. Based on the measured data samples to the maximum principal strain injury parameters established rubber uniaxial fatigue life prediction models. In the longitudinal tension and compression loading, fatigue life V rods were predicted, and by the uniaxial fatigue test verification, the results show that the maximum principal strain prediction model, the maximum error is less than 10% predicted better results. Show by dumbbell specimen data, the establishment of a spherical hinge rubber life prediction model method, it is possible to predict the fatigue life of the thrust rod.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8061
Thomas Howell, Bruce Swanbon, Justin Baltrucki, Alan Steines, Nancy Neff, Biao Lu
Heavy duty valvetrains continue have evolved over the last 20 years with the integration of engine braking into the valvetrain. Jacobs Vehicle Systems have developed the High Power Density engine brake that doubles the low speed retarding power and increases high speed retarding power. The system works by converting the engine from a 4 stroke during positive power into a 2 stroke for retarding. This provides substantial retarding power at cruise engine speeds reducing the need to downshift in order to control the vehicle, compensates for reduction in natural vehicle retarding due to aerodynamic and friction enhancements, and enables the same vehicle retarding power with a smaller displacement engine as engine downsizing becomes prevalent.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering PhD, Sean Wyatt
The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the possibility of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and therewith socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle and it is an established process in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, there are different barriers and conceptual difficulties engineers have to face: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including Radar, Ultrasonic, Video or Lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8152
Brian R. McAuliffe, David Chuang
In an effort to support Phase 2 of Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, a track-based test program was jointly supported by Transport Canada, Environment and Climate Change Canada, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Research Council Canada to verify aerodynamic evaluation methodologies proposed by the US EPA. Coast-down and Constant-Speed tests were conducted with a modern aerodynamic tractor matched to a conventional 53 ft dry-van trailer, and outfitted with two drag reduction technologies. Enhanced wind-measurement instrumentation was introduced, consisting of a vehicle-mounted fast-response pressure probe and four track-side sonic anemometers that, when used in combination, provided reliable measurements of the wind conditions experienced by the vehicle during the tests.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2000
Mark Bodie, Thierry Pamphile, Jon Zumberge, Thomas Baudendistel, Michael Boyd
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits of those complex controls and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop plant models and determine the uncertainty of those models to predict performance and stability of the control algorithms. Validation for an air cycle machine model based on acceptance sampling and tolerance interval is presented here. The validation process described in this presentation is based on MIL-STD 3022 with emphasis on requirements settings and the testing process.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2064
Shashank Krishnamurthy, Stephen Savulak, Yang Wang
The emergence of wide band gap devices has pushed the boundaries of power converter operations and high power density applications. It is desirable to operate a power inverter at high switching frequencies to reduce passive filter weight and at high temperature to reduce the cooling system requirement. The paper describes the design and test of a power electronic converter that converts a fixed input DC voltage to a variable voltage variable frequency three phase output. The component selection and design were constrained such that the converter can operate at and ambient temperature of 170C. The design of the key functional components such as the gate drive, power module, controller and communication will be discussed in the paper. Test results for the converter at high temperature will also be presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2030
Jon Zumberge, Michael Boyd, Raul Ordonez
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits of those complex controls and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop plant models and determine the uncertainty of those models to predict performance and stability of the control algorithms. A process of model and control algorithm validation for a dc-dc boost converter circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper is based on MIL-STD 3022 with emphasis on requirements settings and the testing process. The key contribution of this paper is the process for model and control algorithm validation specifically a method for decomposing the problem into model and control algorithm validation stages.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2051
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace and automotive industries. The demand for such a communication infrastructure is driven by the users’ need to run tests on hybrid test systems. These consist of individual, coupled test systems, each dedicated to different, even diverse needs. In the aerospace industry, there is a growing demand for modularity. Future laboratory tests means (LTM) must be scalable and exchangeable for maximum flexibility. Due to their very nature, hybrid test systems are used as integration test systems for large portions of the electronics of an aircraft (e.g., avionics, cabin) or even the complete aircraft electronics. Thus, these integration test systems need to handle high numbers of I/O channels and bus data. In order to make such test systems manageable and to enable a flexible use (e.g., to use only parts of such a system for dedicated tasks), using modular test systems makes sense.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
The next-generation of more electric aircraft (MEA) will rely heavily on multiple generators and energy storage to service a mix of constant power and resistive loads. This increase in system complexity, coupled with strict physical and performance requirements, necessitates the need for model-based system engineering (MBSE). As such, the validation of the component models is critical for the development process of MBSE. While it is not uncommon to develop/test component models with uncertainty studies combined with educated assumptions for the model parameters, the experimental hardware tests provide an important and effective means to validate the component models and quantify the variability of the model parameters. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Intelligent Power program has procured numerous 40 kVA, 400 Hz, brushless synchronous generators at various stages of their life cycle.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2005
Jia Zeng, Zhenjie Shu, Shan Zhu
Interest in civil unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is growing worldwide, as it has the potential to create new applications and markets in civil domains. As the related technologies, including micro-electronics, composite structure, autonomous control, green energy, has been seen a rapid development, various types of UAS are constantly emerging following the expansion of functions and applications. Thus, there is a need for classified management supervision and certification for UAS. Considering the lacking of standardization for UAV category and classification, it is extremely urgent to raise a proper standard to classify and categorize UAS.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2058
Thibaut Billard, Cedric Abadie, Bouazza Taghia
Rationalization of energy sources aboard aircraft and improvements in more electric technologies are pushing the aeronautic industry to meet the all-electric aircraft challenge. As a result, onboard power has been steadily increasing, reaching 1MW for B787. This paradigm shift towards more electrical aircraft architectures results in a higher risk of electrical discharges events such as gaseous breakdown, electrical arc and partial discharges. The latter phenomena being an important cause of concerns for component manufacturers as well as aircraft integrator because environmental, electrical stresses and cycling are, associated with mass reduction, all pointing in the direction of a higher likeliness of partial discharges events. The aim of this study is to characterize the partial discharge inception voltage, with the aforementioned constraints in mind, on aeronautic motor and its component in a representative environment.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling application, the main objectives in axial fan design are high pressure head and high efficiency over a wide operating range including speed variation 1x~3x and pressure 0.2~1atm variation. The fan is based on a thickness of 2.54 cm, 48 mm hub, 86 mm fan diameter. The purpose of this study is to characterize a fan's performance at various rotational speeds and various ambient pressures, from 0.2 atm to 1 atm. Methodology An 86-mm diameter axial fan for electromechanical actuators was designed. The blade shape was obtained by optimization design of the radial blade using CFD technique. Geometrical parameters describing the variations of the blade profile were determined by hub contour and fan’s required parameters given above. The 3,5, 7-blade configurations were compared with the optimal blade profile. A commercial brushless DC axial fan motor is chosen. The fan blades were 3-D printed and tested in a closed test loop.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
Design and development of an "Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)" that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated Multi-copter with a Hovercraft base to facilitate easy landing and navigation on the water surface. The innovative L1 adaptive control strategy will enable the vehicle to switch between the Multi-copter and Hovercraft dynamics automatically. This robust system will have both Hyper Spectral Imaging sensors & Water Quality Analyzing Sensors on-board to analyze the polluted content of the water in real time and it can be Geo-tagged. This system also offers the collection and storage of water samples from the polluted sites for the further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is a novel solution to the polluted environment by a complete integrated system.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1932
Niclas Strömberg
During several years a toolbox for performing virtual rig tests of a brake disc has been developed by the author. A thermo-flexible multi-body model of a test rig is derived and implemented. A thermo-mechanical model of the pad-disc system is formulated including thermo-elasticity, frictional contact and wear. The energy balance at the contact interface is governed by contact conductance that depends linearly on the contact pressure and the frictional heat depends on a temperature dependent coefficient of friction. Instead of adopting a standard Lagrangian approach, the disc is formulated in an Eulerian frame like a fluid. This is then coupled to the pad most accurately by using Signorini’s contact conditions, Coulomb’s law of friction and Archard’s law of wear. The numerical treatment of these laws are performed by applying an augmented Lagrangian formulation, which in turn is solved with a non-smooth Newton method.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1913
Alessandro Sanguineti, Andrea Bonfanti, Federico Tosi, Flavio Rampinelli
Organic brake pads for automotive can be defined as brake linings where the bonding matrix is constituted of high-temperature thermosetting resins. Bonded together inside the polymeric binder are a mix of components (e.g. abrasives, lubricants, reinforcements, fillers, modifiers…), each playing a distinctive role in determining the tribology and friction activity of the final friction material. The herein reported work presents novel inorganic “alkali-activated”-based materials suitable for the production of alternative brake linings (i.e. brake pads), by means of an unconventional low-temperature wet process. Exploiting the hydraulic activity of specific components when exposed to an alkaline environment, such peculiar inorganic materials are capable of coming to a complete hardening without the need of traditional high-temperature energivorous procedures.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1915
Meechai Sriwiboon, Seong Rhee, Kritsana kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan, Rungrod Samankitesakul
Two formulations have been selected and tested for this investigation; Low-Copper NAO and Copper – Free NAO. Each formulation was processed to achieve 3 levels of porosity; 12, 17 and 22%. Each sample was tested for hardness (HRR, HRS, and HRL), natural frequencies and compressibility plus performance testing for friction, wear and brake squeal. This paper describes correlations or lack of them between all the measurements.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1920
Deaglan O'Meachair, Matthew Crumpton, Antonio Rubio Flores, Juan Garcia, Pablo Barles, Stamatis Angelinas
Bentley Motors Ltd. has developed a Carbon Silicon Carbide (CSiC) brake system for it’s Mulsanne product, introduced at 17MY. The CSiC brake system is conceived as a performance brake system, and as such offers notable improvements in brake performance In developing the brake system, particular focus was placed on meeting the refinement levels required for a premium product, and indeed as the flagship model for Bentley Motors, NVH refinement of the brake system was of particular concern. This paper intends to discuss the technical performance of the brake system and review the NVH performance of the brakes. This paper will also demonstrate the effect of vehicle isolation on the cabin NVH, and ultimately the passenger experience, by comparing the noise and vibration content in the wheel arch with that apparent to the driver.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1918
Yusuke Aoki, Yasuyuki kanehira, Yukio Nishizawa
Brake squeal is an uncomfortable noise that occurs while braking. So, it is an important issue for automobile quality to prevent brake products from squealing. Brake shims are widely used to reduce squeal occurrence rate. To quantify the anti-squeal effect of shims, loss factor has been measured with a bending mode tester, instead of repeating many dynamometer tests. However, there are cases where measurement results have less correlation to actual squeal suppression rate. Therefore, we have to evaluate the anti-squeal effect by dynamometer or on an actual car until the best shim can be selected. In this work, we focused on the differences between measurement conditions and actual braking conditions of shims to obtain a good correlation. The bending mode tester measures loss factor under pressure-free condition even though shims are compressed by pistons or cylinders towards the backplate of the pad.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1888
Jie Hu, Yehui Li, Jun Cai, Richard Turkson, Feng Lin, Meiyun Qiao
With the development of the society, automobiles have been widely used in various classes of the society, while some issues came out such as traffic safety, environmental pollution and energy shortages and became increasingly serious. It reported that good driving behaviors can be applied to driving assistance, active safety, fuel economy improvement and others aspects to alleviate this problem. This thesis proposed that by way of data acquisition and identification of driving behaviors based on vehicle bus, it can be identified the driver’s driving habit and accelerating intentions through these information without additional sensors. Firstly, K line and CAN line, which are known by the current mainstream vehicle bus, are selected as the research object, then we analyzing communication protocol of bus data link layer, data transport layer and application layer according to the OSI model.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1805
Florian Zenger, Clemens Junger, Manfred Kaltenbacher, Stefan Becker
Abstract A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1807
Olga Roditcheva, Lennart Carl Lofdahl, Simone Sebben, Pär Harling cEng, Holger Bernhardsson
Abstract This paper presents an experimental study of aeroacoustical sound sources generated by the turbulent flow around the side mirror of a Volvo V70. Measurements were carried out at the Volvo Cars aerodynamical wind tunnel (PVT) and at the aeroacoustical wind tunnel of Stuttgart University (FKFS). Several different measurement techniques were applied in both tunnels and the results were compared to each other. The configurations considered here were: side mirror with a cord and without the cord. The results discussed in this paper include intensity probe measurements in the flow around the side mirror, sound source localization with beamforming technique using a three-dimensional spherical array as well as standard measurements inside the car with an artificial head. This experimental study focused on understanding the differences between testing at the PVT and FKFS.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1783
Oliver Engler
Mercedes-AMG GmbH specializes in unique, high-performance vehicles. The image of AMG as the successful performance brand of Mercedes-Benz is reflected in its impressive successes in the world of motorsport and its unique vehicles. One of these vehicles is the SLS AMG Coupé Electric Drive. After an elaborate series of tests as well as numerous test drives, we have created the SLS eSound which captures the exceptional dynamism of this unique super sports car with electric drive. Starting with a characteristic start-up sound, which rings out on pressing the "Power" button on the AMG DRIVE UNIT, the occupants can experience a tailor-made driving sound for each driving situation: incredibly dynamic when accelerating, subdued when cruising and as equally characteristic during recuperation. The sound is not only dependent on road speed, engine speed and load conditions, but also reflects the driving situation and the vehicle's operating state with a suitable driving noise.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1835
Albert Albers, Fabian Schille, Matthias Behrendt
Abstract In terms of customer requirements, driving comfort is an important evaluation criterion. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), maneuver-based measurements are necessary to analyze this comfort characteristic [1]. Such measurements can be performed on acoustic roller test benches, yielding time efficient and reproducible results. Due to full hybrid vehicles’ various operation modes, new noise and vibration phenomena can occur. The Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) performance of such vehicles can be influenced by transient powertrain vibrations e.g. by the starting and stopping of the internal combustion engine in different driving conditions. The paper at hand shows a methodical procedure to measure and analyze the NVH of HEVs in different driving conditions.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1848
Jean-Loup Christen, Mohamed Ichchou, Olivier Bareille, Bernard Troclet
Abstract The problem of noise transmission through a structure into a cavity appears in many practical applications, especially in the automotive, aeronautic and space industries. In the mean time, there is a trend towards an increasing use of composite materials to reduce the weight of the structures. Since these materials usually offer poor sound insulation properties, it is necessary to add noise control treatments. They usually involve poroelastic materials, such as foams or mineral wools, whose behaviour depends on many parameters. Some of these parameters may vary in rather broad ranges, either because of measurement uncertainties or because their values have not been fixed yet in the design process. In order to efficiently design sound protections, performing a sensitivity analysis can be interesting to identify which parameters have the most influence on the relevant vibroacoustic indicators and concentrate the design effort on them.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1827
Giorgio Bartolozzi, Marco Danti, Andrea Camia, Davide Vige
Abstract The time to market in the automotive industry is constantly decreasing pushing the carmaker companies to increase the efforts in numerical simulations and to decrease the number of prototypes. In the NVH field, this time constraint reflects in moving the well-established finite element simulations towards the so called “full-vehicle simulations”. Specifically, the CAE techniques should be able to predict the complete behavior of the vehicles in mission conditions, so to reproduce some usual tests, such as the “coast down” test on different roads. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology to improve rolling noise simulations exploiting an integrated full-vehicle approach. An accurate modeling of all the subsystems is needed, with particular attention to the wheels and the suspension systems. Therefore, the paper firstly covers the modeling approach used to obtain the FE models of tires and suspension system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0905
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates the fuel economy implication of powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. In a companion paper, a fully integrated GT-Power engine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of one plausible series of engine technologies, including valve train improvements such as dual cam phasing and discrete variable valve lift, and engine downsizing with turbocharging and cooled EGR. In this paper, those engine efficiency/performance results are used in a vehicle drive cycle simulation to estimate the impact of engine and transmission technology improvements on light duty vehicle fuel consumption/economy over the EPA’s FTP and HWY test schedules. The model test vehicle is a midsized sedan based on the MY2012 Ford Fusion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The on-board PM analyzer is a combination of a partial flow dilution system (PFDS) particulate sampler and a diffusion charger sensor (DCS) for real-time PM signals. The measuring technology and basic performance of the analyzer will be explained. Acceleration of the vehicle can cause uncertainty of flow measurement in the PM sampler.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 15630