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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana
A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gas, the combustion speed and time delay ignition of fuel air mixture. The automotive industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in simulations and numerical modeling in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance, control emissions and in formulating new fuels. This work aimed at general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring the fuel ignition delay time. Specific objectives determined the reaction raté and delay time of ignition Diesel S25, ethanol with 5 % additive enhancer cetane number, B100 biodiesel and Diesel reference. The results were correlatéd with the number of cetane fuels and compared with the times of known delays ignition of Diesel and biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts – especially Powertrain ones – with accuracy down to 0.1 µm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0486
Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares
Performance data offers a powerful tool for system condition assessment and health monitoring. In most applications, a host of various types of sensors is employed and data on key parameters (describing the system performance) is compiled for further analysis and evaluation. In ensuring the adequacy of the data acquisition process, two important questions arise: (1) is the complied data robust and reasonable in representing the system parameters; and (2) is the duration of data acquisition adequate to capture a favorable percentage (say for example 90%) of the critical values of a given system parameter? The issue related to the robustness and reasonableness of data can be addressed through known values for key parameters of the system. This is the information that is not often available. And as such, methods based on trends in a given system parameter, expected norms, the parameter’s relation with other known parameters, and simulations can be used to assure the quality of the data.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1066
Frank Adam, Jan Schoenhaber, Armin Wagner
The introduction of vehicle emission and fuel economy standards (CO2) accelerates the introduction of new platform and powertrain combinations into the market place. All of these combinations will require unique exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that comply with the current emission legislation. The optimization of each unique aftertreatment solution requires the proper application of catalyst technologies at the lowest PGM concentrations. The optimization process needs to be fast, reliable, realistic, and cost attractive. It is arguable that performing the aftertreatment optimization on a chassis dynamometer is variable, time consuming and expensive. This work demonstrates how a synthetic gas bench (SGB) can be used to simulate stoichiometric engine emissions and aftertreatment performance. The SGB procedure duplicates the vehicle NEDC engine-out emissions and catalyst heat-up profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
The ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emission have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. Hybrid powertrains are of many different configurations and may include such components as hybrid controller, engine, transmission, generator, battery and battery management system, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter etc. A Hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible and can be used for different types of hybrid powertrain configurations is greatly desired. This paper describes the design and implementation of a HiL testing system that can be used for testing various hybrid powertrain configurations and as few or as many of the powertrain components. The system is centered on a high performance real time controller that runs necessary driver, powertrain, driveline, and vehicle models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1445
Wesley Vandiver, Robert Anderson, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles, Christopher Furbish
Although the 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) that was designed to record crash data, the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. provides coverage for the Kia Soul that begins with model year 2013. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests was analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation including a Racelogic VBOX, TDAS Data Acquisition System, and Vericom VC4000DAQ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the turbocharger reliability and durability. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. It can use the self-circulation manner to realize high and low speed switching as well as satisfy the temperature upper limit of turbine entry without the large air compressor. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data can be used to validate the model. By utilizing the model, the relation between the valve opening and the flow distribution was obtained. Then, the dynamic simulation model is established in MATLAB/Simulink.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0430
Frédéric Kihm, Andrew Halfpenny, Benoît Beaum
Rotating machinery are found in every industry. While some machines are designed for constant-speed operation, others, such as the engines and transmission systems used in ground vehicles, are designed for varying speeds. The vibration environment of a varying speed engine or transmission system is best represented using a ‘Swept-Sine-On-Random’ vibration profile. The vibration profile comprises a mixture of deterministic signals, due to the engine rotation orders, superimposed on a background of Gaussian stochastic noise. Components mounted on these rotating machines are designed to survive these vibration levels over their entire service life. In the past many vibration test specifications were based on either a Power Spectral Density (PSD) function of random noise or as a series of discrete sine sweeps. The advantage of a Swept-Sine-On-Random profile is it is more characteristic of the real vibration environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.” The Standard requires minimum data elements, recording times, and sample rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
With growing incorporation of adhesively bonded joints in automotive industries, the need for fast and reliable nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for testing of adhesive joints has increased. Pulse-echo is considered to be the most suitable technique for NDT of adhesively bonded joints thanks to its relative simplicity, ease for industrial applications, and more importantly, not requiring access to both sides of the component. In a pulse-echo system, the pattern recognition of the ultrasonic backscattered echoes gives us important information about the interrogated object. These information can be size, geometric shape and orientation of the object. Furthermore, some information about the propagation path is obtained from these patterns. In some applications, such as automobile industry, this would not be straightforward to extract these information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping data and also presence of noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Rubber seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing requirements for these components regarding e.g. pressure or new refrigerants comes the requirement for ensuring surface properties according to the specification of the application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of problems, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical or not, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens system are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that no edge thinning limit reduction observed in three levels’ pre-strain coupon tests and the pre-straining does not affect the edge thinning limit. Basic theory of DIC, experimental setup, test plan and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
In order to reduce time-to-market, fatigue design and validation of modern products are often based on accelerated testing results. This is especially true for the durability and reliability performance assessment of vehicle components and systems, based on the fact that the designed service lives with 10 years or greater for vehicle products are not very uncommon. However, fatigue test data often show intrinsic variations or noises due to the uncertainties involved in materials, testing and environment. Therefore, statistical data analysis, such as curve fitting and subsequent design curve construction, is a critical process for the accurate data interpretation and eventual product design and validation. Additionally, sample allocation and sample size can affect both the accuracy and the testing cost, therefore, testing should be properly planned and executed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. This is due to the earlier availability and lower cost of hardware components in comparison to the whole vehicle. Current approaches mainly use originally moving deformable barriers and therefore a full vehicle test facility is needed. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases. The test bench is designed with simulations and includes a control for the force impact. This test bench is able to reproduce the same intrusion speeds as in whole vehicle tests and doesn’t block a full vehicle test facility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0607
Xincheng Liang, Jingshan Zhao
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorber, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation that is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, Xinfeng Shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1303
Wenli Li, Xiao-Hui Shi, Dong Guo, Peng Yi
An approach using dynamic emulation of mechanical loads for testing and validation of the vehicles' Transmission will be presented in the paper. In order to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time, vehicle simulation on the driveline test bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads is a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) procedure, which can be used as a supplement of the conventional simulations in testing of the operation of algorithms without the need for the prototypes. The combustion engine is replaced by a electric drive dynamometer, which replicates the torque and speed signature of an actual engine, The road load sistance of the vehicle on a real test road is accurately simulated on Load dynamometer by corrected road load forces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1167
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 ºC and -7 ºC), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1166
Elena Paffumi, Michele De Gennaro, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as on-road tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different on-road routes, ranging from 60 to 90 km each, with a driving time ranging from approximately one and half to two and half hours.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple types of new substrates were developed in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides normal product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration and thermal cycle tests. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of these properties were made. Conclusions regarding to their applicability were provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
The Depth Limits of Eddy Current Testing for Defects: A Computational Investigation and Smooth-shaped Defect Synthesis from Finite Element Optimization T. Mathialakan, V.U. Karthik, and S.R.H. Hoole* Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. *Correspondence: srhhoole@gmail.com Eddy current testing (ECT) is a widely accepted, cheap and portable method for the detection of cracks and other defects in conductive materials. While ECT is a favorite with engineers for surface defect identification through nondestructive evaluation (NDE), for more deeply embedded defects the literature is vague, with statements such as low frequency testing being able to distinguish “all the different levels” of corrosion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influences the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake, compression and exhaust stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any new vehicle model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1266
Mark Stuhldreher, Charles Schenk, Jessica Brakora, David Hawkins, Andrew Moskalik, Paul DeKraker
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrain to become much more efficient. One key technology strategy that vehicle manufacturers are using to help comply with GHG and FE standards is to replace naturally aspirated engines with smaller displacement “downsized” boosted engines. In order to understand and measure the effects of this technology, the EPA benchmarked a 2013 Ford Escape Ecoboost 1.6L, which at the time it was introduced represented the state of the art in boosted downsized engine technology. The benchmarking study described in this paper included vehicle chassis testing and engine dyno testing in order to measure the engine and vehicle efficiencies. This paper describes EPA’s “tethered” engine dyno benchmarking method which used a 1.6L Ecoboost engine mounted in a dyno test cell with a lengthened engine wire harness tethered to a complete 2013 Ford Escape vehicle outside the test cell.