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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Zhi Ning
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2432
Xiangwang Li, Weimin wang, Xiongcai zou, Zhiming Zhang, Wenlong zhang, Shemin zhang, Tao Chen, Yuhuang cao, Yuanda Chen
In order to reduce emissions, size and manufacturing cost, integrated exhaust manifold become popular in gasoline engine, especially in three-cylinder engine. Moreover, due to shorter length, lighter weight, and less component connections, the exhaust manifold and hot end durability will improve apparently. In this work, an advanced cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold is in adopted in one three-cylinder turbo engine. Because of this integration characteristic, the gas retain in cylinder head longer and the temperature reach higher level than normal cylinder head, which will cause thermal fatigue failure more easily. To validate the exhaust manifold and hot end durability, series simulation and test validation work have been done. Firstly, overall steady state and transient temperature simulation was done for global model. The global model include cylinder head, block, turbocharger, and catalyst components.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the World have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist for improvement in fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to cost of implementation. One area that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Generally speaking, the impact of chemical additives such as friction modifiers (FMs) is to reduce friction in tribocouples which experience metal-to-metal contact. These conditions commonly occur in valvetrain contacts and between the piston rings and cylinder bore at Top Dead Center (TDC).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2349
Sarita Seth, Dr Swamy Maloth PhD, Prashant Kumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Lokesh Kumar, Rajendra Mahapatra, Sarita Garg, Deepak Saxena PhD, R Suresh, SSV Ramakumar
Automobile OEMs are looking for improving fuel economy of their vehicles by reducing weight, rolling resistance and improving engine and transmission efficiency apart from the aerodynamic design. Fuel economy may be improved by using appropriate low viscosity and use of friction reducers (FRs) in the engine oils. The concept of high viscosity index is being used for achieving right viscosity at required operating temperatures. In this paper performance properties of High Viscosity Index engine oils have been compared with conventional VI engine oils. Efforts has been made to check the key differentiation in oil properties and finally into oil performance w.r.t. low temperature fluidity, high temperature high shear viscosity/deposits, friction behavior, oxidation performance in bench tribological /engine/chassis dyno tests. Three candidates of SAE 0W-30 grade oil with ACEA C2/API SN credentials have been chosen using various viscosity modifiers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2341
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
Countries from every region in the world have set aggressive fuel economy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet these requirements, automakers are using combinations of technologies throughout the vehicle drivetrain to improve efficiency. One of the most efficient types of gasoline engine technologies is the turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The market share of TGDI engines within North America and globally has been steadily increasing since 2008. TGDI engines can operate at higher temperature and under higher loads. As a result, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced additional engine tests to regional and OEM engine oil specifications to ensure performance of TGDI engines is maintained. One such engine test, the General Motors turbocharger coking (GMTC) test (originally referred to as the GM Turbo Charger Deposit Test), evaluates the potential of engine oil to protect turbochargers from deposit build-up.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2361
David R. Lancaster
The auto industry today is a global industry that must conform to local emissions and fuel consumption regulation in virtually all markets. These regulations apply different methodologies to different test cycles. This variation in methodologies and test cycles makes direct comparison of standards difficult. This paper compares the NEDC, WLTC and US EPA driving cycles by examining the tractive energy requirements of vehicles from the 2017 US fleet on each of the cycles. In addition, the mass and footprint data from those vehicles are used to compute the CO2 standards for each vehicle under European, US and Chinese standards.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2104
Marc Gatti
Certification of a mono or multicore processor is going to request to demonstrate that we are capable of mastering the determinism of the execution of all the applications which are going to be executed. Regarding the multicore we introduce a level of complexity to be managed regarding the execution of the application in parallel on each of the cores of the multicore processor whatever is the internal architecture of the processor. In an IMA context, in a mono-core processor: • This determinism is insured by the control of the WCET allowing defining a maximal boundary for all the accesses to all the services offered by the Operating System. • The Platform Provider has no information about the applications which are going to be executed. In this condition the computation of a WCET on a multi-core, like it is done currently, will be realized by introducing constraints at the level of the internal functioning of the multi-core processor.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2501
ByeongUk Jeong, HYOUNG TAE Ryu, Kwang Ki Jung, Chang Jin Kim
Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Sucess of doing this properly causes more heat to the disc in the brake system which results in the deformation or scratches on the surface of it and a reduction in the appearance of the product. A study for detailed factors to aggravate this was done as a solution to prevent these form happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments to study MPU(Metal Pick Up) of the pad and the scoring(scratching)of the disc. MPU of which the main component is "Fe", is formed through the process of fusing the separated materials from the disc by friction wiht the pad, and by local heat generation to the pad. The occurrence of MPU and the possibility of the disc scoring resulting from this were studied by noting "Fe" which was transferred to the surface of the pad to different extent and degree of segregation according to the roughness of disc.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2496
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Alessandro Vigliani, Mauro Velardocchia
Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. Caliper pressure dynamics is evaluated through a lumped parameter model which is used to design the controller. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2499
Xianyao Ping, Yuxin Pang, YU TANG
The engine brake is widely used as auxiliary brake device for its continuous brake torque. The engine brake performance is usually determined in the laboratory or proving ground according to relevant standards. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce an on-vehicle measurement system to measure the engine brake performance in the driving process. The on-vehicle measurement system makes use of the vehicle driving information to deduce the engine brake performance during transportation, which can reduce the test times in the laboratory or proving ground and the sensor cost. The measurement system based on the vehicle longitudinal dynamics can adapt to various vehicle automatically without measuring the vehicle or engine parameters before installation. And the measurement system can also estimate gross vehicle mass approximately.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2488
Manuel Pürscher, Peter Fischer
Vehicle road tests are meaningful for investigations of creep groan noise. However, problems in reproducing experiments and partly subjective evaluations may lead to imprecise conclusions. This work proposes an experimental test and evaluation procedure which provides a precise and objective assessment of creep groan. It is based on systematic corner test rig experiments and an innovative characterization method. The exemplary setup under investigation consisted of a complete front wheel suspension and brake system including all relevant components. The wheel has been driven by the test rig’s drum against a brake torque. The main parameters within a test matrix were brake pressure and drum velocity. Both have been varied stepwise to scan the relevant operating range of the automobile corner system for potential creep groan noise. Additionally, the experiments were extended to high brake pressures, where creep groan cannot be observed under road test conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0129
Vladimir Merzlikin, Svetlana Parshina, Victoria Garnova, Andrey Bystrov, Alexander Makarov, Sergey Khudyakov
The core of this paper is reduction of exhaust emission and increase of diesel efficiency due to application of microstructure ceramic semitransparent heat-insulating coatings (SHIC). The authors conducted experimental study of thermal state of internal-combustion engine piston head with a heat-insulating layer formed by plasma coating method. The paper presents physical and mathematical simulation of improved optical (transmittance, reflectance, absorption, scattering) and thermo radiative (emittance) characteristics determining optimal temperature profiles inside SHIC. The paper considers the effect of subsurface volumetric heating up and analyzes temperature maximum position inside subsurface of this coating. Decrease of SHIC surface temperature of the coated piston in comparison with temperature of traditional opaque heat-insulating coatings causes NOx emission reduction.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0140
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Duarte, Patricia Baptista, Pablo Mendoza Villafuerte, Luis Sousa
Due to the need to properly quantify vehicle emissions in real world operation, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures will be used for measuring gaseous emissions on new EURO 6 vehicles.at the RDE 1 & 2: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles. Updated regulations have been enhanced to define RDE tests boundaries and data analysis procedures, in order to provide an accurate way to obtain representative results. The boundary conditions defined for vehicle testing include external atmospheric temperature, which can range from 0ºC to around 30ºC, for moderate conditions and -7oC up to 35oC for extended conditions in RDE tests. As a result of this range of possible test ambient temperature, pollutant emissions and energy consumption can vary considerably.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0138
Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione
In the context of a transport sustainability, some solutions could be proposed from the integration of many disciplines, architects, environmentalists, policy makers, and consequently it may be addressed with different approaches. These solutions would be apply at different geographical levels, i.e. national, regional or urban scale. Moreover, the assessment of cars emissions in real use plays a fundamental role for their reductions. This is also the direction of the new harmonized test procedures (WLTP). Furthermore, it is fundamental to keep in mind that the new WLTC cycle will reproduce a situation closer to the reality respect to the EUDC/NEDC driving cycle. In this paper, we will be focused on vehicle kinematic evaluation aimed at valuation of traffic situation and emissions.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0169
Robert E. Morgan, Neville Jackson, Andrew Atkins, Guangyu dong, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Electrification of long haul freight applications offers a number of major challenges mainly the cost and weight of on-board energy storage. Efforts to reduce the cost and complexity of electrification will continue, but there will remain a long term need for a clean and efficient chemically fuelled thermal powertrain. Best in class Otto and Diesel cycles engines are now approaching the practical limits of efficiency, requiring new approaches to deliver future improvements. Harnessing waste heat through a bottoming cycle delivers limited benefit due to the narrow temperature range at which heat is recovered and rejected. Integration of heat recovery directly to the main power cycle, via a ‘split engine cycle’ offers a novel approach to achieving significant improvements in efficiency. In the split engine cycle, compression and combustion strokes are performed in separate chambers.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0018
Nikiforos Zacharof, Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo, Dimitrios Savvidis, Oscar Delgado, J. Felipe Rodriguez
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0042
Ali Jannoun, Xavier Tauzia, Pascal Chesse, Alain Maiboom
Abstract Residual gas plays a crucial role in the combustion process of SI engines. It acts as a diluent and has a huge impact on pollutant emissions (NOx and CO emissions), engine efficiency and tendency to knock. Therefore, characterizing the residual gas fraction is an essential task for engine modelling and calibration purposes. Thus, an in-cylinder sampling technique has been developed on a spark ignition VVT engine to measure residual gas fraction. Two gas sampling valves were flush mounted to the combustion chamber walls; they are located between the 2 intake valves and between intake and exhaust valves respectively. In-cylinder gas was sampled during the compression stroke and stored in a sampling bag using a vacuum pump. The process was repeated during a large number of engine cycles in order to get a sufficient volume of gas which was then characterized with a standard gas analyzer.
2017-07-24
WIP Standard
ARP5483/2A
This method outlines the standard procedure for testing the hardness of bearing components. Bearings covered by this test method shall be any rolling element bearing used in airframe control.
CURRENT
2017-07-24
Standard
ARP6216
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) identifies the minimum requirements for the testing of insulated electrical wiring for on-aircraft, aeronautical and aerospace applications. The testing requirements defined herein, ensure that a wire fault can be found safely when using a high potential voltage tester (hipot). This test is intended to aid in finding a breach in the wire insulation, and not for the identification of the resistance of the insulation. The test method defined herein is limited to equipment which ia able to control and limit the DC output to 1500 VDC maximum. This type of wire dielectric tester is typically designed to trip on current leakage and not necessarily on arc detection. This test method is solely designed to identify gross/large wire insulation damage or degradation.
CURRENT
2017-07-21
Standard
J1699/3_201707
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
2017-07-19
WIP Standard
AS5420G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements for a flexible, lightweight, low pressure, self-extinguishing, integrally heated silicone hose assembly. The hose has a fully fluorinated fluoropolymer inner liner and is primarily intended for use in aircraft potable water systems with an environmental operating temperature range of -65 °F (-54 °C) to +160 °F (+71 °C).
2017-07-18
WIP Standard
ARP6505
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
2017-07-18
WIP Standard
J2986
This Recommended Practice provides a common method to measure wear of friction materials (brake pad assemblies and brake shoes) and their mating part (brake rotor or brake drum). These wear measurements apply to brakes fitted on passenger cars and light trucks up to 4,540 kg of Gross Vehicle Weight Rating or vehicles category M1 on the European Community.
CURRENT
2017-07-18
Standard
ARP4386D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations/acronyms that are used in aerospace fluid power, actuation and control systems. NOTE: ARP490 and ARP4493 are sources for definitions specifically for electrohydraulic servovalves.
2017-07-17
Article
Virtual-reality innovations are emerging as crucial new weapons to enhance - and abbreviate - the automotive product-development process.
CURRENT
2017-07-14
Standard
ARP1107C
This recommended practice covers the fixed structure, or independent energy absorbing system affixed to the airframe to afford protection to the control surfaces, engine and other portions during ground handling, take-off and landing.
2017-07-14
WIP Standard
J814

This SAE Information Report is a source of information concerning the basic properties of engine coolants which are satisfactory for use in internal combustion engines. Engine coolant concentrate (antifreeze) must provide adequate corrosion protection, lower the freezing point, and raise the boiling point of the engine coolant. For additional information on engine coolants see ASTM D 3306 and ASTM D 4985.

The values presented describe desirable basic properties. The results from laboratory tests are not conclusive, and it should be recognized that the final selection of satisfactory coolants can be proven only after a series of performance tests in vehicles.

The document describes in general the necessary maintenance procedures for all engine coolants to insure proper performance as well as special requirements for coolants for heavy-duty engines.

This document does not cover maintenance of engine cooling system component parts.

CURRENT
2017-07-13
Standard
J1400_201707
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a test procedure for determining the airborne sound insulation performance of materials and composite layers of materials commonly found in mobility, industrial and commercial products under conditions of representative size and sound incidence so as to allow better correlation with in-use sound insulator performance. The frequency range of interest is typically 100 to 8000 Hz 1/3 octave-band center frequencies. This test method is designed for testing flat samples with uniform cross section, although in some applications the methodology can be extended to evaluate formed parts, pass-throughs, or other assemblies to determine their acoustical properties. For non-flat parts or assemblies where transmitted sound varies strongly across the test sample surface, a more appropriate methodology would be ASTM E90 (with a reverberant receiving chamber) or ASTM E2249 (intensity method with an anechoic or hemi-anechoic receiving chamber).
CURRENT
2017-07-13
Standard
J2749_201707
This recommended practice is a guideline for generating high strain rate tensile properties under defined conditions of unreinforced and reinforced plastics used in the automotive industry. Several types of test specimens are identified to suit different types of materials and test rates. This document is intended for strain rates between 10-3/s and 103/s. Test procedures for rates of 10-2/s and below; i.e., quasi-static conditions, are described in ASTM D 638 and ISO 527-1. The procedures in this document include quasi-static testing in order to provide a common test rate for both quasi-static and dynamic test programs. The general procedures listed in ASTM D 638 and ISO 527-1 should be followed when appropriate. The main purpose of this document is to determine the relative effects of increasing strain rate on the measured material properties. Data generated from these tests are comparative in nature.
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