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Viewing 151 to 180 of 15290
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0152
Serge Lievens, Bjorn Van Gasse, Sandra Claeys, Jurgen De Kimpe, Amol Chore
Abstract In conjunction with modern engine design and long term reliability needs, the resistance of engine coolants to oxidative stress has become an increasingly important feature. This paper describes the results of a study that evaluated the influence of parameters such as temperature, aeration and catalytic metal interaction on the oxidation stability of engine coolants. Three different test set-ups were used in which the selected conditions put variable weights to the contribution of each parameter. A comparison was made of the oxidation resistance of multiple high quality OEM approved coolant products with different additive technologies. This work is different from previous investigations focusing mainly on the behavior of coolants in single test conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0303
Ayan Bhattacharya, Naveen Malik, Sahil Jindal
Abstract Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors [2]. For generation of proper drive file, not only good FRF but ensuring stability of inverse FRF is also essential. Stability of the inverse FRF depends upon the simulation channels used. In this paper experimental approach has been applied for the optimization of the simulation channels to be used for simulation of normal Indian passenger car on 4 corners, 6-Axis Road Load Simulator. Time domain tests were performed to identify potential simulation channels.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0242
Guido Tosolin, Kwang Chan Ko
Abstract A vehicle simulation model is developed, validated and integrated into a closed-loop virtual driving environment using a state-of-the-art hexapod driving simulator. Thirty variant states are implemented and evaluated subjectively on steering and handling performance quality and quantity. Standard open-loop objective testing manoeuvres are simulated and performance metrics are calculated, allowing for a systematic cross-correlation process. Graphical analysis of the correlation metrics proves that chassis changes may accurately be felt through the simulator interface. It is proposed how obtained correlation models may serve for driver-feel optimizing target setting in early vehicle development stages, frontloading a great deal of costly prototype testing. System requirements are established and benefits and limitations are portrayed.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0054
Barath Mohan, KVM Raju, Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Chandramouli Padmanabhan
The aim of the present study is to develop feasible test methods to measure the lateral force characteristics of motorcycle tires. In this work, new experimental procedures are developed to estimate the lateral friction coefficient and lateral stiffness characteristics of motorcycle tires. A fairly accurate tire model is developed using the measured lateral force characteristics. Based on this tire model, the steer behavior and the cornering limits of the motorcycle are estimated using an analytical model of the vehicle. The results are validated with experimental data. The test methods proposed are shown to be adequate to estimate tire characteristics that are important for tire development and is less expensive compared to the standard testing facilities available.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0005
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takumi Fujii, Richard Douard
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0009
Hollie A. Pietsch, Kelly E. Bosch, David R. Weyland, E. Meade Spratley, Kyvory A. Henderson, Robert S. Salzar, Terrance A. Smith, Brandon M. Sagara, Constantine K. Demetropoulos, Christopher J. Dooley, Andrew C. Merkle
Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms. Tests were conducted with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). PMHS response data was compiled into preliminary biofidelity response corridors (BRCs), which served as evaluation metrics for the WIAMan TD. Each WIAMan TD response was evaluated against the PMHS preliminary BRC for the loading and unloading phase of the signal time history using Correlation Analysis (CORA) software to assign a numerical score between 0 and 1.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0013
Chiara Giordano, Svein Kleiven
This study describes a method to identify laboratory test procedures and impact response requirements suitable for assessing the biofidelity of finite element head models used in prediction of traumatic brain injury. The selection of the experimental data and the response requirements were result of a critical evaluation based on the accuracy, reproducibility and relevance of the available experimental data. A weighted averaging procedure was chosen in order to consider different contributions from the various test conditions and target measurements based on experimental error. According to the quality criteria, 40 experimental cases were selected to be a representative dataset for validation. Based on the evaluation of response curves from four head finite element models, CORA was chosen as a quantitative method to compare the predicted time history response to the measured data.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Tests and Testing
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0226
Javier Gutierrez, Guido Tosolin, Alexandre Catala
Abstract The integration of IDIADA Spain virtual Proving Ground (ISVPG) within ADAMS/Car offers a new virtual scenario to carry out detailed analysis of durability as well as Comfort & Ride. Moreover, these high resolution roads (modeled as OpenCRG road format) support model development activities through better correlation with experimental tests. This approach helps to reduce the number of real tests and to shorten development process times. At the same time, this data would be prepared for performance testing to support driving simulator and active system development. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits to use FTire model for Ride and Comfort applications and the use of flexible bodies for better predictions. The availability of this information will depend on the status of the project and the level of maturity of the simulation input data. As a result, different levels of accuracy will be reached according to the existing input data.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0134
Levi N. da Silva, Kerolin F. Tessari, Maicon D. Garcia, Thiago C. de Freitas
Abstract Experimental results reveal that the temperature rise of two contacting bodies in relative sliding motion is related to increase of torque and loads caused by expansion of bearing components. The evolution of effects of thermally induced loads with time in an angular contact ball bearing in a controlled temperature environment is studied experimentally and analytically. The test apparatus is an axially-loaded angular contact ball bearing instrumented to measure the dynamic frictional torque as well as the transient temperature of the raceway and environment inside of a chamber with controlled temperature. Effects of friction torque were examined at different speeds, operating temperatures and pre-loads. The mathematical model developed provides a comprehensive thermal analysis of the ball bearing with provision for frictional heat generation, heat transfer processes and thermal expansion of bearing components.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0124
Luís Felipe Ferreira Motta Barbosa, José Elias Tomazini, Marcelo Sampaio Martins, Lucas Reis Rangel Querido Moreira, Marcos Yukio Tokuue Hori, Luís Felipe Santos Silva
Abstract The torsional stiffness of a chassis is one of the most important properties of a vehicle’s structure, once a low torsional stiffness has many negative effects, especially in handling characteristics. For the first time, the torsional stiffness was considered on the design of a Baja SAE prototype of the team from UNESP - FEG, “Equipe Piratas do Vale”. In this work, a finite element analysis is first performed in order to evaluate the torsional stiffness of this prototype, called MB1114. Then, an experimental evaluation of this parameter is executed, detailing the post-processing of the results, such as the hysteresis effect and uncertainty analysis. It also shows that it is possible to measure the torsional stiffness of chassis with a low experimental uncertainty without spending too much. The test rig used is simple to be produced and can be easily stocked. Those features are important for Baja and Formula SAE teams.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0127
Gustavo Siebert, Amilton Sinatora
Abstract The growing use of tribotest has been helping the researches to understand the actuation mechanisms of additives on the friction and wear control of engine parts. But, it is common to observe differences between the tribofilms formed in real situation from that obtained using tribotests. Furthermore, the automakers have difficulty to correlate the results obtained using tribotests with that performed using engines in dynamometers. For the piston ring/cylinder bore tribosystem is almost impossible to reproduce its real tribosystem using tribotests. Therefore simplifications are necessary and they affect the tribochemical behavior of the tribosystem. To understand how these simplifications and the test parameters affect the tribochemical behavior of the simplified tribosystem is critical to design a tribotest that correlate well with the real situation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0170
Moisés Krutzmann, Dimitrius Caloghero, Tiago Schmidt, Rogério Marczak
Abstract The knowledge of mechanical behaviour of material is vital for durability prediction and attending initial project requirements. Through the experimental evaluations is possible to measure this behaviour and use it as input in numerical simulations. Temperature changes considerably static and dynamic mechanical properties of materials, particularly in elastomers. This study was motivated to predict the durability under several working temperatures of center bearings rubber cushion of driveshafts that needs to achieve prespecified stiffness and durability parameters. Standardized specimens were tested in fatigue for experimental investigation of the rubber compound. Durability tests were performed in the final product sample and compared with tests performed in standardized specimens. It was concluded that this approach produces accurate results for fatigue predictions and provided useful equations for practical design applications and reducing product validation time.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0280
Marcelo F. Gomes, Eduardo Catalani, Daniel Rodrigues, Klemer Santiago
Abstract Vehicles sold in many countries around the globe must comply with ECE R14 or FMVSS 210 regulation in order to ensure proper function of the safety belt system when submitted to high loads. In these regulations, the procedure requests to apply high forces on the safety belts by using proper devices. All components of the system such as seats, safety belts, anchorage points and vehicle body have to resist the specified loads with no damages. The loads are applied slowly and sustained over a long period of time, characterizing a quasi-static test. The present work was developed to understand the energy distribution among all components during seat anchorage test and determine any potential failure, including cases in which components are changed. The system was optimized considering the energy dispersed by each component and their material plastic strength limit.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0423
Bruno Barbosa Salles, Almir Atoatte, Robson Cruz
Abstract Targeting the current demands for engines with lower emissions, reduced fuel consumption, downsizing and higher peak combustion pressures, thyssenkrupp has developed a new cranktrain concept comprising an increased radial transition between journal and web that extends itself into the bearing’s load-carrying zone, creating a symmetrical U-shaped profile. The resulting non-straight bearing contour restricts the use of a standard bearing shell and led to the development of an integral bearing solution, where a copper based material was applied directly to the connecting rod big end bore. The so-called U-shape cranktrain was experimentally evaluated on a fired engine through a series of eight test steps with varied loads and speeds, being each step condition defined in a way that increased severity was applied to the connecting rod bearings as the test proceeded. The engine was disassembled after each step for analysis and measurement of the crankshaft and connecting rods.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0457
Weber Ferreira Veloso, Marcela Rodrigues Machado Garcia, Sabrina Glicéria Firmino, Juliana Queiroga Gazaniga de Assis, Diego Palhares de Faria
Abstract Through a computing transient thermal analysis, the team evaluated the quality of the material and its resistance to thermal fatigue by a comparative method. With the steel used in 1020 failed in 2014, for the team Formula UFMG, the 1020 steel, 1045, 1070 and stainless steel 304 were compared, where the stainless steel was the parameter of better resistance to thermal cracking. The main calculated parameters were subjected to empiric validations and the best material has been applied and used in the 2015 season. The use of the disks in a competition and in a battery of tests superior to 2014, permitted the evaluation of the final result of applying the material.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0235
Juliana Lima da Silva Lopes, Cleber Albert Moreira Marques, Genildo de Moura Vasconcelos, Rafael Barreto Vieira, Flavio Fabricio Ventura de Melo Ferreira, Marcelo Henrique Souza Bomfim
Abstract This paper approaches the use of machine vision as an automation tool for verification tests in automotive Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC). A computer integrated with PXI modular instruments, machine vision software and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) composes the test system. The IPC is verified in closed-loop using the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) technique in which the HiL system simulates all Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that interact with the IPC. Every simulated ECUs signals are sent to the IPC over CAN (Controller Area Network) bus or hardwired I/O using PXI modules integrated with IDE and its responses are captured by cameras. Using machine vision such images are subjected to Digital Image Processing (DIP) techniques as pattern matching, edge detection and Optical Character Recognition (OCR), which can be applied to interpret speedometer, tachometer, fuel gauges, display and warning lights.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0405
Antônio Carlos Scardini Villela, Rogério Nascimento de Carvalho, Pedro Caffaro Vicentini
Abstract In order to simulate the real behavior of vehicles during laboratory tests, such as fuel consumption [1] and pollutant emissions [2], coast down coefficients must be set on the chassis dynamometer control system. These coefficients are used to determine load curves, which represent the resistance imposed on the vehicle movement by the wheels rolling and the air, being obtained from track tests performed according to Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 10312 [3]. However, coast down tests depend on the availability of long and flat tracks. This may entail costs for deployment or leasing of facilities with these characteristics, which may include even long commutes of human and material resources, depending on its location. This paper proposes an alternative methodology for coast down coefficients determination, from experiments on chassis dynamometer and vehicles aerodynamic specifications. It was applied to some Petrobras Research Center (Cenpes) test vehicles.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
Abstract This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture used in its charge depleting mode. This architecture will be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro by the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. Our bench testing goals are to determine the accuracy of our current vehicle model components, if our current controller algorithms are efficient, and if our powertrain is properly integrated. Three torque control strategies using two UQM motors will be evaluated. Initial findings in this paper will be used to prepare the MSU EcoCAR 3 team for vehicle optimization and further integration work during the year three portion of the EcoCAR 3 competition. Three charge depleting motor control strategies are evaluated for drivetrain torque loss and energy consumption. The control strategies were tested using a Nissan Frontier chassis as the bench testing frame (or mule) on a chassis dynamometer.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2329
Pooyan Kheirkhah, Patrick Kirchen, Steven Rogak
Abstract Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector variability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of better than one millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2356
Shaopeng Tian, Geng Li, Tongliang Que
Abstract This paper mainly researches transmission efficiency (TE) of mechanical transmission in relation to the temperature of lubricating oil. Firstly the formula of TE is calculated about the kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil, then analyze the relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature of lubricating oil, and finally the formula of TE which is related to the oil temperature is put forward. In order to verify the theoretical formula, the test bench for mechanical transmission is designed, which is used to research the N109 transmission of one mini car. The bench can be used to measure the curve of TE under different speed , load and lubricating oil temperature. The optimum operating temperature of the transmission is obtained by analyzing the measured data and theoretical calculation results. The test bench adopts 2 AC asynchronous motors to respectively simulate the driving and load performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
Abstract With government mandates, original equipment manufacturers are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids that aid in this effort. Demonstrating real gains becomes complex given the intricacies of these systems and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that was encountered when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. While it is well known that variability in testing conditions such as engine load or vehicle speed will lead to variability in results, the magnitude of their impact on average throughout the test cycle suggests that repeat testing may not be sufficient to guard against improper conclusions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2328
Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu, Michael Gee, Rod Williams
Abstract Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2330
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll, Kristin Favela
Abstract Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2324
Xiaoguo Tang, Dan McBryde
Abstract Modern light-duty vehicles require well-controlled engine-out feed-gas and very high catalyst efficiencies to meet the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2 & 3 standards. When a vehicle with either a gasoline or diesel engine is operating within its controlled state-space the exhaust emissions present at the tailpipe are extremely low. When it is not operating within its controlled state-space the combustion process and therefore its exhaust emissions characteristics will be different. This may occur when an emission control device fails or if a defeat device is employed. Moreover, different control technologies each have unique characteristics or signatures that could assist in identifying either emission control device failure or an existing defeat device.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
Abstract In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8042
Danna Jiang, Ying Huang, Xiaoyi Song, Dechun Fu, Zhiquan Fu
Abstract This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 15290