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Viewing 121 to 150 of 15301
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0447
Zhe Li, Mike Dong, Dennis Harrigan, Michael Gardner
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0743
Kukwon Cho, Eric Latimer, Matthew Lorey, David J. Cleary, Mark Sellnau
Abstract Fuel efficiency and emission performance sensitivity to fuel reactivity was examined using Delphi’s second-generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The study was designed to compare a US market gasoline (RON 92 E10) to a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) at four operating conditions ranging from light load of 800 rpm / 2.0 bar gross indicated-mean-effective pressure (IMEPg) to medium load of 2000 rpm / 10.0 bar IMEPg. The experimental assessment indicated that both gasolines could achieve good performance and Tier 3 emission targets at each of the four operating conditions. Relative to the RON 92 E10 gasoline, better fuel consumption and engine-out emissions performance was achieved when using RON 80 gasoline; consistent with our previously reported single-cylinder engine research [1].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor, Allen Aradi
Abstract The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0185
Kesavan Ramakrishnan, Pietro Romanazzi, Damir Zarko, Giampiero Mastinu, David A. Howey, Alessio Miotto
Abstract In this paper, an improved analytical model accounting for thermal effects in the electromagnetic field solution as well as efficiency map calculation of an outer rotor surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine is described. The study refers in particular to an in-wheel motor designed for automotive electric powertrain. This high torque and low speed application pushes the electric machine close to its thermal boundary, which necessitates estimates of winding and magnet temperatures to update the winding resistance and magnet remanence in the efficiency calculation. An electromagnetic model based on conformal mapping is used to compute the field solution in the air gap. The slotted air-gap geometry is mapped to a simpler slotless shape, where the field solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equation for scalar potential. The canonical slottless domain solution is mapped back to the original domain and verified with finite element model (FEM) results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Daniel Kok, Mark Jennings, Ming Kuang, Brandon Masterson, Richard Isaacs, Alan Dona, Chuck Wagner, Thomas Gee
Abstract The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1170
Tong Zhang, Chen Wang, Wentai Zhou, Huijun Cheng, Haisheng Yu
Abstract Because a compound power-split transmission is directly connected to the engine, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in strong jerks and torque losses when the hybrid vehicle is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. In order to enhance ride comfort and reduce the output torque gap during mode transition process, a brake clutch assisted coordinated control strategy was developed. Firstly, the dynamic plant model of the power-split vehicle including driveline model, engine ripple torque and brake clutch torque was deduced. Secondly, the brake clutch assisted mode transition process was analyzed, and the output torque capability was compared between cases of both brake clutch assisted and unassisted mode transition process. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired motor torque, brake clutch torque, engine torque, and the moment of fuel injection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1193
Yongcai Wang, Rajaram Subramanian, Sarav Paramasivam, George Garfinkel
Abstract Mechanical shock tests for lithium metal and lithium-ion batteries often require that each cell or battery pack be subjected to multiple shocks in the positive and negative directions, of three mutually perpendicular orientations. This paper focuses on the no-disassembly requirement of those testing conditions and on the CAE methodology specifically developed to perform this assessment. Ford Motor Company developed a CAE analysis method to simulate this type of test and assess the possibility of cell dislodging. This CAE method helps identify and diagnose potential failure modes, thus guiding the Design Team in developing a strategy to meet the required performance under shock test loads. The final CAE-driven design focuses on the structural requirement and optimization, and leads to cost savings without compromising cell or pack mechanical performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1216
Edward C. Fontana, Rick Barnett, Robert Catalano, James Harvey, Jiacheng He, George Ottinger, John Steel
Abstract Electric cars can help cities solve air quality problems, but drivers who live in apartments have no convenient way to charge daily, absent the well-controlled private garages where most electric vehicles (EVs) are currently charged each night. Environmentally robust, hands-free, inductive chargers would be ideal, but energy efficiency suffers. We asked whether the precise parking alignment provided by self-driving cars could be used to provide convenient inductive charging with improved charging efficiencies. To answer this question, we split an inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) battery charger at the middle of the isolation transformer. The power factor correction, tank elements, and transformer primary windings are stationary, while the transformer secondary, rectifiers, and battery control logic are on the vehicle. The transformer is assembled each time the EV parks.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1249
Masahiro Seguchi
Abstract Compact, high efficiency and high reliability are required for an xEV motor generator. IPM rotors with neodymium magnets are widely applied for xEV motors to achieve these requirements. However, neodymium magnet material has a big impact on motor cost and there is supply chain risk due to increased usage of these rare earth materials for future automotive xEV’s. On the other hand, a wound-field rotor does not need magnets and can achieve equivalent performance to an IPM rotor. However, brushes are required in order to supply current to the winding coil of the rotor. This may cause insulation issues on xEV motors which utilize high voltage and high currents. Therefore, it is suggested to develop a system which supplies electric energy to the rotor field winding coil from the stator without brushes by applying a transformer between stator coil and rotor field winding. Specifically, add auxiliary magnetic poles between each field winding pole and wind sub-coils to these poles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0462
Marcel Meuwissen, Jippe Van Ruiten, Thijs Besseling, Robbert van Sluijs, Maik Broda, Brian Pearce, Fenton I. O'Shea
Abstract Fuel economy improvement efforts in engines have focused on reducing parasitic losses. This paper addresses the friction losses in the valve train chain drive system where about half of the losses is caused by the chain sliding on plastic guide and tensioner arm faces (Figure 1). Efforts have been made to reduce these friction losses by optimizing the chain link profile, the geometry of the guide and tensioner arm rails, and developments towards low friction materials. This paper describes the approach taken for the development of new low-friction chain tensioner arm plastic materials. The approach is characterized by building an understanding of the friction mechanisms and identifying the most critical material’s properties. A lab-scale test is used for a first assessment of the friction performance of materials. The correlation between this lab-scale test and the actual chain-on-tensioner arm application is discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0801
Keith Vertin, Brent Schuchmann, William Studzinski, Richard S. Davis, Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Asim Iqbal
Abstract Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities to improve vehicle fuel economy, while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (antiknock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the U.S., 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude (1660 m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at transient and stabilized full power operation. Five vehicles were tested using 85 and 87 AKI fuels.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0488
Raju Gandikota
Abstract Testing elastomeric materials that undergo large strains pose challenges especially when establishing failure criteria. The failure criterion for composites and polymers based on finite elasticity published by Feng (1) requires testing under uniaxial and biaxial stretching modes. The classic inflation of a circular disk for biaxial stretch mode poses stability and safety challenges. The test can also be sensitive to end constraints resulting in failure of materials at the constraints. Biaxial stretching with a hemispherical punch is explored in this work. The biaxial stretching allows controlled and repeatable testing. It establishes a clear and reliable failure mechanism of the material at the poles. Through a combination of testing and numerical methods, the stretch ratios and its relation to failure have been established. The method greatly simplifies testing and provides reliable data for a failure criterion for elastomers in numerical modeling.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0451
Klaus-Peter Heinig, David A. Stephenson, Timothy G. Beyer
Abstract Thermally sprayed coatings have used in place of iron bore liners in recent aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1566
Willibald Brems, Nico Kruithof, Richard Uhlmann, Andreas Wagner, Werner Krantz, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1512
Fuliang Wang, Zhangshun Yin, Shi Yan, Jia Zhan, Heinz Friz, Bo Li, Weiliang Xie
Abstract The validation of vehicle aerodynamic simulation results to wind tunnel test results and simulation accuracy improvement attract considerable attention of many automotive manufacturers. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, a simulation model of the ground effects simulation system of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center was built. The model includes the scoop, the distributed suction, the tangential blowing, the moving belt and the wheel belts. The simulated boundary layer profile and the pressure distribution agree well with test results. The baseline model and multiple design changes of the new Buick Excelle GT are simulated. The simulation results agree very well with test results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1518
Emil Ljungskog, Simone Sebben, Alexander Broniewicz, Christoffer Landström
Abstract Many aerodynamic wind tunnels used for testing of ground vehicles have advanced ground simulation systems to account for the relative motion between the ground and the vehicle. One commonly used approach for ground simulation is a five belt system, where moving belts are used, often in conjunction with distributed suction and tangential blowing that reduces the displacement thickness of the boundary layer along the wind tunnel floor. This paper investigates the effects from aft-belt tangential blowing in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic wind tunnel. First the uniformity of the boundary layer thickness downstream of the blowing slots is examined in the empty tunnel. This is followed by investigations of how the measured performance of different vehicle types in several configurations, typically tested in routine aerodynamic development work, depends on whether the tangential blowing system is active or not.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1522
Thomas Blacha, Moni Islam
Abstract The aerodynamic development of the new Audi Q5 (released in 2017) is described. In the course of the optimization process a number of different tools has been applied depending on the chronological progress in the project. During the early design phase, wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 scale were performed accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations. At this stage the model contained a detailed underbody but no detailed engine bay for underhood flow. Later, a full scale Q5 model was built up for the aerodynamic optimization in the 1:1 wind tunnel at Audi AG. The model featured a detailed underbody and engine bay including original parts for radiators, engine, axles and brakes from similar vehicles. Also the 1:1 experiments were accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations in order to predict optimization potential and to better understand the governing flow.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1527
Felix Wittmeier
Abstract After being in operation since 1989, the 25% / 20% model scale wind tunnel of University of Stuttgart received its second major upgrade in 2016. In a first upgrade in 2001, a rolling road with a 5 belt system from MTS was installed. This system includes a steel center belt to simulate the road underneath the vehicle and four FKFS designed rubber belts for wheel rotation. The recent upgrade now enables the wind tunnel to be used not only for standard, steady state aerodynamic measurements but also for measurements of unsteady aerodynamic effects. This enables the use of the FKFS swing system as a standard measurement technique. Therefore, the former balance was replaced by a balance manufactured by AND with a high Eigenfrequency and the ability to sample the measurement data at up to 1000 Hz. The second large part of the upgrade was the replacement of the control system. With the new Wind Tunnel Control System (WCTS), control system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1530
Di Bao, Qing Jia, Zhigang Yang
Abstract Based on a 1:15 scaled 3/4 open jet automotive wind tunnel, this paper studies the effect of vortex generator on the buffeting phenomenon. The mean velocity, static pressure gradient, turbulent intensity as well as frequencies of fluctuant velocities have been explored experimentally with and without vortex generator. It shows that the less protruding vortex generator could control the buffeting phenomenon and improve the flow quality. Furthermore, the unsteady coherent structures in the jet shear layer have been visualized and analyzed by Detached-eddy simulation (DES). The vortex-ring pairing process is identified in the shear layer along with obvious frequency characteristics and velocity fluctuations. The vortex generator can postpone and restrain this vortex-ring pairing process, then reducing the velocity fluctuations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1534
Nina Tortosa, David Schroeck, Tony Nagle, Guy Flynt
Abstract The General Motors Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Facility, which came into operation in the fall of 2015, is a new state-of-the-art scale model aerodynamic test facility that expands GM’s test capabilities. The new facility also increases GM’s aerodynamic testing through-put and provides the resources needed to achieve the growing demand for higher fuel economy requirements for next generation of vehicles. The wind tunnel was designed for a nominal model scale of 40%. The nozzle and test section were sized to keep wind tunnel interference effects to a minimum. Flow quality and other wind tunnel performance parameters are on par with or better than the latest industry standards. A 5-belt system with a long center belt and boundary layer suction and blowing system are used to model underbody flow conditions. An overhead probe traverse system is installed in the test section along with a model positioning robot used to move the model in an out of the test section.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1549
Taro Yamashita, Takafumi Makihara, Kazuhiro Maeda, Kenji Tadakuma
Abstract In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9275
Neng Zhu, Lin Lv, Chengwei Ye
Abstract In vehicles with urea-SCR system, normal operation of the urea-SCR system and engine will be influenced if there are deposits appearing on exhaust pipe wall. In this paper, a commercial vehicle is employed to study the influence factors of deposits through the vehicle road test. The results show that, urea injection rate, temperature and flow field have impacts on the formation of deposits. When decreasing the urea injection rate of calibration status by 20%, the deposit yield would reduce by 32%. If the ambient temperature decreased from 36 °C to 26 °C, the deposit yield would increase by 95%. After optimizing the exhaust pipe downstream of the urea injector by removing the step surface, only a few flow marks of urea droplets are observed on the pipe wall, and no lumps of deposits existing.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0195
Sachin Kumar Jain, Manasi Joshi, Harshal Bankar, Prashant Kamble, Prasad Yadav, Nagesh Karanth
Abstract The paper discusses the methodology for measuring the sound absorption of sound package materials in a different sizes of reverberation chambers. The large reverberation chamber is based on test methods and requirements as per ASTM C423 and ISO 354 standards. Both the test standards are similar and recommend a reverberation chamber volume of at least 125 m3 and 200 m3 respectively for sound absorption measurements from 100 Hz to 5000 Hz. The test sample size requirements are from 5.5 to 6.7 m2 as per ASTM C423 and 10 to 12 m2 as per ISO 354. In the automotive sector passenger car, heavy truck, and commercial vehicle, the parts that are used are much smaller in size than the size prescribed in both the standards. The requirement is to study the critical parameters such as the chamber volume, sample size, reverberation time and cut-off frequency etc. which are affecting the sound absorption property of acoustic material.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0181
Manish Vyas, Mark Pratley
Abstract There is an increased use of elastomers in the automotive industry for sealing, noise isolation, load dampening, insulation, etc., because of their key properties of elasticity and resilience. Elastomers are used in supercharger application for dampening the torsional fluctuation from the engine, to reduce noise issues. Finite element modeling of elastomers is challenging because of its non-linear behavior in different loading directions. It also undergoes very large elemental deformation (~up to 200%), which results in additional complexities in getting numerical convergence. Finally, it also exhibits viscous and elastic behavior simultaneously (viscoelastic effect) and it undergoes softening with progressive cyclic loading (Mullins effect). The present study deals with the characterization of elastomers for its modeling in commercial finite element software packages and verification of some predicted design parameters with physical testing.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0072
Moqtik Bawase, M R Saraf
Abstract Utilization of higher ethanol blends, 20% ethanol in gasoline (E20), as an alternate fuel can provide apparent benefits like higher octane number leading to improved anti-knocking properties, higher oxygen content resulting in complete combustion. Apart from technical benefits, use of ethanol blends offer certain widespread socioeconomic benefits including option of renewable source of energy, value addition to agriculture feedstock resulting in increase in farm income, creation of more jobs in rural sector and creating job at local levels. Use of higher blends of ethanol can reduce dependence on foreign crude leading to substantial savings in cost of petroleum import. The impact of higher Gasoline-Ethanol blend (E20), on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known for assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for the complete design life of the system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0111
MY Raghu, Prashant Sharma
Abstract In recent times diesel powered vehicles are becoming popular due to improved performance and reduced exhaust emission with this the market share of diesel passenger cars expected to approach 60 % over the next few years. In compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles, it is required to use diesel particulate filters (DPF) along with other exhaust emission control devices. There is a need for more optimized DPF cell structure to collect maximum soot load with low pressure drop and improved exhaust performance from diesel vehicles in Indian driving conditions. In this thesis paper a detailed parametric study have been carried out on different DPF cell structures like Square, Hexagonal and combined cell geometry. The performances of different cell structure has been evaluated for maximum soot loading capacity and regeneration rate, pressure drop, temperature distribution across cell structure.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0094
Shi Li, Michael Stapelbroek, Jan Pfluger
Abstract With the increasing application of the lithium ion battery technology in automotive industry, development processes and validation methods for the battery management system (BMS) have drawn more and more attentions. One fundamental function of the BMS is to continuously estimate the battery’s state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) to guarantee a safe and efficient operation of the battery system. For SOC as well as SOH estimations of a BMS, there are certain non-ideal situations in a real vehicle environment such as measurement inaccuracies, variation of cell characteristics over time, etc. which will influence the outcome of battery state estimation in a negative way. Quantifying such influence factors demands extensive measurements. Therefore, we have developed a model-in-the-loop (MIL) environment which is able to simulate the operating conditions that a BMS will encounter in a vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0130
Hemant P. Urdhwareshe
Abstract In the recent times, there have been number of cases of failure to pass the COP tests. When a vehicle fails a COP test, it is very embarrassing and expensive for the manufacturer as there is a loss of faith by the society and consumers. It is also painful for the certification agency as well as government. In this context, it is important to quantify and minimize the risk associated with these tests for manufacturers as well as certification agencies. The sampling plan specified in MoRTH / CMVR / TAP-115 is designed to quickly pass vehicles which have very low emissions and quickly reject (fail) vehicles having higher emissions compared to the specified limit. These sampling plans can be classified under Probability Ratio Sequential Tests (PRST).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0322
Saktheeswaran Kasinathan, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, Rajiv Modi
Abstract In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0320
Pravin Lavangare, Ashutosh Jahagirdar, Parag Mengaji, Manish Karle, Anand Deshpande, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Ashok Kulkarni, Sreekumar Uthaman, Amol Dere
Abstract Automotive clutches form the most important component in the drive line which acts both as torque transmitter and as a fuse. Testing clutches, in the vehicle assembly, poses certain limitations. In this context the automotive clutch, as a component, needs to be evaluated to determine various performance parameters like wear, load loss, slipping torque, slipping time etc. to meet desired design, performance and durability requirements. It is very important to simulate engine and vehicle conditions in terms of operating environment, speed and load accurately while evaluating above parameters. This creates lot of challenges to design and develop a test rig capable of evaluating complete clutch performance. Very limited options are available for such test rigs worldwide. In India, no manufacturer provides such indigenous test rigs. Developing an indigenous, cost effective clutch test rig was the need of the hour.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 15301