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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3357
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1028
Daniel Bharathy, Ganesh Paramasivam
Venting for a diesel tank is an essential requirement to keep the tank stable by breathing in during suction & breathing out the excess pressure created inside because of vaporization. Vent valves with inappropriate specs affects the rate of supply of fuel during vacuum built up of pressure resulting in tank explosion or causes damage to the user during filling. Capacity of the tank, ambient temperature, environment, Return line temperature and application are the factors contribute in finalizing the venting specification. Considering these factors, study has been done on a metal & plastic fuel tank for a commercial vehicle application. Venting specification has been finalized for both plastic & metal tanks analytically. Vent valves developed and validated to meet the functional & durability requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0389
Carlo Cantoni, Giampiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi, Federico Ballo, Giorgio Previati
The durability performance of brake hoses is a crucial issue for such components. Accelerated fatigue testing of brake hoses is necessary for understanding achievable lifetime, actually computation is quite cumebersome due to the many different materials the hoses are made from. Despite SAE standards are available, accelerated testing of brake hoses subject to actual torsional and bending stresses seem important to provide relevant feedback to designers. In this paper, an innovative methodology for assessing the fatigue behaviour of brake hoses of road vehicles is proposed. A dynamic testbed is specifically designed and realised, able to reproduce the actual assembly conditions of the hoses fitted into a vehicle suspension. The designed testbed allows to replicate actual loading conditions on the brake hoses by simulating the vertical dynamics and steering of the suspension system together with brake pressure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1679
Felix Martin, Michael Deubzer
The increasing complexity of automotive real-time applications, and the challenges arising with the change to multi-core processors put higher demands on the tools which are involved in the development of such systems. With tracing it is possible to record the dynamic behavior of time-critical applications and use the data to monitor safety-critical requirements. However, not all trace techniques are sufficient for this use-case. Several factors like the available hardware, bandwidth, timing accuracy, and number of traceable objects must be considered. Additionally, traces are usually not recorded on a level that is suitable for timing analysis. Hence, a transformation of the trace may be necessary. In this paper we give an overview of existing trace techniques and discuss their applicability for the timing analysis of embedded systems. We also take limitations which may be caused by existing hardware platforms into consideration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1677
Bharathi Krishnamoorthy, Jacob Eapen, Santosh kshirsagar, Giri Nammalwar, Torsten Wulf, Miguel Mancilla
Automotive industry is witnessing a significant growth in the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) and its features owing to the focused inclination towards customer preference, comfort, safety, environmental friendliness and governmental regulations. The software components are booming as the pivotal to cater to the technology-driven trends such as diverse mobility, autonomous driving, electrification, and connectivity. This necessitates exhaustive testing to ensure quality of the system as any unpredictable failures may impose severe financial and market risk on the OEM. The industry has largely supplemented Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing to manual testing considering the testing constraints posed by the latter. Automation trends complement the demand for quick yet exhaustive testing prior to the market launch.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1683
Adit Joshi
Software for autonomous vehicles is highly complex and requires enormous amount of vehicle testing to achieve a certain level of confidence in safety, quality and reliability. According to the RAND Corporation, a 100 vehicle fleet running 24 hours a day 365 days a year at a speed of 40 km/hr, would require 17 billion driven kilometers of testing and take 518 years to fully validate the software with 85% confidence [1]. In order to reduce cost and time to accelerate autonomous software development, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used to supplement vehicle testing. For autonomous vehicles, path following and trajectory tracking controls are an integral part for achieving lateral control. Combining the aforementioned concepts, this paper focuses on a real-time implementation of a path-following lateral controller, developed by Freund and Mayr [2].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0393
Keunsoo Kim
The fuel tank should keep the fuel stably at any vehicle driving condition but sometimes, the fuel tank can’t store fuel stably due to crack because the vehicle is driven at the various environmental conditions . In case of extreme hot ambient driving condition, the fuel tank pressure is increased because of fuel boiling. In case of normal ambient temperature, before fuel boiling and large engine purge condition. The fuel tank pressure is decreased. The repetitive excessive fuel tank pressure change will lead to damage the fuel tank. The fuel tank crack can lead to fuel leakage from the fuel tank that can lead to damage the vehicle such as fire. Until now, the analysis results of the fuel tank crack is the negative pressure due to engine purge and the decreased canister venting performance because of the dust, so canister venting performance have be improved but the fuel tank crack have not been solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0801
Keith Vertin, Brent Schuchmann, William Studzinski, Richard S. Davis, Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Asim Iqbal
Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities, to improve vehicle fuel economy while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane ratings. Knock can lead to engine component damage and excessive exhaust gas temperatures that may cause thermal deactivation of catalytic convertors. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (anti-knock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the country, 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude conditions (1660m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at momentary and stabilized full power operation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0138
Chris Lim, Peter Ireland, Nicholas Collett
The analysis of thermal fields in the underhood region is complicated by the complex geometry and the influence of a multitude of different heat sources. This complexity means that running full CFD analyses to predict the thermal field in this region is both computationally expensive and time consuming. A method of predicting the thermal field using linear superposition has been developed in order to analyse the underhood region of a simplified Formula One racecar, though the technique is applicable to all vehicles. The use of linear superposition allows accurate predictions of the thermal field within a complex geometry for varying boundary conditions with negligible computational costs once the initial characterisation CFD has been run. A quarter scale, rear end model of a Formula One racecar with a simplified internal assembly is considered for analysis, though the technique can also be applied to commercial and industrial vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0453
Zane Yang
Considered in this study by the use of finite element model is a unit of assembled stator and one-way clutch (OWC) whose inner chamber is maintained at a given temperature of 150 degree C while its exterior housing surfaces are exposed to the room temperature. Two key components of dissimilar metals are assembled, as usual, at the room temperature, through the conventional interface fitting, to form a secured joint by the means of internal friction forces so that torque loads are capable to be transmitted. Due to the dissimilar materials and resulting difference in their thermal expansion coefficients, an outer component of aluminum from this joint tends to expand more than the inner component of steel when the temperature rises. This work is indented to demonstrate that using a combined thermal and structural FEA can play a pivoting role in designing not only a robust product, but also a vital test procedure that can really captures how the product functions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1002
Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda, Andreas Kolbeck, Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
Reducing engine-out particulates is one of the main issues of direct injection gasoline engines and further efforts are still needed to comply with near-future emission regulations. However, engine-out particulate emission characteristics strongly depend on fuel properties associated with the combustion design and/or calibration, due to the complicated mechanisms of particulate formation, including both physical and chemical processes. For these reasons, the purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0403
Guangqiang Wu, Huwei WU
Experimental program and considerations, frequency characteristics, subjective and objective sound quality evaluation and prediction model establishment of a certain mass-production SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle, SUV) manual transmission gear rattle phenomenon were analyzed in this paper. Firstly, vehicle experiment schemes, including experimental operating conditions, vibration acceleration sensor and microphone arrangements and especial considerations in experiments, were introduced in detail. Secondly, through coherence analysis in frequency domain and time-frequency analysis in time-frequency domain, broadband characteristics of manual transmission gear rattle vibro-impact and frequency range of 350~4500Hz were concluded on vehicle idling condition and creeping condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
The development of automotive embedded software and calibrations presently involves an expensive development cycle in terms of both time and cost. A primary reason is the associated expense and time require to apply the various technologies needed for software testing and calibration development. Early in the design cycle software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) systems are typically employed. Later stages use costly engine and vehicle hardware as part of the software test and calibration development process. During this phase propulsions systems may initially utilize dynamometers and eventually migrate to vehicle level testing. All these technologies contribute to large budgets and design times required for embedded software and calibration development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1371
Hao Pan, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Xingzhi Dong
Brake pedal feel plays an important role in the driver's comprehensive subjective feeling when braking, which directly affects the active safety and riding comfort of passenger car. In this paper, a systematical mathematical model of the vehicle brake system is built in according with the structure and system characteristics of hydraulic servo brake system. A complete hydraulic servo brake system simulation model composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake pipe, brake wheel cylinders, brake calipers is established in AMESim. The effects of rubber reaction plate stiffness, rubber valve opening, brake master cylinder piston, brake caliper, brake pipe deformation and friction liner deformation on brake pedal feel are considered in this model. The accuracy of this model is verified by real road vehicle tests under static and dynamic two different conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1066
Christoph Beerens, Alexander Mueller, Kimm Karrip
As emissions regulations and carbon footprint are more and more demandingly regulated, thermal efficiency of engine components must be optimized. Valve group components have to allow for ever increasing temperatures, endure aggressive condensate or even contribute directly to rising efficiency and emissions demands. MAHLE has developed a new technology in order to measure valve temperatures in real time, i.e. Transient Valve Temperature Measurement (TVTM). This is a complex methodology using thermocouples installed inside of the valves, offering the possibility to run the engine at different conditions, without any functional changes in the valve train system at all. Specifically valve rotation is not affected and thus temperatures all around the valve seat can be captured during rotation. The test is cost effective, using series’ components only.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1398
Yoshiyuki Hatakeyema
Because drowsy driving causes serious traffic accidents, the prevention technologies are highly required. In this study, we propose a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. The challenge of this method is to predict driver’s strong drowsiness before they feel sleepy. We pay attention to eye opening movement during driving, because overlooking hazards is one of the causes of traffic accident and is closely related to recognition and drowsiness. Hence, we attempt to predict driver’s drowsiness from eye opening time. At first, we form hypotheses of drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. We assume that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates the driver’s drowsiness and consider two types of transition, that is, the increase and decrease of SDEOP. In order to confirm our hypotheses, we investigate a relation between drowsiness and SDEOP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0174
Ravi Rungta, NOORI PANDIT
A simple, fast, and inexpensive screening corrosion test has been developed that will supplement the currently utilized SWAAT test (ASTM G85) to evaluate relative corrosion performance of condensers from various suppliers and using differing material combinations and manufacturing processes including CAB brazed Silfluxed tube, zinc sprayed tube, and bare folded tube. The SWAAT test is utilized with no failure in 21 days as the “PASS” criterion. Most condensers tend to “pass” this test which makes it difficult to compare corrosion performance of the condensers supplied by various manufacturers. This paper will present the development of test parameters and the initial results. The test replicates the mode of attack observed in SWAAT as well as field returned units.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0391
Daniel Meyer, Peter Maehling, Thomson Varghese, Jeffery Lewis
Precise and accurate engine internal combustion pressure measurements are typically built upon extremely low level piezoelectric sensor signals acquired in the laboratory. In turn, these minute signals must be conditioned accurately by electronic charge amplifiers then processed for meaningful analysis. Laboratory standard operating procedures often overlook the importance of timely and rigorous calibration of the equipment using sufficient environmental controls. In some facilities, years have been allowed between metrology-quality calibrations, introducing the potential for significant out-of-tolerance conditions and non-compliance to accredited measurement standards. Accurate and timely calibration supports the validity of using combustion data in engine design decisions, as well as avoiding development program timing delays, when additional unplanned testing becomes required.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0392
Dae-Un Sung, James Busfield, Yong Hyun Ryu
The vehicle elastomeric components such as engine mounts are aged and degraded by environmental loads during long term usage. These make the degradation of vehicle driving performance comparing with a new condition. In this study, the degradation of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) of used vehicles was analyzed. The main cause could be identified by the analysis of elastomers’ vibration insulation property changes. The properties changes of aged engine mounts were analyzed and compared with initial properties. The accelerated laboratory aging test mode was developed for simulating the degradation of engine mounts. Moreover, parametric study was carried out. The engineering design parameters of elastomers such as volume, thickness and loading types were identified to improve the thermal aging phenomenon.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0380
Liang Wang, Robert Burger, Alan Aloe
It occurs frequently that automotive components fail due to vibration excitations on the proving ground during their last phase of durability validation process. This leads to additional design release time, cost and even impact vehicle launch if a safety issue. The appearing cause of this issue is under-testing or lack of component level testing, however the root cause is that vibration fatigue is not considered during the design phase of the parts. This paper introduces aspects of vibration fatigues helping designer and release engineer better understand the requirements, testing methodologies available, and ideas for improving vibration fatigue for designing and validating their product. Several examples are given to introduce the fundamental but universal root cause of all the vibration fatigue failures. Typical vibration levels and frequency contents on varied area on automotive are introduced.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0429
Michael Holland, Jonathan Gibb, Kacper Bierzanowski, Stuart Rowell, Bo Gao, Chen Lv, Dongpu Cao
This paper outlines the procedure used to assess the performance of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) in a virtual test environment using the newly developed Euro NCAP Lane Support Systems (LSS) Test Protocol. A method to automate the testing and analysis of this test is also outlined. The Euro NCAP LSS Test defines test paths for left lane departures and ten for right lane departures that must be followed by the vehicle before the LKAS activates. Each path must be followed to within a specific tolerance. The driver inputs required to ensure the vehicle follows the test path are calculated. These tests are then run concurrently in the virtual environment by combining two different software packages. Important vehicle variables are recorded and processed, and a pass/fail status is assigned to each test automatically. Any vehicle with a LKAS, and a validated parameter set can therefore be tested and analysed automatically using this method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0381
Karthik lakshminarayanan, Dinesh Kumar Rajappan, Prasanna Elizamoses, Srinivasa Chandra V
This abstract report on data acquisition procedure followed for a critical metal bumper to be used for a commercial application and consequently the validation methodology and defining the target duration based on life of the vehicle. Covariance is considered to be a major phenomenon in proving ground data acquisition and it is be maintained less than 0.05. In this project, importance of covariance in data acquisition studied before simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial carried out to achieve failure. Proving ground tracks data is used for bi-axial vibration test and constant spectrum signal of 5 Hz to 40 Hz & 3g acceleration is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target hours for uni-axial test (Z direction) are arrived using pseudo damage calculation which helps a lot in accelerating the test duration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0447
Zhe Li, Mike Dong, Dennis Harrigan, Michael Gardner
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0390
Muhamamd Yasir, Helmut Wieser, Daniel Knoll, Simon Burger
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of material and design selection for future light weight exhaust systems. Material validation for new components usually requires various types of tests on different types of test coupons. There are varieties of corrosion test methods which are in practice since years now. Majority of these testing approaches are used to make relative ranking among different materials. In most of these tests a correlation between testing and field behavior is missing. There is also no test available in which both external as well as internal corrosion can be realized simultaneously. Additionally, none of these corrosion tests cover the design aspects of the components. To combat this challenge Faurecia has built and validated a corrosion test setup where complete exhaust silencer can be tested near to real conditions. A comparative study was performed between field parts and test parts to validate the test cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0400
Theo Rickert
Hole drilling is a very common technique for measuring residual stresses. Adding an orbiting motion of the drill was found to improve hole quality in difficult to drill materials and has been in practice for decades. The orbiting motion affects the hole shape since the drilling tool cannot make a truly flat bottom unless the tool edges reach each part of the bottom, i.e. if the holes radius is twice the tool diameter. For instance, square-end end mills leave an inverted cone on the hole bottom, which has a systematic effect on the near-surface stresses unless the coefficients account for the non-cylindrical hole shape. This paper compares measurements made with tools of several sizes and different orbiting offsets and discusses the systematic effects found.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0764
Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno, Carlo Beatrice
The paper reports the results of a wide experimental campaign aimed to assess the effects of the geometric compression ratio variation on the performance of light-duty diesel engines operated in dual-fuel NG-diesel mode in terms of fuel consumption, NVH and pollutant emissions. The single-cylinder research engine employed in the experimental campaign had a combustion system is representatives of a 2L automotive diesel engine for passenger cars. The test methodology was defined in order to analyse carefully the effects of the compression ratio, injection parameters and air throttling on the global performances and emissions, also in terms of emitted carbonaceous particles. Three pistons with different bowl volumes corresponding to compression ratio (CR) values of 16.5, 15.5 and 14.5 were selected for the whole test campaign.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0745
R. vallinayagam, S. vedharaj, Yanzhao An, Alaaeldin Dawood PhD, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. The cylinder pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and a high-speed video of the combustion process is captured through optical piston. The high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, the combustion homogeneity is investigated by advancing to early fuel injection timings. For late fuel injection timings, a direct link between fuel injection timing and combustion phasing is noticed. At advanced fuel injection timings, the start of combustion is independent of fuel injection timing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1095
Sankar B. Rengarajan, Jayant Sarlashkar, Peter Lobato
Strict government regulation of green house gases, rising corporate average fuel economy standards and high customer expectation of performance have prompted vehicle manufacturers to consider all technology options. Overall efficiency of a vehicle drivetrain can be improved by optimizing component performance – and transmission, regardless of its type, is a key component of the drivetrain. SAE Recommended Practice J1540 specifies test procedures to map torque transmission efficiency and parasitic losses in a manual transmission. The procedure comprises two parts. The first compares input and output torque over a range of speed to determine efficiency. The second measures parasitic losses at zero input torque over a range of speed. As specified in J1540, efficiency of transmissions is routinely measured on a test-stand under steady torque and speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1193
Yongcai Wang, Rajaram Subramanian, Sarav Paramasivam, George Garfinkel
The United Nations regulation for Lithium metal and lithium ion batteries section 38.3-T4 rev. 5 shock test requires that each cell or battery pack be subjected to 3 shocks in the positive direction followed by three shocks in the negative direction, of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions. This paper focuses on the no-disassembly requirement of UN 38.3-T4 under those testing conditions and on the CAE methodology specifically developed to perform this assessment. During the design phase of Ford’s current generation of air-cooled, prismatic cell lithium-ion Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), a CAE analysis method was developed to simulate this test and to assess the possibility of cell dislodging. This CAE method helped identify and diagnose the potential failure modes which helped the design team by developing a strategy to meet the required performance under UN38.3-T4 test loads.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0014
Takashi Nomura, Kazuma Kawai
The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of the automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by the mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, the component test result is sometimes different from the automobile test result. In this case, the component has to be designed again. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
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