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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2118
Sergey Alekseyenko, Michael Sinapius, Martin Schulz, Oleksandr Prykhodko
In spite of wide theoretical and experimental studies of icing problem that have been held up to recent times, nevertheless, the most dangerous flights regimes as in the presence of supercooled large droplets or in supercooled rain remain studied not enough. Also the range of parameters that corresponds to the exploitation modes of aircrafts with relatively small heights and speeds of flight like airplanes of small aviation, helicopters, UAV etc. because of the complexity of the icing processes are still not covered. The aim of this work is to answer the next question: which an actual process of interaction of supercooled large water droplets with growing ice surface at small speeds of flight and which physics of falling moisture freezing process on the icing surface is. Thus, the work presents the results of experiments conducted in order to obtain the photographic data on how the interaction between the supercooled water droplets and the icing aerodynamic surface occurs.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2125
Dan Fuleki, Jennifer L.Y. Chalmers, Brian Galeote
Ice crystal size has been shown to have a significant impact on the ice accretion phenomenon and is therefore a key variable to control and measure in a test environment. Traditional techniques and equipment used to measure particle size and morphology in the atmosphere are not easily utilized in an icing wind tunnel and in many cases, have poor performance with irregular shaped, solid, non-transparent particles. To overcome these limitations, a high magnification, non-intrusive shadowgraphy technique has been implemented at the National Research Council of Canada to measure airborne water droplet or ice particle size distributions. This system is based on a LaVision ParticleMaster platform which produces diffused laser light of uniform intensity, pulsed into a high resolution camera through a long distance microscope lens. The short duration pulses (9 ns) can produce sharp images of fast moving particles.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2116
Peter Struk, Tadas Bartkus, Jen-Ching Tsao, Tom Currie, Dan Fuleki
This paper describes ice accretion measurements from experiments conducted at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada’s Research Altitude Test Facility during 2012. Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, potential ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated collaboratively by NASA and NRC. These investigations examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions, similar to those believed to exist in core compressor regions of jet engines. A further objective of these tests is to examine scaling effects since altitude appears to play a key role in this icing process. While the 2012 experiments had multiple objectives such as cloud characterization and the evaluation of imaging techniques, several tests were dedicated to observe ice accretions using both a NACA 0012 and a wedge-shaped airfoil.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1167
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 ºC and -7 ºC), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract: Knee Bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 2 lbs), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be protected( from a 50 Kg/5ft 5th percentile female to a 100 Kg/6ft 2 in 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu, Abhijit Bansal, James C. McKeever
Abstract Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM's. Tula's Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders required to achieve desired torque. Validation of the DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. The testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM Hardware in the loop (HIL) API standard. Following the HIL-API standard gives the flexibility of choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple suppliers have developed new cordierite 10.5″ OD substrates in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications to diesel SCR markets. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides typical parameters such as product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration, thermal shock and thermal cycle tests. Flow performance before and after tests was characterized by a hot flow bench. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of multiple properties were made. Conclusions regarding their applicability and recommendations for future work are provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, Xinfeng Shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1066
Frank Adam, Jan Schoenhaber, Armin Wagner
Abstract The introduction of vehicle emission and fuel economy standards (CO2) accelerates the introduction of new platform and powertrain combinations into the market place. All of these combinations will require unique exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that comply with the current emission legislation. The optimization of each unique aftertreatment solution requires the proper application of catalyst technologies at the lowest PGM concentrations. The optimization process needs to be fast, reliable, realistic and cost attractive. It is arguable that performing the aftertreatment optimization on a chassis dynamometer is variable, time consuming and expensive. This work demonstrates how a synthetic gas bench (SGB) can be used to simulate stoichiometric engine emissions and aftertreatment performance. The SGB procedure duplicates the vehicle NEDC engine-out emissions and catalyst heat-up profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0885
Mark B. Murphy, John J. Moskwa
Abstract This paper details the development of a new dynamic Intake Air Simulator (IAS) for use on single-cylinder test engines, where the gas dynamics are controlled to accurately simulate those on a multi-cylinder engine during transient or steady-state operation. The third generation of Intake Air Simulators (IAS3) continues a development of new technology in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) that replicates the multi-cylinder engine instantaneous intake gas dynamics on the single-cylinder engine, as well as the control of other boundary conditions. This is accomplished by exactly replicating the intake runner geometry between the plenum and the engine intake valve, and dynamically controlling the instantaneous plenum pressure feeding that runner, to replicate the instantaneous multi-cylinder engine intake flow.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
Abstract Ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emissions have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. There are many different configurations of hybrid powertrains, which may include such components as engine, generator and inverter, battery pack, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter, transmission, and various control units. A hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible enough to accommodate different types of hybrid powertrain configurations and run a range of test scenarios is needed to support on-going development activities in this field. This paper describes the design and implementation of such a HiL testing system. The system is centered on a high performance, real-time controller that runs powertrain, driveline, vehicle, and driver models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1615
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, John Huber, Jeff Wallace
Ford Motor Company and Magna International Inc., co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, have collaborated on a lightweight vehicle concept project that uses advanced material solutions to achieve a nearly 25% weight savings over the reference vehicle. Lightweight design actions on radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin generate vehicle interior acoustic degradation due to the reduction of panel surface mass. In order to reduce this deficiency, an MMLV vehicle sound package development study was conducted to improve NVH performance of MMLV with industry leading ultra-light weight sound package technologies. Our goal was to improve acoustical performance of MMLV by 2 dB without increasing the total sound package weight of the “Vehicle A” which is the baseline vehicle for MMLV.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora, Rakesh Khanger
A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learnings which were accomplished for one such development processes. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1065
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Abstract Due to concern over emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG; particularly carbon dioxide - CO2), energy consumption and sustainability, many jurisdictions now regulate fuel consumption, fuel economy or exhaust emissions of CO2. Testing is carried out under laboratory conditions according to local or regional procedures. However, a harmonized global test procedure with its own test cycle has been created: the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle - WLTC. In this paper, the WLTC is compared to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the FTP-75 cycle used in the USA. A series of emissions tests were conducted at BOSMAL on a chassis dynamometer in a Euro 6-complaint test facility to determine the impact of the test cycle on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. While there are multiple differences in the test cycles in terms of dynamicity, duration, distance covered, mean/maximum speed, etc, differences in results obtained over the three test cycles were reasonably limited.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0834
Mark Sellnau, Wayne Moore, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Matthew Foster, Harry Husted
Abstract A 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDi-like injection pressures. At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while increasing exhaust temperatures greatly. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions after the oxidation catalyst were very low. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 267 g/kWh was measured at the 2000 rpm-2bar BMEP global test point.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0636
Yu Zhang, Lifu Wang, Bangji Zhang, Nong Zhang
Abstract Effectively obtaining physical parameters for vehicle dynamic model is the key to successfully performing any computer-based dynamic analysis, control strategy development or optimization. For a spring and lump mass vehicle model, which is a type of vehicle model widely used, its physical parameters include sprung mass, unsprung mass, inertial properties of the sprung mass, stiffness and damping coefficient of suspension and tire, etc. To minimize error, the paper proposes a method to estimate these parameters from vehicle modal parameters which are in turn obtained through full-car dynamic testing. To verify its effectiveness, a visual vehicle with a set of given parameters, build in the Adams(Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems)/Car environment, is used to perform the dynamic testing and provide the testing data for the parameter estimation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1342
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is very helpful for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in less time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain important information for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel by using a microscope and by using a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in accordance with Solicitation No. DTNH22-12-R-00574. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach, in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0545
Jeong Kyun Hong
Abstract As the automotive industry seeks to remove weight from vehicle chasses to meet increased fuel economy standards, it is increasingly turning to composites and aluminum. In spite of increasing demands for quality aluminum alloy spot welds that enable more fuel efficient automobiles, fatigue evaluation procedures for such welds are not well-established. This article discusses the results of an evaluation Battelle performed of the fatigue characteristics of aluminum alloy spot welds based on experimental data and observations from the literature. In comparison with spot welds in steel alloys, aluminum alloy spot welds exhibit several significant differences including a different hardness distribution at and around the weld, different fatigue failure modes, and more. The effectiveness and applicability of the Battelle structural stress-based simplified procedure for modeling and simulating automotive spot welds has previously been demonstrated by Battelle investigations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
Abstract A 3D-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to determine trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured results on the completed body unit (CBU). Since design data is used as the input, it was hypothesized that the difference between predicted and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens® Variation Analysis software, the CBU was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. In addition, the study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0556
Wenkai Li, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
Abstract As electric technique develops fast, steering system changes from conventional mechanic steering system to Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS). Flowing HPS, Electrically Controlled Steering (ECS) system, including Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Active Front Steering (AFS) system and Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. ECS makes it easy for a driver to control a steering wheel using a less torque at a low speed, which is usually called steering portability Besides, ECS could also help a driver steer a vehicle stably at a high speed, which is usually called steering stability ECS provides an optional method to solve the contradiction between steering portability and steering stability. [1] [2] The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on. Researches of ECS need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) and real vehicles.
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