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2017-10-21
WIP Standard
J1469
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures and methods for testing service, spring applied parking, and combination brake actuators with respect to durability, function, and environmental performance. A minimum of six test units designated A, B, C, D, E, and F are to be used to perform all tests per 1.1 and 1.2.
CURRENT
2017-10-18
Standard
J1939/84_201710
The purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles and/or components are capable of communicating a required set of information, in accordance with the diagnostic messages specified in SAE J1939-73, to fulfill the off-board diagnostic tool interface requirements contained in the government regulations cited below. This document describes the tests, methods, and results for verifying diagnostic communications from an off board diagnostic tool (i.e., scan tool) to a vehicle and/or component. SAE members have generated this document to serve as a guide for testing vehicles for compliance with ARB and other requirements for emissions-related on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions for heavy duty engines used in medium and heavy duty vehicles. The development of HD OBD regulations by US EPA and California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) require that diagnostic message services are exercised to evaluate diagnostic communication standardization requirements on production vehicles.
2017-10-14
WIP Standard
AS5127C
This standard describes the accepted methods used for preparing aerospace sealant test specimens for qualification and quality conformance or acceptance testing. AS5127/1 and AS5127/2 are to be used in conjunction with this document and the applicable AMS specifications.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5013
G. Magendran
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
CURRENT
2017-10-11
Standard
AS6089
This document was prepared by the SAE AS-1A2 Committee to establish techniques for validating the Network Controller (NC) complies with the NC requirements specified in AS5653, Revision B. Note that this verification document only verifies the specific requirements from AS5653 and does not verify all of the requirements invoked by documents that are referenced by AS5653. The procuring authority may require further testing to verify the requirements not explicitly defined in AS5653 and in this verification document.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
AIR6504
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a method for assessing particle losses that occur in a sampling system of specified geometry based on the nvPM mass and number measured at the end of the sampling system. Both size dependent diffusion loss and size independent thermophoretic loss mechanisms are included in the method. The penetration function of that system must be determined by measurement and/or by computation using an analytical method as described within this report. The outcome of this line loss assessment provides estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentration with associated uncertainties based upon nvPM measurement uncertainties and method assumptions. These correction factors give an estimation of nvPM mass and number values at the inlet to the sampling system.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
ARP5945A
The purpose of this ARP is to provide the sample selection criteria and test procedures for SAE Type I aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids, required for the generation of endurance time data of acceptable quality for review by the SAE G 12 Holdover Time Subcommittee. A significant body of previous research and testing has indicated that all Type I fluids formulated with glycol perform in a similar manner from an endurance time perspective. This applies to Type I deicing/anti-icing fluids formulated with propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol only. Type I deicing/anti-icing fluids containing these glycol bases no longer require testing for endurance times. The methods described in this ARP shall be employed, however, if endurance time testing of a glycol-based Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid is desired or requested by a fluid manufacturer, operator or other organization.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
ARP6207
This document describes: 1) the preparatory steps to test experimental Type I fluids according to AMS1424; 2) the recommendations for the preparation of samples for endurance time testing according to ARP5945; 3) a short description of recommended field spray test; 4) the protocol to generate draft holdover time guidelines from endurance time data as obtained from ARP5945; 5) the role of the SAE G-12 Fluids Subcommittee; 6) the role of the SAE G-12 Holdover Time Subcommittee; 7) the process for the publication of holdover time guidelines and FAA/Transport Canada list of fluids.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
J551/16_201710
Vehicle electrical/electronic systems may be affected when immersed in an electromagnetic field generated by sources such as radio and TV broadcast stations, radar and communication sites, mobile transmitters, cellular phones, etc. This part of SAE J551 specifies off-vehicle radiated source test methods and procedures for testing passenger cars and commercial vehicles within a Reverberation Chamber. The method is used to evaluate the immunity of vehicle mounted electronic devices in the frequency range of 80 MHz to 2 GHz, with possible extensions 20 MHz to 10 GHz, depending upon chamber size and construction. Three methods for calibrating and applying electromagnetic fields are described in the document: 1) Mode Tuned Reverberation Chamber method, 2) Mode Stir (Standard) Reverberation Chamber method and 3) Mode Stir (Hybrid) Reverberation Chamber method.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
ARP5485B
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide the sample selection and endurance time test procedures, for SAE Type II, III, and IV aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids, required for the generation of endurance time data of acceptable quality for review by the SAE G 12 Holdover Time Subcommittee.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
J1113/27_201710
1.1 Vehicle electrical/electronic systems may be affected when immersed in an electromagnetic field generated by sources such as radio and TV broadcast stations, radar and communication sites, mobile transmitters, cellular phones, etc. The reverberation method is used to evaluate the immunity of electronic devices in the frequency range of 500 MHz to 2.0 GHz, with possible extensions to 200 MHz and 10 GHz, depending upon chamber size and construction. Optional pulse modulation testing at HIRF (High Intensity Radiated Fields) test levels, based upon currently known environmental threats, has been added to this revision of the standard. This document addresses the Mode Stir (Continuous Stirring) Reverberation testing method which has been successfully utilized as a design and production stage development tool for many years.
CURRENT
2017-10-10
Standard
J2664_201710
This SAE Information Report establishes a consistent procedure for measuring and analyzing the natural sway response of a particular trailer when attached to a particular vehicle under specific loading and operating conditions. This test procedure applies, but is not limited to, passenger cars, vans, light/medium-duty trucks as tow vehicles, and semitrailers with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of 11794 kg (26000 pounds) or less. Other applications include full trailers, tow dollies, tow bars, and the like. Other articulated vehicles can utilize this test procedure as long as the test does not exceed the linear behavior of the system. This test procedure does not apply to motorcycles towing trailers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2332
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2354
Dave Horstman, John Sparrow
Abstract Due to recent legislation on CO2 emissions, Heavy Duty engine and vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers have had an increased interest in improving vehicle fuel economy. Many aspects are being investigated including vehicle aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, waste heat recovery, engine fuel efficiency, and others. Crankcase oils offer a cost-effective mechanism to reduce engine friction and increase engine fuel efficiency. The potential gains realized by optimized fuel-efficient oils are relatively small, usually less than 3%. Therefore, in order to develop these oils, formulators must have a robust, repeatable, and realistic test method for differentiation. To serve Light Duty (LD) engines, this need has been partially satisfied by the development of what became the Sequence VI engine test for gasoline passenger car oils in the early 1990’s.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2349
Sarita Seth, Swamy Maloth, Prashant Kumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Lokesh Kumar, Rajendra Mahapatra, Sarita Garg, Deepak Saxena, R Suresh, SSV Ramakumar
Abstract Automobile OEMs are looking for improving fuel economy[1,2] of their vehicles by reducing weight, rolling resistance and improving engine and transmission efficiency apart from the aerodynamic design. Fuel economy may be improved by using appropriate low viscosity [3] and use of friction reducers (FRs)[4,5] in the engine oils. The concept of high viscosity index [6] is being used for achieving right viscosity at required operating temperatures. In this paper performance properties of High Viscosity Index engine oils have been compared with conventional VI engine oils. Efforts have been made to check the key differentiation in oil properties w.r.t. low temperature fluidity, high temperature high shear viscosity/deposits, friction behavior, oxidation performance in bench tribological /engine/chassis dyno tests which finally lead to oil performance assessment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2361
David R. Lancaster
Abstract Virtually all developed countries regulate light-duty vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Those regulations rely on different procedures and driving cycles in testing to different standards in different countries. As a result, it is often very difficult to compare the standards imposed by different countries. This paper utilizes publicly available data to compare the energy requirements of the chassis dynamometer driving cycles in common use throughout the world. It also examines the relative severity of the currently existing light duty vehicle CO2 standards, some of which are mass-based with a targeted fleet average, and some of which are individual vehicle targets based on footprint.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2294
Julien Gueit, Jerome Obiols
Abstract In order to be ever more fuel efficient the use of Direct Injection (DI) is becoming standard in spark ignition engines. When associated with efficient turbochargers it has generated a significant increase in the overall performance of these engines. These hardware developments lead to increased stresses placed upon the fuel and the fuel injection system: for example injection pressures increased up to 400 bar, increased fuel and nozzle temperatures and contact with the flame in the combustion chamber. DISI injectors are thus subjected to undesirable deposit formation which can have detrimental consequences on engine operation such as reduced power, EOBD (Engine On Board Diagnostics) issues, impaired driveability and increased particulate emissions. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of DI spark ignition engines to fuel-related injector deposit formation, a new engine test procedure has been developed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Abstract Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2404
Douglas Ball, David Lewis, David Moser, Sanket Nipunage
Abstract Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were measured on a 2009 4 cylinder 2.4L Malibu PZEV vehicle with 10 and 30ppm sulfur fuel while varying the PGM (Platinum Group Metals) of the close-coupled and underfloor converters. Base CARB PH-III certification fuel was used. Three consecutive FTPs were used to measure the impact of fuel sulfur and catalyst PGM loading combinations. In general, reducing fuel sulfur and increasing catalyst PGM loadings, decrease FTP emissions. Increasing Pd concentrations can mitigate the impact of higher fuel sulfur concentrations. The results also suggest that a 50% reduction in PGM can be achieved with a reduction in fuel sulfur from 30 to 10 ppm. On average, NMHC, CO and NOx emissions were reduced by 12, 49 and 64%, respectively with the 10 ppm sulfur fuel. In addition, HC and NOx vehicle emission variability were reduced by 74 and 57% with the 10 ppm sulfur fuel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2432
Xiangwang Li, Weimin Wang, Xiongcai Zou, Zhiming Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Shemin Zhang, Tao Chen, Yuhuang Cao, Yuanda Chen
Abstract In order to reduce emissions, size and manufacturing cost, integrated exhaust manifold become popular in gasoline engine, especially in three-cylinder engine. Moreover, due to shorter length, lighter weight, and less component connections, the exhaust manifold and hot end durability will improve apparently. In this work, an advanced cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold is adopted in a three-cylinder turbo engine. Because of this integration characteristic, the gas retain in cylinder head longer and the temperature reach higher level than normal cylinder head, which will cause thermal fatigue failure more easily. To validate the exhaust manifold and hot end durability, series simulation and test validation work have been done. Firstly, overall steady state and transient temperature simulation was done for global model. For turbocharger, in order to simulate the outlet turbulent flow and 3d rotation, a code was compiled to define this 3d rotation.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
Abstract In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2296
Andreas Glawar, Fabian Volkmer, Yanyun Wu, Adrian Groves
Abstract Driven by increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 and fuel economy regulations, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are enjoying rapidly increasing market penetration. Already more than 50% of newly produced vehicles in the US and western Europe employ direct-injection technology and many markets in Asia are also seeing an increasingly rapid uptake. However, with the adoption of GDI engine technology, which is able to push the boundaries of engine efficiency, new challenges are starting to arise such as injector nozzle deposits, which can adversely affect performance. Multi-hole solenoid actuated fuel injectors are particularly vulnerable to deposits formed when operated on some market fuels. In order to address this challenge, the development of a reliable industry test platform for injector cleanliness in GDI engines is currently underway in both the US and Europe.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Abstract Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2341
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
Abstract Countries from every region in the world have set aggressive fuel economy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet these requirements, automakers are using combinations of technologies throughout the vehicle drivetrain to improve efficiency. One of the most efficient types of gasoline engine technologies is the turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The market share of TGDI engines within North America and globally has been steadily increasing since 2008. TGDI engines can operate at higher temperature and under higher loads. As a result, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced additional engine tests to regional and OEM engine oil specifications to ensure performance of TGDI engines is maintained. One such engine test, the General Motors turbocharger coking (GMTC) test (originally referred to as the GM Turbo Charger Deposit Test), evaluates the potential of engine oil to protect turbochargers from deposit build-up.
CURRENT
2017-10-03
Standard
J1965_201710
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to fasteners/fixing nuts as specified in SAE J694 and SAE J1835 used for disc wheels and demountable rim attachment respectively. Only the test methods necessary to ensure proper wheel or rim assembly are specified. Fasteners for less common and special applications are not included.
2017-09-28
Magazine
Using Thermal Simulation to Model the Effects of Wind on the Mars Curiosity Rover Quality and Validation of Digital Designs for Aerospace and Defense Scaling LiDAR Optical Payloads from Drones to Miniature UAVs Using Sintered Fiber Metal Composites for Aircraft Acoustic Attenuation GaN Breaks Barriers RF Power Amplifiers Go Wide and High Test System Ensures Flawless Performance of Military RF Devices The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography Remote physiological measurement technique leverages digital cameras to recover the blood volume pulse from the human body. Sensitivity Simulation of Compressed Sensing Based Electronic Warfare Receiver Using Orthogonal Matching Pursuit Algorithm Calculate the sensitivity of a CS based EW receiver using two modulation schemes.
CURRENT
2017-09-27
Standard
ARP4763
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended as a guide to define the requirements for aerospace hydraulic relief valves, including details pertinent to the design, performance, fabrication, and testing of the relief valves.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1992
Qin Xia, Jianli Duan, Feng Gao, Tao Chen, Cai Yang
Abstract ADAS must be tested thoroughly before they can be deployed for series production. Comparing with road and field test, bench test has been widely used owing to its advantages of less labor costs, more controllable scenarios, etc. However, there is no satisfied systematic approach to generate high-efficiency and full-coverage test scenarios automatically because of its integration of human, vehicle and traffic. Most of the test scenarios generated by the existing methods are either too simple or too few to be able to achieve full coverage of requirements. Besides, the cost is high when the ET method is used. To solve the aforementioned problems, an automatic test scenario generation method based on complexity for bench test is presented in this paper. Firstly, considering the fact that the device is easier to malfunction under complex cases, an index measuring the complexity of test case is proposed by using the method of AHP.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1993
Daoyuan Sun, Xiaofei Pei, Xu Hu, Hao Pan, Bo Yang
Abstract This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
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