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2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2558
Qiyou Deng, Richard Burke
Abstract Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell. Varying frequency sinusoidal signals were applied to the compressor and turbine pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperature to drive the physic model.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2667
Ida Truedsson, William Cannella, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner
Abstract This study examines fuel auto-ignitability and shows a method for determining fuel performance for HCCI combustion by doing engine experiments. Previous methods proposed for characterizing HCCI fuel performance were assessed in this study and found not able to predict required compression ratio for HCCI auto-ignition (CRAI) at a set combustion phasing. The previous indices that were studied were the Octane Index (OI), developed by Kalghatgi, and the HCCI Index, developed by Shibata and Urushihara. Fuels with the same OI or HCCI Index were seen to correspond to a wide range of compression ratios in these experiments, so a new way to describe HCCI fuel performance was sought. The Lund-Chevron HCCI Number was developed, using fuel testing in a CFR engine just as for the indices for spark ignition (research octane number and motor octane number, RON and MON) and compression ignition (cetane number, CN). By running the engine in HCCI mode, the required compression ratio for achieving auto-ignition with a combustion phasing of CA50 3° after TDC was determined for various gasoline surrogate fuels prepared from blends of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2840
Juan J. Hernández, Rosario Ballesteros, Javier Barba, José Guillén-Flores
Abstract In order to reduce the pollutant emissions (NOx and PM) of diesel engines, the addition of small gaseous fuel amounts or dual mode operation have been proved as potential techniques. This paper is focused on a detailed characterization of the particles emitted from a single cylinder diesel engine when part of the diesel fuel (5 to 20% by energy) is replaced by a gaseous fuel (producer gas, mainly composed by H2, CO, CH4 and inert compounds) coming from biomass steam gasification. The engine was run at constant speed and torque and different EGR rates. Particle samples were collected by means of fiber glass filters placed in a dilution mini-tunnel. Simultaneously, during tests, part of the exhaust gas was conducted to an SMPS to determine the particle size distribution. The filters were analyzed by using two different techniques: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the volatile organic fraction (VOF) and the soot concentration, and Soxhlet extraction/High Performances Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) to speciate PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2664
Akira Iijima, Naoya Ito, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Knocking combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a test engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The purpose was to make clear the detailed characteristics of knocking combustion that occurs accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations when a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is operated at high loads. Knocking combustion was intentionally induced by varying the main combustion period and engine speed. Under such conditions, knocking in HCCI combustion was investigated in detail on the basis of cylinder pressure analysis, high-speed photography of the combustion flame and spectroscopic measurement of flame light emissions. The results revealed that locally occurring autoignition took place rapidly at multiple locations in the cylinder when knocking combustion occurred. In that process, the unburned end gas subsequently underwent even more rapid autoignition, giving rise to cylinder pressure oscillations. In addition, when the engine speed and main combustion period were varied, it was found that the intensity of the cylinder pressure oscillations, i.e., knocking intensity PKI, correlated strongly with the maximum pressure rise rate per unit time dP/dtmax [MPa/msec].
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2642
Masaki Kuribayashi, Yuta Mizutani, Yutaro Ishizuka, Natsuki Taki, Tetsuya Aizawa
Abstract For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in diesel combustion, effects of ambient oxygen concentration on in-flame diesel soot particle properties including concentration, size, number density and morphology were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel via simultaneous LII (Laser-Induced Incandescence) / LS (Laser Scattering) imaging techniques and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) analysis. An analysis of LII and LS images yielded 2-dimensional distribution images of concentration, size and number density of soot particles in diesel spray flame, based on a practical assumption that LII and LS signals are proportional to the soot particle size to the power of 3 and 6, respectively. The laser measurements and TEM analysis results of soot particles directly sampled in the diesel spray flame showed a consistent general trend that in the case of 21% ambient O2 concentration soot is formed earlier in the upstream region and disappears earlier due to faster oxidation, while in the case of 15% ambient O2 concentration, soot is formed later in more downstream region and disappears more slowly.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2811
Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Martin Pechout, Michael Fenkl
Abstract The paper focuses on portable “on-board” instrumentation and methods for evaluation of exhaust emissions from scooters and various small machinery under real-world driving conditions. Two approaches are investigated here. In one, a miniature on-board system mounted on the equipment itself performs online measurements of the concentrations of the pollutants of interest (HC, CO, CO2, NOx, some property of particulate matter), and measurement or computation of the intake air flow. This approach has been used on a 50 cm3 scooter fitted with a 14-kg on-board system and driven on local routes. Measured concentrations of gaseous compounds, particle mass and total particle length were multiplied with the corresponding intake air flow computed from measured engine rpm, intake air manifold pressure and temperature. In the second approach, a full-flow dilution tunnel, gas analyzers and particle measurement or sampling devices are mounted on an accompanying hand cart or vehicle. This approach has been used with weedeaters, chainsaws, and lawnmowers.
2014-10-08
Standard
ARP6200
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the recommended tests and their associated test means for commercial aircraft hydraulic systems at the system level that are required to demonstrate compliance with the 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS 25 airworthiness regulations, and to show that the required level of maturity at the aircraft entry into service (EIS) has been achieved.
2014-10-08
Standard
AS5127/1C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) describes test methods to determine the application and performance properties of two-component sealing compounds. It shall be used in conjunction with AS5127 and the applicable material specification. When modifications to these test methods are called out in material specifications, the material specification shall take precedence.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2306
Mathialagan Balaji, Hemant Bhatkar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar, Ananthan Anbazhagan, Pramod Palkar
Abstract Rear axles are subjected to bending and torsion loads out of which Bending loads are predominant. In case of Off road vehicles Bi Axial- combination of Bending and torsion loads were predominant, because of axle construction and vehicle usage pattern. Defined test procedures are available for bending durability and torsional durability evaluation of axles. In this experiment, new test methodology was developed for Bi Axial durability evaluation of Off road vehicle rear axle with single servo hydraulic linear actuator. For creating Bi Axial load condition, we may need multiple actuators and complicated fixtures. Axle wheel end is constrained at an angle with suitable fixtures for creating the bending and torsional forces together in the axle. Servo hydraulic linear actuator with suitable loading arm is used for applying the test torque in the axle input flange. Vehicle parameters like Engine torque, wheel reaction, axle ratio and wheel static loaded radius (SLR) etc., used for arriving the test specification.
2014-09-30
Standard
J2932_201409
This document provides test performance requirements for air disc brake actuators for service and combination service parking brake actuators with respect to function, durability and environmental performance when tested according to SAE J2902.
2014-09-29
Standard
J1374_201409
Applies to hydraulic seals used to seal the rods of hydraulic cylinders which are components of Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2521
Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Carlos Agudelo, Shanglei Li, Harald Abendroth, Karl-Heinz Wollenweber, Achim Reich
Abstract The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests. With multiple companies (or programs) developing and assessing the friction coefficient and friction behavior under different methods, it is inevitable to avoid conflicts of performance requirements or lack of reproducibility or correlation of test results under different test methods.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2523
Nils Perzborn, Carlos Agudelo, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Abstract Inertia dynamometers are commonly used to determine the friction coefficient of brake assemblies. Dynamometers are a well-established platform, allow testing under controlled conditions, exhibit a good correlation to many situations encountered in real driving, and are comparatively economical and less time-consuming than full vehicle test. On the other side of the spectrum is the use of scaled tribometer. These test systems make possible a test without the entire brake corner. This separation allows the investigation of the frictional-contact only (frictional boundary layer) speedily and independently of a given brake system or vehicle configuration. As the two test systems (inertia dynamometers and tribometers) may have different users with possibly different tasks, the question remains regarding how comparable the two systems are. These issues provide incentives to better define the fields of investigations, correlation, and applicability for the two systems. In order to provide further insights and learning on this topic, this paper focuses on the measurement of the friction coefficient and the wear behavior using inertia dynamometer and scaled pin-on-disc tribometer testing.
2014-09-23
Standard
J883_201409
This test method can be used to determine the dimensional stability of textile materials and vinyl-coated fabrics when subjected to conditions which cause changes in the moisture content of the materials.
2014-09-09
Standard
J1330_201409
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to list and explain major equipment, instrumentation, and procedure variables which can affect inter-laboratory differences and repeatability of photometric measurements of various lighting devices listed in SAE Technical Reports. The accuracy guidelines listed in the report are for the purpose of controlling variables that are not a direct function of the lighting device being measured. The control of these individual variables is necessary to control the overall accuracy of photometric measurements. These accuracy guidelines apply to the measurement of the luminous intensities and reflected intensities of devices at the specified geometrically distributed test points and areas. These guidelines do not apply to photometric equipment used to measure license plate lamps.
2014-09-09
Standard
J2522_201409
This SAE Recommended Practice defines an Inertia Dynamometer Test procedure that assesses the effectiveness behavior of a friction material with regard to pressure, temperature and speed for motor vehicles fitted with hydraulic brake actuation. The main purpose of SAE J2522 is to compare friction materials under the most equal conditions possible. To account for the cooling behavior of different test stands, the fade sections are temperature-controlled.
2014-07-24
Standard
J2382_201407
Scope—Traditional methods of photometry rely on the use of a goniometer to rotate the test item around two axes at right angles. This method is satisfactory for most situations but has certain disadvantages: a. Point-by-point measurements with a goniometer may be slow. With more advanced requirements, particularly for headlamps, where the entire beam pattern is of concern, isocandela measurements are becoming increasingly needed. Such testing can be very time consuming. b. For production quality assurance, the speed of a goniometer may not allow testing to keep pace with the production line if a large quantity of lamps must be sampled. c. High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps are becoming commonly used. Such lamps are orientation sensitive, changing in both lumen output and intensity distribution when tilted. This can introduce significant inaccuracies in test results when testing is performed using a goniometer. There is a need for alternative test techniques which can achieve very high speed data acquisition, the capture of full isocandela distribution, and the elimination of lamp tilting.
2014-07-08
Standard
ARP5088B
The test method describes the procedure for determination of the total acid number of new and degraded polyol ester and diester based gas turbine lubricants by potentiometric titration technique. The method was validated to cover an acidity range 0.05 to 6.0 mg KOH g-1. The method may also be suitable for the determination of acidities outside of this range and for other classes of lubricant.
2014-06-26
WIP Standard
J3100
This recommended practice describes the application of digital cameras to measurement of photometric quantities in the photometric laboratory.
2014-05-23
WIP Standard
J2020
This test method specifies the operating conditions for a fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) and condensation apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive exterior components. Specimen preparation, test duration, and performance evaluation procedures are addressed by each automotive manufacturerÕs material specifications. This SAE Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this document to consult and establish appropriate and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Significance and Use This test method is designed to simulate extreme environmental conditions encountered on the outside of an automobile due to sunlight, heat, and to provide an acceleration of exposure for the purpose of predicting the performance of exterior automotive materials. Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions reported in this method are nominal.
2014-05-20
Standard
J1531_201405
This procedure is used to determine seam strength and seam fatigue of automotive textiles, vinyl coated fabrics and related soft trim materials.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0019
Eraldo de Jesus Soares, Alan M. Oliva, Camilo A. Adas, Fernando C. Dusi, Paulo Sergio P. Santos, Marco A. Fogaça Accurso, Marcus Kliewer
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to show a multiaxial bench test for static and dynamic testing of leaf springs for suspension of commercial vehicles. The bench test simulates the critical operating conditions (track, ramp, speed bump on track, curves and braking), with stroke control for strength and deformation analysis. One of the main advantages in bench test is to reduce the time of the test, its repeatability, its cost saving and monitoring its performance through inspections and graphic records. The aim of the test is to evaluate the behavior in durability of the components, to analyze the possible failure mode and to be able to approve or reject the component based on the test's results. Criteria were set to accelerate the test by comparing signals measured on the field and bench test with deflection by stress curves. These criteria were maintained under extreme conditions for longer than the observed in previous and real applications. With this, the low incidence of strength and stroke is measured by optimizing the time of the test.
2014-04-30
WIP Standard
J577
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures, and information to conduct vibration (impact) tests on lighting devices and their components as well as other safety equipment used on vehicles.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0034
Y. S. Thipse
Abstract Designers and analysts need to compare and conduct synthesis for selection of materials based on their properties involving simulation, optimization and correlation with test data. An example is that of acoustic material properties such as random and normal incidence sound absorption coefficient and sound transmission loss. The international test standards necessitate having standard operating procedures for characterization of these materials. This procedure is quite involved and addresses steps including test data acquisition, post processing, calculations, classification, report generation and most importantly, storage of such innumerable material properties in a structured manner to facilitate ease of retrieval and updating of properties. It is also highly desirable to have a synergy of the databank directly with simulation tools. Further, all of these steps need to be accurate, non-speculative and quick. In order to address all these diverse requirements, three cases of powerful knowledge based utilities are hereby presented.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0032
Christian Fischer, Rainer Wagener, Tobias Melz, Heinz Kaufmann
Abstract The fatigue life approach is the main topic of structural durability. Improved methods for the numerical fatigue analysis should be based on experimental results. In some fields of material testing progress in research are very hard to achieve. Especially the regime of amplitudes below the knee point of the SN-curve with a huge number of load cycles to failure is one of these challenges with respect to fatigue tests. With standard testing devices, 108 to 1010 cycles cannot be achieved in a reasonable time span because of their low and limited testing frequencies or their inflexible control systems concerning variable amplitude loading. For this reason, a new piezo based testing facility has been developed by Fraunhofer LBF which is capable to master this challenge. Built up with a high performance piezo actuator and a specially designed high frequency load frame this testing facility enables test frequencies up to 1.000Hz and locking forces of 10kN. The control technique realises variable load amplitudes as well as variable frequencies to test materials under realistic load sequences.
2014-04-25
Standard
J1113/4_201404
This SAE Standard defines a method for evaluating the immunity of automotive electrical/electronic devices to radiated electromagnetic fields coupled to the vehicle wiring harness. The method, called Bulk Current Injection (BCI), uses a current probe to inject RF onto the wiring harness in the frequency range of 1 to 400 MHz. BCI is one of a number of test methods that can be used to simulate the electromagnetic field.
2014-04-16
Standard
J1113/26_201404
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the recommended testing techniques for the determination of electric field immunity of an automotive electronic device when the device and its wiring harness is exposed to a power line electric field. This technique uses a parallel plate field generator and a high voltage, low current voltage source to produce the field.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0724
Derek R. Braden, David M. Harvey
Abstract There is a continual growth of test and validation in high reliability product applications such as automotive, military and avionics. Principally this is driven by the increased use and complexity of electronic systems deployed in vehicles, in addition to end user reliability expectations. Higher reliability expectations consequently driving increased test durations. Furthermore product development cycles continue to reduce, resulting in less available time to perform accelerated life tests. The challenge for automotive electronic suppliers is performing life tests in a shorter period of time whilst reducing the overall associated costs of validation testing. In this paper, the application of prognostic and health monitoring techniques are examined and a novel approach to the validation and testing of automotive electronics proposed which it is suggested may be more cost effective and efficient than traditional testing. The holistic method explored in this paper fuses real time test data obtained during the monitoring of products throughout an environmental exposure with key factors from manufacturing and product design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0723
Valerie Earlene Bumbaca
Abstract Virtually every major automaker has announced intentions of producing an electric vehicle (EV). Hyundai Motor Group has also announced plans to sell an electric vehicle in the next several years. There is strong and increasing support for electric vehicles in the USA due to an interest in protecting the environment, limiting dependence on oil, and reducing the associated cost of petroleum-based transportation. From a durability perspective, battery performance and longevity are significant concerns. In order to better prepare for upcoming electric vehicles, Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc (HATCI) Vehicle Evaluation group is developing an EV durability test and battery lifecycle laboratory test based on real world EV customer usage. Since there is limited availability of real world customer information for electric vehicles, a program has been started to collect EV customer usage data. This will be correlated with test inputs for both road and lab testing. An outside vendor has been contracted to collect data on customer usage from existing Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt customers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0936
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling. The simple rectangular block at two different speeds and three immersion depths in water was utilized for the purpose.
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