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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1066
Frank Adam, Jan Schoenhaber, Armin Wagner
The introduction of vehicle emission and fuel economy standards (CO2) accelerates the introduction of new platform and powertrain combinations into the market place. All of these combinations will require unique exhaust gas aftertreatment systems that comply with the current emission legislation. The optimization of each unique aftertreatment solution requires the proper application of catalyst technologies at the lowest PGM concentrations. The optimization process needs to be fast, reliable, realistic, and cost attractive. It is arguable that performing the aftertreatment optimization on a chassis dynamometer is variable, time consuming and expensive. This work demonstrates how a synthetic gas bench (SGB) can be used to simulate stoichiometric engine emissions and aftertreatment performance. The SGB procedure duplicates the vehicle NEDC engine-out emissions and catalyst heat-up profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
The ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emission have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. Hybrid powertrains are of many different configurations and may include such components as hybrid controller, engine, transmission, generator, battery and battery management system, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter etc. A Hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible and can be used for different types of hybrid powertrain configurations is greatly desired. This paper describes the design and implementation of a HiL testing system that can be used for testing various hybrid powertrain configurations and as few or as many of the powertrain components. The system is centered on a high performance real time controller that runs necessary driver, powertrain, driveline, and vehicle models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, Xinfeng Shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1167
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Stefano Vianelli, Fernando Ortenzi, Antonino Genovese
The experimental measurement of the energy consumption and efficiency of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are key topics to determine their usability and performance in real-world conditions. This paper aims to present the results of a test campaign carried out on a BEV, representative of the most common technology available today on the market. The vehicle is a 5-seat car, equipped with an 80 kW synchronous electric motor powered by a 24 kWh Li-Ion battery. The description and discussion of the experimental results is split into 2 parts: Part 1 focuses on laboratory tests, whereas Part 2 focuses on the on-road tests. As far as the laboratory tests are concerned, the vehicle has been tested over three different driving cycles (i.e. NEDC, WLTC and WMTC) at two different ambient temperatures (namely +25 ºC and -7 ºC), with and without the use of the cabin heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple types of new substrates were developed in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides normal product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration and thermal cycle tests. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of these properties were made. Conclusions regarding to their applicability were provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
The Depth Limits of Eddy Current Testing for Defects: A Computational Investigation and Smooth-shaped Defect Synthesis from Finite Element Optimization T. Mathialakan, V.U. Karthik, and S.R.H. Hoole* Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. *Correspondence: srhhoole@gmail.com Eddy current testing (ECT) is a widely accepted, cheap and portable method for the detection of cracks and other defects in conductive materials. While ECT is a favorite with engineers for surface defect identification through nondestructive evaluation (NDE), for more deeply embedded defects the literature is vague, with statements such as low frequency testing being able to distinguish “all the different levels” of corrosion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0599
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Aditya Gupta, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influences the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake, compression and exhaust stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1625
Frederic Boissinot, Jerome Bellavoine, Andrew Shabashevich, Siegfried Puster
In today’s competitive automotive market, car manufacturers and transmission suppliers are challenged with an increasing number of powertrain variants and complexity of controls software. They are facing internal pressure to provide mature and refined calibrations earlier and earlier in the development process. Until now, it has been difficult to respond to these requests as the calibration tasks linked to drivability are still mostly done in vehicles. This paper describes a new methodology designed to answer these challenges by performing automated shift quality calibration for transmissions prior to the availability of test vehicles. This procedure allows development of accurate and representative transmission calibrations focused on drivability by using a powertrain dynamometer coupled with a real-time vehicle dynamics model. By using a Power Train Test Bed (PTTB), a physical vehicle is not required.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
As the electric technique develops fast, steering systems change from conventional mechanic steering systems to electrically controlled steering (ECS) systems, including electric power (EPS) system, active front steering (AFS) system and steer-by-wire (SBW) system. ECS could improve vehicles’ steering portability at a low speed and handing stability at a high speed. The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on, which need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on hard-ware-in-the-loop (HIL) and real vehicles. Because tests on real vehicles have many short cuts, such as a higher cost, a longer period, etc. HIL is gradually taking the place of real vehicles to carry out kinds of experiments in order to reduce test times, cycles and cost, which has been a main means to research and develop ECS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract: Knee Bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 2 lbs), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be protected( from a 50 Kg/5ft 5th percentile female to a 100 Kg/6ft 2 in 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora, Rakesh Khanger
A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learnings which were accomplished for one such development processes. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0171
Paul Liu, Abhijit Bansal, James C. McKeever
Abstract Automated software testing for both hardware and software components is one of the ways industry is gaining efficiency in testing. A standard based approach can help in reducing the dependency on one particular tool chain, reduce re-training of engineers, reducing development time and increase collaboration between supplier and OEM's. Tula's Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) technology achieves fuel efficiency by activating only the required cylinders required to achieve desired torque. Validation of the DSF algorithms requires reading of the crank, cam, spark, fuel injector, and intake and exhaust actuator positions on an individual cylinder firing opportunity. Decisions made on a cylinder by cylinder basis can be validated. The testing architecture at its core is based on the ASAM Hardware in the loop (HIL) API standard. Following the HIL-API standard gives the flexibility of choosing the best in class measurement hardware and test case management tools.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0834
Mark Sellnau, Wayne Moore, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Matthew Foster, Harry Husted
A 1.8L Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDI-like injection pressures. The engine features a pentroof combustion chamber, central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and low swirl and squish. The piston and bowl shape were matched with the injection system. The fuel injection, valvetrain, and boost systems were key technology enablers. This high-compression gasoline engine concept, without classic knock or preignition constraints, may be downsized, downspeeded, and uploaded to achieve the most efficient engine operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1342
Christoph Huber, Bernhard Weigand, Heinrich Reister, Thomas Binner
A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is very helpful for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in less time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain important information for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel by using a microscope and by using a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in accordance with Solicitation No. DTNH22-12-R-00574. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach, in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1517
David Stalnaker, Ke-Jun Xie, Terence Wei
Tire manufacturers need to perform various types of testing to determine tire performance under representative vehicle load conditions. However, test results are influenced by a number of external variables other than tire construction. Vehicle load distribution and suspension properties are some of those external variables which can have a significant effect on tire wear rate and durability. Therefore, in order to measure tire performance in a controlled and repeatable manner, a representative vehicle and associated tire load conditions are needed. Laboratory or indoor tire testing offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. It provides a well-defined test environment and repeatable results without influence from external factors. Indoor testing has been largely developed around the process of simulating tire wear performance on a specific reference vehicle, including its specific weight distribution, suspension characteristics, and alignment.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0019
Heeyun Lee, Suk Won Cha, Hyunsup Kim, Seok-Joon Kim
Abstract This paper is concerned with the energy management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle using stochastic dynamic programming. The aim is the control strategy of the power distribution for hybrid electric vehicle powertrains to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining drivability. The fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicle is strongly influenced by power management control strategy. Rule-based control strategy is popular strategy thanks to its effectiveness in real-time implementation, but rule should be designed and efficiency of entire drive trains is not optimized. Dynamic programming, one of optimization-based control strategy presents outstanding performance, but cannot be used as real-time control strategy directly, since its non-causal property and drawback that global optimal solution can only be obtained for specific driving cycle.
2015-02-20
Standard
J2763_201502
This SAE Standard covers the Mini-Shed testing methodology to measure the rate of refrigerant loss from an automotive air conditioning (A/C) system. This SAE procedure encompasses both front and rear air conditioning systems utilizing refrigerants operating under sub-critical conditions.
2015-02-03
Standard
J2862_201502
This user’s manual covers the small adult female Hybrid III test dummy. It is intended for technicians who work with this device. It covers the construction and clothing, disassembly and reassembly, available instrumentation, external dimensions and segment masses, as well as certification and inspection test procedures. It includes instructions for safe handling of the instrumented dummy, repairing dummy flesh, and adjusting the joints throughout the dummy.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0122
Herman Van der Auweraer, Karl Janssens, Fabio Bianciardi, Filip Deblauwe, Kumaraswamy Shivashankaraiah
Abstract Certification of vehicle noise emissions for passenger vehicles, motorcycles and light trucks is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by international standards such as ISO362. The current procedure based on a pass-by test during wide-open throttle acceleration is believed far from actual urban traffic conditions. Hence a new standard pass-by noise certification is being evaluated for implementation. It will put testing departments through their paces with requirements for additional testing under multiple ‘real world’ conditions. The new standard, together with the fact that most governments are imposing lower noise emission levels, make that most of the current models do not meet the new levels which will be imposed in the future. Therefor automotive manufacturers are looking for new tools which are giving them a better insight in the Pass-by Noise contributors.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0224
Ramsai Ramachandran, Nilesh Kumar Dehariya, Gaurav Kumar, Himanshu Agarwal, Sukhchain Singh
Abstract BIW (Body-in White) is a type of vehicle structure formed by spot welding of different sheet metal components. The BIW structure should be designed to support the maximum load potential under various performance conditions. Thus the structure should have good strength as well as stiffness. Torsion Stiffness of BIW is the amount of torque required to cause a unit degree of twist. It is often considered as a benchmark of its structural competence due to its effect on various parameters like ride, handling, lateral load distribution and NVH performance of vehicle. The paper aims to design and develop a test methodology and test fixtures for measuring the BIW torsion stiffness with repeatability of test results and also have an (R2>0.99) for the measured values in the test.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0235
Raju P Soudatti, Ragunathan Amarnath, Ramesh Harish
Abstract Generally it is observed that in city buses most of the time, passenger seat fails at the seat mounting area in buses which are used for more than 3 years. This fatigue failure doesn't get captured either in Anchorage Test or Limited Vibration Test. Passenger seats' durability should be equal to vehicle life which is 10L km or 12 Years of life span. Physical testing on the vibration test rig is time consuming and costly. Most of the time machine availability for testing will be an issue, to validate alternate seat proposals. So there is a need to establish a correlation between physical testing and CAE simulation so that alternate proposals can be easily and quickly verified using CAE alone. This paper deals with the verification and validation of passenger seat in buses for life cycle requirement, through various methodologies adopted from data collection, CAE verification and physical validation to simulate real-time environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0236
Zhiteng Zhou, Yaohua He, Dong Wang
Abstract Aiming to meet vehicle driving safety requirements in automakers, this essay firstly discusses the application of vehicle driving wandering test system. And the real-time performance and reliability of wireless AP communication are the premise in this test system. However, when the test situation is changed especially in strong electromagnetic situation, the communication will be easily interrupted, leading to the delay problem. In order to maintain the real-time performance, this essay proposes an improvement method through analyzing the timeline of dynamic communication progress from the perspective of transport layer in TCP/IP protocol. Then, based on the analysis of Markov Chain model of the communication process, it also discusses the potential factors of the delay problem and puts forward the time division strategy which can effectively complete the authentication in real-time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0159
Tripti Jain, Tanvee Adhikari
Abstract During vehicle development, numerous test are done to ensure safety & durability of the vehicle. One such test prescribed by regulation (IS 12009:1995) is side door intrusion test (SDIT). This test evaluates strength requirement of a side door of passenger cars to minimize the safety hazards caused by intrusion into passenger compartment in a side impact accident viz., initial, intermediate and peak crush resistance. In current scenario the passenger car manufacturers are striving hard on cost reduction by reducing the development cost. Thus, to predict the exact vehicle performance before its prototype stage is vital. This can be achieved by evaluating performance by the help of Computer aided engineering (CAE) During the SDIT, the load is applied to the outer surface of the door in an inward direction. This inward force applied by loading device is resisted by the door assembly, while door is pivoted at door latch and hinge.
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