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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0054
Barath Mohan, KVM Raju, Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Chandramouli Padmanabhan
Tires influence the dynamic performance of the motorcycle and the development of tires to meet these requirements has always been one of the critical and challenging tasks for the motorcycle industry. The tire characteristics and rest of the motorcycle design need to be tuned extensively to achieve the desired performance and this work requires estimating tire force characteristics upfront. The aim of this study is to develop feasible test methods to measure the lateral force characteristics of motorcycle tires. This work is an extension of our previous work on estimating the longitudinal forces of motorcycle tires. In this work, new experimental procedures are developed to estimate the friction ellipse and lateral stiffness characteristics of motorcycle tires. A fairly accurate tire model is developed using the measured lateral force characteristics.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
In applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, C class evaluation by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests in terms of safety restrictions (avoid the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is close to the performance limit of the vehicle. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class classification method by an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. First, we confirmed the possibility that expert riders can evaluate C class. The riding maneuvers of expert and ordinary riders on the test were compared, assuming normal running. The comparison result demonstrated that expert riders could evaluate C class from an ordinary rider’s perspective. Next, we considered a test procedure that used an evaluation sheet as the C class evaluation technique for an actual hazardous event.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2324
Xiaoguo Tang, Dan McBryde
When IC engine (gasoline & diesel) and hybrid powertrain operating off the desired conditions, the combustion process, therefore the exhaust components (chemical / physical info) will be different. A modern motor vehicle has to have well controlled engine feed_gas and very high catalyst efficiency to meet EPA standards, only few percent (x%) engine output emissions allowed to emit. When ECM_Cat emission control failed, vehicle tailpipe will have ((100%)/(x%)) times change (10~50 times), or more (ECM off stoich). If engine emission control system fails or a defeat device existed, the ICE exhaust will show different signatures (on TWC failure, unexpected enrich, less SOC swing in real driving, failed De-NOx…). A simple short piece of exhaust pipe equipped with: a thermocouple, NOx_lambda sensor can pick up the information for pattern recognition analysis.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2328
Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu, Michael Gee, Rod Williams
The discrepancies between certification and on-road vehicle performance is becoming increasingly important as emissions and fuel consumption estimates are proving inaccurate predictors of in-service behaviour. The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse these differences and the work forms the first phase of a project aiming to create new, highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in powertrain performance whilst being representative of real world conditions. These new methodologies will be developed on an advanced chassis dynamometer facility and facilitate the development of future fuel technologies focussed on delivering real world benefits. The engine controller of a 2.0L Diesel vehicle with active de-NOx and particular filter (DPF) has been monitored over WLTC and NEDC cycles and 12000km of on-road driving. Different filtering and data representation methods are compared to aid in the analysis and understanding of on-road data.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
Abstract With government mandates, original equipment manufacturers are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids that aid in this effort. Demonstrating real gains becomes complex given the intricacies of these systems and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that was encountered when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. While it is well known that variability in testing conditions such as engine load or vehicle speed will lead to variability in results, the magnitude of their impact on average throughout the test cycle suggests that repeat testing may not be sufficient to guard against improper conclusions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2356
Shaopeng Tian, Geng Li, Tongliang Que
Abstract This paper mainly researches transmission efficiency (TE) of mechanical transmission in relation to the temperature of lubricating oil. Firstly the formula of TE is calculated about the kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil, then analyze the relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature of lubricating oil, and finally the formula of TE which is related to the oil temperature is put forward. In order to verify the theoretical formula, the test bench for mechanical transmission is designed, which is used to research the N109 transmission of one mini car. The bench can be used to measure the curve of TE under different speed , load and lubricating oil temperature. The optimum operating temperature of the transmission is obtained by analyzing the measured data and theoretical calculation results. The test bench adopts 2 AC asynchronous motors to respectively simulate the driving and load performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture to be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro donated by General Motors to the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. The process used to implement the hybrid electric vehicle architecture from the stock Camaro will be the primary focus of the research. Beginning with baseline testing, our team will develop a reference for the performance of the vehicle before the architecture has been implemented using the US06 and HWFET drive cycles. Furthermore, the implementation methods and safety considerations are going to be a large focus of integration as we validate the functional operating modes of the architecture. A charge depleting driving mode is tested for energy consumption using three different electric motor control strategies.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8010
M. Kamel Salaani, David Mikesell, Chris Boday, Devin Elsasser
Abstract Field testing of Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) systems using real actual heavy trucks and buses is unavoidably limited by the dangers and expenses inherent in crash-imminent scenarios. For this paper, a heavy vehicle is defined as having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) that exceeds 4536 kg (10,000 lbs.). High fidelity Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of heavy vehicle AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL simulation system. An instrumented Volvo tractor-trailer equipped with a Bendix Wingman Advanced System, including the FLR20 forward looking radar and AEB system, was put through a battery of different types of track tests to benchmark the AEB performance.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering, Sean Wyatt
Abstract The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the capability of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and thereby socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle, and they are established in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, engineers face different barriers and conceptual difficulties: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including radar, ultrasonic, video, or lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8023
Bernard Tanguay
Abstract A novel method was developed to predict the free-stream velocity experienced by a traveling vehicle based on track-side anemometric measurements. The end objective of this research was to enhance the reliability of the prediction of free-stream conditions in order to improve the accuracy of aerodynamic drag coefficient (CD) assessments from track tests of surface vehicles. Although the technique was applied to heavy-duty vehicles in the present work, it is equally applicable to any vehicle type. The proposed method is based on Taylor’s hypothesis, a principle applied in fluid mechanics to convert temporal signals into the spatial domain. It considers that the turbulent wind velocity fluctuations measured at one point are due to the "passage of an unchanging pattern of turbulent motion over the point". The method is applied to predict the wind velocity that the vehicle will experience as it encounters a wind pattern detected earlier by an anemometer located upwind.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8016
Devaraj Dasarathan, Matthew Ellis, Surya Chinnamani, Ray Ayala, James Haws
Abstract The primary purpose of this paper is to correlate the CFD simulations performed using PowerFLOW, a Lattice Boltzmann based method, and wind tunnel tests performed at a wind tunnel facility on 1/8th scaled tractor-trailer models. The correlations include results using an aerodynamic-type tractor paired with several trailer configurations, including a baseline trailer without any aerodynamic devices as well as combinations of trailer side skirts and a tractor-trailer gap flow management device. CFD simulations were performed in a low blockage open road environment at full scale Reynolds number to understand how the different test environments impact total aerodynamic drag values and performance deltas between trailer aerodynamic devices. There are very limited studies with the Class-8 sleeper tractor and 53ft long trailer comparing wind tunnel test and CFD simulation with and without trailer aerodynamic device. This paper is to fill this gap.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8018
Houshun Zhang, L. James Sanchez, Matthew Spears, Jayant Sarlashkar, Dennis Robertson, Michael Ross
Abstract In June of 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The agencies proposed that vehicle manufacturers would certify vehicles to the standards by using the agencies’ Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM). The agencies also proposed a steady-state engine test procedure for generating GEM inputs to represent the vehicle’s engine performance. In the proposal the agencies also requested comment on an alternative engine test procedure, the details of which were published in two separate 2015 SAE Technical Papers [1, 2]. As an alternative to the proposed steady-state engine test procedure, these papers presented a cycle-average test procedure.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
Abstract In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8042
Danna Jiang, Ying Huang, Xiaoyi Song, Dechun Fu, Zhiquan Fu
Abstract This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8057
Michael Glensvig, Heimo Schreier, Mauro Tizianel, Helmut Theissl, Peter Krähenbühl, Fabio Cococcetta, Ivan Calaon
Abstract This paper presents the results of a long haul truck Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system from simulation, test bench and public road testing. The WHR system uses exhaust gas recuperation only and utilizes up to 110kW of exhaust waste heat for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a typical European driving cycle. The testing and simulation procedures are explained in detail together with the tested and simulated WHR fuel consumption benefit for different real life cycles in Europe and USA reaching fuel consumption benefits between 2.5% and 3.4%. Additionally a technology road map is shown which discusses the role of WHR in fulfilling the future CARB BSFC target value (minimum in map) of around 172 g/kWh.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8154
Abhijith Balakrishna, Gang Wang
Abstract The dynamic loading on the skin of a refrigeration unit mounted in the gap between tractor and trailer is studied while another trailer passes by on a freeway using transient computational fluid dynamics. Dynamic Meshing methodology available in Ansys Fluent was used to understand the transient pressure and flow regimes in and around the tractor trailer gap in general and refrigeration unit in particular, at various vehicle speeds. The influences of the lateral distance between the crossing trailers and vehicle speed on the pressure distribution on the refrigeration unit have been studied.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8153
Prashanth Gururaja
Abstract To investigate the feasibility of various test procedures to determine aerodynamic performance for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency commissioned, through Southwest Research Institute, constant-speed torque tests of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53-foot dry-van trailer. Torque was measured at the transmission output shaft and, for most tests, also on each of the drive wheels. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. Measuring wind-averaged drag from on-road tests has historically been a challenge. By collecting data in various wind conditions at multiple speeds over multiple days, a regression-based method was developed to estimate wind-averaged drag with a low precision error for multiple tractor-trailer combinations.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8152
Brian R. McAuliffe, David Chuang
Abstract In an effort to support Phase 2 of Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, a track-based test program was jointly supported by Transport Canada (TC), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Research Council Canada (NRC) to assess aerodynamic evaluation methodologies proposed by the EPA and to provide a site-verification exercise against a previous test campaign with the same vehicle. Coast-down tests were conducted with a modern aerodynamic tractor matched to a conventional 16.2 m (53 ft) dry-van trailer, and outfitted with two drag reduction technologies. Enhanced wind-measurement instrumentation was introduced, consisting of a vehicle-mounted fast-response pressure probe and track-side sonic anemometers that, when used in combination, provided improved reliability for the measurements of wind conditions experienced by the vehicle.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8151
Prashanth Gururaja
Abstract To investigate the feasibility of various aerodynamic test procedures for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations for heavy-duty vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted, through Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), coastdown testing of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53-foot dry-van trailer. Three vehicle configurations were tested, two of which included common trailer drag-reduction technologies. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. One vehicle configuration was tested over several days to evaluate day-to-day repeatability and the influence of changing wind conditions. Data on external sources of road forces, such as grade and speed dependence of tire rolling resistance, were collected separately and incorporated into the analysis.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling applications using forced air produced by axial fans, the main objective in fan design is to generate high static pressure head, high volumetric flow rate, and high efficiency over a wide operating range of rotational speed (1x∼3x) and ambient pressure (0.2∼1 atm). In this paper, a fan design based on a fan diameter of 86 mm, fan depth (thickness) of 25.4 mm, and hub diameter of 48 mm is presented. The blade setting angle and the chord lengths at the leading and trailing edges are varied in their suitable ranges to determine the optimal blade profiles. The fan static pressure head, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity are calculated at various ambient pressures and rotational speeds. The optimal blade design in terms of maximum total-to-total pressure ratio and efficiency at the design point is obtained via CFD simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2000
Mark Bodie, Thierry Pamphile, Jon Zumberge, Thomas Baudendistel, Michael Boyd
Abstract As technology for both military and civilian aviation systems mature into a new era, techniques to test and evaluate these systems have become of great interest. To achieve a general understanding as well as save time and cost, the use of computer modeling and simulation for component, subsystem or integrated system testing has become a central part of technology development programs. However, the evolving complexity of the systems being modeled leads to a tremendous increase in the complexity of the developed models. To gain confidence in these models there is a need to evaluate the risk in using those models for decision making. Statistical model validation techniques are used to assess the risk of using a given model in decision making exercises. In this paper, we formulate a transient model validation challenge problem for an air cycle machine (ACM) and present a hardware test bench used to generate experimental data relevant to the model.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modeling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the Aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2064
Shashank Krishnamurthy, Stephen Savulak, Yang Wang
Abstract The emergence of wide band gap devices has pushed the boundaries of power converter operations and high power density applications. The wide band gap devices in conjunction with silicon on insulator electronic components enable the realization of power converters that can operate at high ambient temperatures that are typically found in aerospace engine environments. This paper describes the design and test of a power electronic inverter that converts a fixed input DC voltage to a variable voltage variable frequency three phase output. The design of the key functional components such as the gate drive, power module, controller and communication will be discussed in this paper. Test results for the inverter at high temperature are also presented.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2030
Jon Zumberge, Michael Boyd, Raul Ordonez
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to become highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits of those complex controls and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop plant models and determine the uncertainty of those models to predict performance and stability of the control algorithms. A process of model and control algorithm validation for a dc-dc boost converter circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper is based on MIL-STD 3022 with emphasis on requirements settings and the testing process. The key contribution of this paper is the process for model and control algorithm validation, specifically a method for decomposing the problem into model and control algorithm validation stages.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2051
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
Abstract The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1913
Alessandro Sanguineti, Federico Tosi, Andrea Bonfanti, Flavio Rampinelli
Abstract Organic brake pads for automotive can be defined as brake linings with bonding matrix constituted of high-temperature thermosetting resins. Bonded together inside the polymeric binder are a mix of components (e.g. abrasives, lubricants, reinforcements, fillers, modifiers…), each playing a distinctive role in determining the tribology and friction activity of the final friction material. The herein reported work presents inorganic “alkali-activated”-based materials suitable for the production of alternative brake linings (i.e. brake pads), by means of an unconventional low-temperature wet process. Exploiting the hydraulic activity of specific components when exposed to an alkaline environment, such peculiar inorganic materials are capable of coming to a complete hardening without the need of traditional high-temperature energivorous procedures.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1918
Yusuke Aoki, Yasuyuki Kanehira, Yukio Nishizawa
Abstract Brake squeal is an uncomfortable noise that occurs while braking. It is an important issue in automobile quality to prevent brake products from squealing. Brake shims are widely used to reduce squeal occurrence rate. The anti-squeal effect of shims is quantified as damping properties measured with a bending mode tester, instead of repeating many dynamometer tests. However, there are cases where measurement results have less correlation to actual squeal suppression rate. Therefore, the evaluation of the anti-squeal effect with a dynamometer or on an actual car is needed until the best shim can be selected. To improve the predicted accuracy of the anti-squeal effect, the difference between measurement conditions and actual braking conditions of shims, was focused on. The bending mode tester measures loss factor under pressure-free conditions, even though shims are compressed by pistons or cylinders towards the backplate of the pad.
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