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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are very important tools to evaluatethe vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be calibrated. In the neck calibration procedure, the flexion angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neckbase. To get the flexion angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummies. The flexion angle is then calculated from those angles. There are two potentiometers in the Hybrid III family dummies, three potentiometers in ES2, ES2-RE, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies. In the calibration certification,maximum flexion angle and time occurred should be within certain range in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies, not only the flexion angle, but also the otherangles should meet the maximum angle and timeoccurred corridors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The technologies which realized miniaturization and higher performances will be explained. Basic performances such as flow and dilution ratio accuracies and proportionality between raw exhaust and sample flows have been evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased use of lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Debris are progressively generated through wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements into engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, they can interfere with the normal operation of such components even generating more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are devices susceptible to interact with such very fine debris concentrated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many testing advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to study three-body abrasion of hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been applied for elastomeric materials assessment. The paper presents a study of three-body abrasion of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions by using a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0979
Jonathan David Stewart, Rose Mary Stalker, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Roy Douglas, Andrew Woods
The introduction of new automotive after treatment systems relies heavily on expensive and time consuming engine and vehicle based testing to ensure that the emissions meet legislative requirements throughout the specified life. The catalyst degradation behaviour is critical to ensuring emission targets are met over time. Given the criticality, it would be prudent to slightly over specify catalyst loadings to ensure these targets are achieved. The majority of catalyst development work is typically done either experimentally on cores at the micro-chemical level or comparatively using bespoke rapid ageing cycles on engines. The data from these tests is generally applied to a catalyst model for better understanding and optimisation of the catalyst bricks. As a result of years of testing (and successfully delivering) different powertrains and after treatment systems to the same test cycle, the OEMs have excellent comparative analysis databases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1482
Paul Montalbano, Daniel Melcher, Rachel Keller, Thomas Rush, Jay Przybyla
There have been a number of methods presented previously in the literature that attempt to address the challenging process of determining the actual impact speed of a motorcycle at its point of contact with another, typically larger and heavier, vehicle or object. Published works specifically addressing the impact speed portion of the event have included the utilization of the conservation of rotational momentum, the use of crush-based methodologies utilizing the damage profiles of both the motorcycle and the struck vehicle, the application of the conservation of linear momentum, or computer simulation modeling. However, all of the introduced methods to date have known limitations and challenges in gathering adequate data. Unlike passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles, most motorcycles and scooters carry no on-board electronic data recorders to provide insight into the impact phase of the collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters is a late stage in vehicle development. Hence to save cost and compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands to predict aerodynamics drag and lift coefficients(CD,CL) within the accuracy of few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations. Hence, correlation level for numerical prediction depends on factors viz; type of meshing, boundary conditions, turbulent models, CAD geometry and wind tunnel used for correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1026
Silvia Marelli, Simone Gandolfi, Massimo Capobianco
Today turbocharging represents a key technology to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and diesel engines, moreover improving performance. 1D models, generally employed to compute the engine-turbocharger matching conditions, can be optimized due to several information about turbine and compressor behavior required. Because of difficulty in the correctly evaluation of turbine isentropic efficiency with direct techniques, turbocharger turbine efficiency is generally referred to thermo-mechanical efficiency. To this aim, the possibility to accurately estimate power losses in turbocharger bearings can allow to assess turbine isentropic efficiency starting from the thermo-mechanical one. In the paper an experimental and theoretical study on turbocharger mechanical losses is presented. The proposed model, developed in MATLAB environment, refers to radial and axial bearings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0272
Huairui Guo, David Dronzkowski
Vehicle level road test probably is the most important test before a vehicle model goes to mass production. Failures found during the test are fixed and reliability of the vehicle is then improved. This test-fix-test process is often called reliability growth test. To achieve effective reliability growth, two things are critical. One is how and under what condition vehicles are tested; the other is having a formal Failure Report and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) in place. The topic of this paper is related to the former. We will discuss methods of determining the proper road profiles used in reliability growth tests. The goal of a reliability growth test is to find failures that customers will be experiencing and fix them. Therefore the road profiles used in the test should represent how actual customer usage. This data is typically compiled using customer surveys.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1582
Dirk Wieser, Sabine Bonitz, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Christian Nayeri, Christian Paschereit, Lars Larsson
In this experimental investigation the surface flow pattern is visualized on a full scale passenger car in the Volvo wind tunnel in Gothenburg. The entire rear end of a Volvo S60 was equipped with a large amount of tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded by a single lens reflex camera which takes pictures continuously. A new and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to calculate the statistical behavior of the tuft orientation. This allows the extraction of the mean angle and the standard deviation for individual tufts. This information on the surface flow can be used to identify unsteady and steady flow phenomena such as separation and reattachment lines, flow direction, stagnation points, and regions with increased turbulence and footprints of vortices. The main advantages over other flow visualization methods such as oil paint is that experimental facilities are not soiled and that statistical data can be extracted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0920
Bradford A. Bruno, Ann M. Anderson, Mary Carroll, Thomas Swanton, Paul Brockmann, Timothy Palace, Isaac A. Ramphal
Aerogels are nanoporous structures with a unique combination of physical characteristics that make them very promising for use in automotive exhaust catalysis systems. Their highly porous nature gives aerogels very low densities (<0.1 g/mL) and their extremely high surface area per unit mass (>300 m2/g) is a very favorable characteristic for catalysis of gaseous pollutants. Ceramic aerogels are also highly thermally insulating (~0.015 W/mK) and able to withstand very high temperatures. Beyond this, aerogels can be made of a wide variety of ceramics (e.g. alumina, silica, titania) with other catalytically active metals (e.g. copper, cobalt, nickel) incorporated into their structures. Aerogels can be manufactured using several techniques; however, rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) offers significant advantages by reducing the processing time and solvent waste associated with more conventional techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1355
Jeffrey R. Hodgkins, Walter Brophy, Thomas Gaydosh, Norimasa Kobayashi, Hiroo Yamaoka
Current CAE (computer aided engineering) methods used to develop vehicle interior noise performances have always had the reputation for being inaccurate in predicting acoustic behavior in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne noise components, which CAE has proven capable of predicting, but also the growing contributions of air-borne noise components, where CAE usually lacks the capability to accurately reflect the physics involved in complex vibro-acoustic systems. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range. This modeling method was used to create a model of an enclosed simple box-shaped vibro-acoustic system fit with various acoustic trim parts (carpet and under body covers).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0323
Sashank Mani Vedula, Nabal Kishore Pandey, KumarPrasad Tellikepalli, Satish Thimmalapura
Owing to high development cost and complexity in achieving the repeatability during testing phase of vehicle development, OEMs these days are focussing on front loading the activities to virtual test environment based development. This process not only helps in reducing the cost and time but also helps in increasing the maturity and confidence levels of the developed system before actual prototype is built. In the past, much extensive research has happened for increasing fidelity of virtual test environment by improving plant model efficacy which involves powertrain and other vehicle systems. On other hand, improving the precision of driver model which is one of the most complex nonlinear systems of virtual environment still remains a paramount challenge. It is apparent that various drivers show different behaviours in real world for a given drive profile. While driver model for a virtual test environment, the real world driver attributes are seldom considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important test for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual Hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0274
Sharon L. Honecker, David J. Groebel, Adamantios Mettas
In order to accurately predict product reliability, it is best to design a test in which many specimens are tested for a long duration. However, this scenario is not often practical due to economic and time constraints. This paper describes a reliability test in which a limited number of specimens are tested with little time remaining before the scheduled start of production. During the test, an unexpected failure mode that can be mitigated through a product redesign occurs. Because the scheduled start of production is near, there is not time to perform a test with redesigned specimens, so the current test proceeds as planned. We discuss several methods and the associated assumptions that must be made to account for the presence of the unexpected failure mode in the test data in order to make predictions of reliability of the redesigned product.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0273
Richard DeJong, Se Ge Jung, John Van Baren
Methods for conducting accelerated vibration fatigue testing of structures, such as MIL-STD-810G, allow for the non-linear scaling of the test time with the inverse of the rms vibration amplitude based on the slope of the material S-N curve obtained from cyclic fatigue tests. The Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) is used as a method to allow for different level scalings at different frequencies in a broadband vibration environment using the relative responses of resonances in the structure. A recent development in industry has been to mix impulses with random excitations to increase the vibration peak levels (as measured by the kurtosis), thereby accelerating the fatigue even more than would occur with a Gaussian excitation. This paper presents results from a study to determine the conditions under which high kurtosis, impulsive excitations actually produce high kurtosis responses in structural resonances thus increasing the level of the FDS.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1545
Huan Liu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Comparing with traditional steering system, motor and reducing mechanism are added to Electric Power Steering System(EPS), this part of the existence of additional hardware increase the friction torque of steering system, which affect vehicle’s steering portability, return-to-center performance and central road feel at low speed and high-speed. To overcome the friction resistance moment, and formulate the corresponding control strategy to exert friction compensation control system, appropriate friction model must be selected to describe the friction properties of EPS system. The current EPS friction model can’t describe the friction torque’s smoothness and hysteresis characteristics, so a new electric power steering system dynamic friction model based on normalized Bouc-Wen model is given, as well as its structure form and model features. In addition, experimental method has been used to identify corresponding parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
HILS is a proven and essential part of embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which believes that it is sitting inside the real vehicle and there by intended functionalities implemented in the same can be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. Inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which leads to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which makes sure that the test system designed is robust and catering to the actual requirement. Main agenda of the paper is to design a test system which itself is more robust than the expected device under test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and/or Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created an interest in aftertreatment solutions as an option to comply with the legislation. Limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. Catalytic functions and volume requirement for consistent catalytic performance was determined through NOX , CO and HC conversion over U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on a catalytic wall flow GPF (4WC) and flow through TWC catalyst. Four flow-through TWC and four wall-flow GPF catalysts were used for the study. All the exhaust systems had the same PGM loading and different cell structures. It was observed that replacing the flow through catalyst with a GPF will reduce the effective volume, which results in a more compact architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1471
Anthony Timpanaro, Charles Moody, Wesley Richardson, Bradley Reckamp, Orion Keifer
It is well known that older vehicles’ headlight assemblies degrade with exposure to the elements and can become cloudy. It is also known that the degradation, decreases the amount of useful light projected forward, which can drastically reduce night time visibility and can be a significant factor in dark object visibility. Testing has been performed to measure the available light on a dark object with old degraded headlamp assemblies and new replacement assemblies to quantify the decrease in available light on a dark object caused by the degradation. The work has been extended to quantify the improvement in available light when the degraded lenses are treated with commercially available restoration products. Five different headlamp configurations representing four different manufacturers were tested measuring the illumination at a given distance with an Extech™ illuminance meter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0891
Teri Kowalski
The automotive, lubricant, and testing industries are developing a new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. Included in that process is the development of four replacement engine tests, for those tests which will no longer be available because of parts availability, and two completely new engine tests. The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB test as a replacement test for the Sequence IVA. The Sequence IVB Test is a low-temperature valvetrain wear test using a Toyota engine with a dual overhead cam direct acting mechanical bucket valve train system. The original intent for the new test was for it to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA, but as development progressed it was necessary to alter test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced to allow discrimination among the oils used in the development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0048
Sundaravadivelu Kandavelu, Anil Kumar Velagapudi, Raghavendra Nese, Satish Thimmalapura
The effort involved in automotive software test/calibration at road level is very high and cost involved is also commendable because of proto level samples. Further the on-road test/calibration process is sensitive to external factors like drive pattern and environmental conditions. It is always a challenge for any OEM, to come up with an efficient process, which optimizes development cost, time and reliability of the product. The model based test/calibration process is always a dream for any engineer to work on, as it has big advantage of cost, reproducibility and repeatability of test cases. But the challenge lies in achieving the closeness to reality with limited availability of crucial data for model parameterization. Activity at test bed level bridges the gap between the on-road and model based test/calibration achieving high maturity level at optimal cost/time. Current vehicle has many systems, which work in synergy to create an impact on end customer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, advantages and disadvantages. In Automotive domain Linux is increasingly becoming popular as a choice of the Operating System other than the propriety OS. There has been lot of push in industry to use the open source software stack in the product development.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0373
Mohammadreza Eftekhari, Ali Fatemi, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the variable amplitude fatigue behavior of a neat polymer (polypropylene impact co-polymer) and a polymer composite made of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) with 30 wt% short glass fiber. Fatigue tests were conducted on un-notched and notched specimens at room temperatures. Plate-type specimens were prepared in the transverse direction with respect to the injection mold flow direction and a central circular hole was drilled in the center of notched specimens. Two step loadings (high-low and low-high) tests at two damage ratio of 0.2 and 0.5 for R = 0.1 and -1 were conducted to investigate load sequence effects and predictions of the linear damage rule. Different behaviors were observed for unreinforced and short glass fiber reinforced polymers under two step loadings.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0371
Wenkai Li, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Haitao CUI, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su
In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives corresponded to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested under ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the crack propagation fracture surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0896
Masami Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamori, Satoshi Hirano, Teri Kowalski, James Linden
Fuel economy improvement has been one of most important challenges for the automotive industry, and oil and additive industries. The automotive, oil, and additive industries including related organizations such as SAE, ASTM, testing laboratories have made significant efforts to develop not only engine oil technologies but also engine oil standards over decades. API S category and ILSAC engine oil standard are well known and widely used engine oil specifications. The development of engine oil standard has important roles to ensure the quality of engine oils in the market and encourage industries to improve the engine oil performance periodically. However, the progress of technology advancement can go faster than the revision of engine oil standard. The introduction of new viscosity grades, SAE 0W-16 and 5W-16 is one good example. It was added into the SAE J300 standard that defines viscosity grades for engine oils April 2013.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, in order to control test variables, the systems trade-off characteristics of real life rollovers, making it difficult to compare laboratory and real life tests. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTs vehicle tests were performed to judge the ability of DRoTs to match conditions measured during a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and some touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
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