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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in lab. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road. This paper discusses about generation of drive files as inputs for poster actuation with virtual model(as a substitute for actual model)which is applicable in areas of vehicle durability and ride comfort studies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
As part of active safety systems, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS) is being studied currently by several vehicle manufactures to help reduce bicyclist fatalities and injuries. This paper describes the development of surrogate bicycle with a bicyclist mannequin on top to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicyclist is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicycles and cyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch mountain bike which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the 10 different adult sized bicycles. The surrogate bicycle is constructed with detachable components with shatter resistant material to prevent structural damage during collision, and matches the look and RCS of a real 26 inch mountain bicycle from all 360 degree angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters is a late stage in vehicle development. Hence to save cost and compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands to predict aerodynamics drag and lift coefficients(CD,CL) within the accuracy of few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations. Hence, correlation level for numerical prediction depends on factors viz; type of meshing, boundary conditions, turbulent models, CAD geometry and wind tunnel used for correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates the effect of time alignment in the calculation of emissions from the raw exhaust stream of heavy-duty vehicles when tested on a chassis dynamometer. The effect of time alignment is significant in this case, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transportation of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and ‘flattened’ due to diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in grams/mile. The convolution of the concentration data is corrected by the following method: the analyzer response (output) to a step change in the concentration of the species at the probe tip (input) is recorded to determine the ‘convolution function’.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0478
Yinzhi He, Zhigang Yang, Yigang Wang
The full scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC) of Tongji University has been under full operation since 2009 after nearly 5 years construction and commissioning. This facility is designed with nozzle area 27m2 not only for full scale automobile testing of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, but also for Buses, light trucks, scale train model etc. The maximal wind speed of this wind tunnel can reach 250km/h. One of the highlights is the extremely low background noise of only 61dBA at 160km/h. It is so quiet a wind tunnel first of all in China and contributes very much to the vehicle development of the vehicles marketed in the Chinese market. In this paper, after a short introduction about layout of the full scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Tongji University, the special acoustic measures to achieve so low background noise of this wind tunnel are presented as well.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD vehicle GHG emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its ALPHA model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson combustion cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1355
Jeffrey R. Hodgkins, Walter Brophy, Thomas Gaydosh, Norimasa Kobayashi, Hiroo Yamaoka
Current CAE (computer aided engineering) methods used to develop vehicle interior noise performances have always had the reputation for being inaccurate in predicting acoustic behavior in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne noise components, which CAE has proven capable of predicting, but also the growing contributions of air-borne noise components, where CAE usually lacks the capability to accurately reflect the physics involved in complex vibro-acoustic systems. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range. This modeling method was used to create a model of an enclosed simple box-shaped vibro-acoustic system fit with various acoustic trim parts (carpet and under body covers).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0479
Kuniaki Goto, Takashi kondo, Masakiyo Takahira, Eiji Umemura, Masashi Komada, Yasuhiko Nishimura
Generally, the field pass-by noise level measurement is not stable under the influence of weather conditions , background noise and driver’s skill.So, automobile manufactures try to reproduce proving ground driving on chassis dynamometer measurement.But, the tire noise on actual road surface is difficult to replace on indoor test. In 2016,new pass-by noise regulation (UN R51-03)will take effect in Europe and Japan etc. Furthermore , 2dB stricter regulation will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration run of the current regulation , UN R51-03 requests constant speed run . Therefore, the efficient measurement is necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues , we have developed an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise on road surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.3M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Safety Administration and the Federal Highway Administration, the Center for Collision Safety at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which have been made publicly available. The updated model presented in this paper is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
HILS is a proven and essential part of embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which believes that it is sitting inside the real vehicle and there by intended functionalities implemented in the same can be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. Inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which leads to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which makes sure that the test system designed is robust and catering to the actual requirement. Main agenda of the paper is to design a test system which itself is more robust than the expected device under test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0055
Mark Steffka, Cyrous Rostamzadeh
Automotive systems can generate un-intentional radio frequency energy. The levels of these emissions must be below maximum values set by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for customer satisfaction and/or in order to meet governmental requirements. Due to the complexity of electromagnetic coupling mechanisms that can occur on a vehicle, many times it is difficult to measure and identify the noise source(s) without the use of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) receiver or spectrum analyzer (SA). An efficient and effective diagnostic solution can be to use a low-cost portable, battery powered RF detector with wide dynamic range as an alternative for automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and design engineers to identify, locate, and resolve radio frequency (RF) noise problems. A practical circuit described here can be implemented easily with little RF design knowledge, or experience.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of the Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to control the electric motor to provide assist while steering. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation will help identify early safety issues in the development phase of a project. The intent of this paper is to focus on vehicle dynamics simulation of the EPS using the HiL system. The EPS plant model, dSPACE Vehicle Dynamics model and dSPACE Motor Model interact with a dSPACE hardware platform and a real ECU. This paper includes the design of the EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors & actuators, the function of Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with the EPS model. The offline simulation of the integrated model is performed and the simulation results of different driving maneuvers are presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0045
Takanori Uno, Akahori Ichiro, Iwata Yasuaki
In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with the coil turn ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing each wire. This model also can be applied when leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by the experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that S-parameters when dozens of wires are clamped with the BCI probe can be generated from the measurement results of S-parameters when one wire is clamped.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1577
Tateru Fukagawa, Shinnosuke Shimokawa, Eiji Itakura, Hiroyuki Nakatani, Kenichi Kitahama
The aerodynamic stability of a vehicle with lighter weight and lower drag for saving energy is reduced in cross wind disturbance. In particular, body shapes with low drag have unsteady motion caused by their aerodynamic yaw moment in this situataion. In order to verify fluctuation of unsteady aerodynamic forces of an actual vehicle, a direct measurement method of the transient aerodynamic force on crosswind test using the data of the force of Inertia and the loads of tires is established . The former data is measured with a inertia sensor comprised of a gyro, an acceleration sensor, GPS sensor, and the latter is measured with a wheel force sensor. The noise of the measurement data caused by the inherent frequency of tires is reduced by using the spectral subtraction method. As a result , aerodynamic data measured on cross wind test corresponded to the wind tunnel test data. Numerical expression is defined in order to model the transient aerodynamic forces in cross wind.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
J1962

This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001.

This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector.

This document specifies:

a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits,

b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector.

2015-12-18
WIP Standard
AIR6236A
This AIR provides guidance to the EMI test facility on how to check performance of the following types of EMI test equipment: Current probe Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) Directional coupler Attenuator Cable loss Low noise preamplifier Rod antenna base Passive antennas All performance checks can be performed without software. A computer may be required to generate an electronic or hard copy of data. This is not to say that custom software might not be helpful; just that the procedures documented herein specifically eschew the necessity of automated operation.
2015-12-13
Standard
AIR6236
This AIR provides guidance to the EMI test facility on how to check performance of the following types of EMI test equipment: Current probe Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) Directional coupler Attenuator Cable loss Low noise preamplifier Rod antenna base Passive antennas All performance checks can be performed without software. A computer may be required to generate an electronic or hard copy of data. This is not to say that custom software might not be helpful; just that the procedures documented herein specifically eschew the necessity of automated operation.
2015-11-27
Magazine
Electronics arms race hots up The automotive supply chain landscape is undergoing huge transformation. Dr. Elmar Dagenhart, chairman of the executive board, Continental AG, explains how his company plans to be right at the forefront Sizing up the down-sizing challenge With the impact of VW's 'Dieselgate' still being felt widely, the Aachen automobile and engine technology Colloquium was particularly pertinent this year. Ian Adcock reports on the most significant technologies and presentations. Double coupe coup! Automotive Design'sIan Adcock reflects on some of the concept cars from 2015 that caught his eye Fuelling a sustainable future What is the best route for the UK to achieve its targeted 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions?
2015-10-06
WIP Standard
J1802/1
This SAE Recommended Practice contains the reference information for SAE J1802.
2015-09-11
Standard
J1962_201509
This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001. This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector. This document specifies: a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits, b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector. These functional requirements are separated into three principal areas: connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2419
Riccardo Amirante, Caterina Casavola, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano
A simple, cheap and effective way of measuring the pressure inside the cylinders of internal combustion engines is proposed in this paper. It is well known that the in-cylinder pressure is one of the most significant variables describing the combustion status in internal combustion engines; therefore, if the measured value of the actual pressure in the combustion chamber is used as a feedback variable for closed loop monitoring and control techniques, it will be possible both to improve engine performances and to reduce fuel consumptions and emissions. However, to date such a pressure-based control strategy has been limited by costs, reliability and lifetime of commercially available cylinder pressure sensors. To overcome these limitations, the present paper proposes a very simple and low cost experimental device for measuring the pressure inside the combustion chamber, developed for engine control and monitoring applications.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2542
Carmelina Abagnale, Salvatore Strano, Massimo Cardone, Paolo Iodice, Mario Terzo, Giovanni Vorraro
Abstract The paper describes the development of an innovative test rig for the evaluation of e-bikes in terms of energetic performances and control system. The test rig has been realized starting from a commercial cyclist training system and suitably modified. The test rig is able to reproduce an aforethought route or paths acquired during road tests. It is possible to measure the performance of the e-bike in terms of instantaneous power and speed, by the installed sensors and data acquisition system. The experimental test rig can simulate the resistant torque of a predetermined track and it aims to test and to optimize the control strategy available on the electronic control unit (ECU). An important feature of the system is represented by the possibility to adopt a hardware in the loop approach for the testing of the e-bike and of its control. Indeed, the whole control algorithm can be implemented on a suitable controller board able to execute real time processes.
2015-08-05
WIP Standard
AS4786B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers variable speed, reversible battery powered drills with removable, rechargeable battery pack and either 3/8 inch or ½ inch chuck used for general maintenance and construction where a battery powered tool is required. This document also satisfies EMI requirements for driver drills, where EMI suppression is required by the purchaser. This document may involve hazardous materials, operations, or equipment and does not purport to address all of the safety considerations associated. It is the responsibility of the user of a piece of equipment to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use. Users are cautioned to read all manufacturer’s instructions prior to use.
2015-08-05
WIP Standard
AS954H
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
2015-08-05
WIP Standard
AS4167C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a. Non-distorting usage b. Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c. Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
2015-08-05
WIP Standard
AS28431B
This SAE International Aerospace Standard covers requirements for micrometer adjustable, feel impulse, torque wrenches. The torque wrench is used to apply a pre-set torque to threaded fasteners and other torque requirements.
2015-08-05
WIP Standard
AS4984B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers requirements for nickel-chromium coatings, black oxide or black phosphate coatings, and alternate coatings for aerospace hand tools.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1523

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