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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. This is due to the earlier availability and lower cost of hardware components in comparison to the whole vehicle. Current approaches mainly use originally moving deformable barriers and therefore a full vehicle test facility is needed. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases. The test bench is designed with simulations and includes a control for the force impact. This test bench is able to reproduce the same intrusion speeds as in whole vehicle tests and doesn’t block a full vehicle test facility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1303
Wenli Li, Xiao-Hui Shi, Dong Guo, Peng Yi
An approach using dynamic emulation of mechanical loads for testing and validation of the vehicles' Transmission will be presented in the paper. In order to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time, vehicle simulation on the driveline test bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads is a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) procedure, which can be used as a supplement of the conventional simulations in testing of the operation of algorithms without the need for the prototypes. The combustion engine is replaced by a electric drive dynamometer, which replicates the torque and speed signature of an actual engine, The road load sistance of the vehicle on a real test road is accurately simulated on Load dynamometer by corrected road load forces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
The pressure drop through a diesel particulate filter (DPF) depends strongly on the process of particulate matter (PM; called “soot” here) filtration inside the walls of the DPF. Surface pores play a particularly important role in the pressure drop at the beginning of filtration. Here, surface pores are defined as those pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface. In this study, the transition from surface pore filtration to soot cake filtration was visualized through particle-scaled time-lapse observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For this visualization, a small DPF with a four by five matrix of channels was used as an experimental sample. The top horizontal wall was removed to open five channels, and each top surface of the vertical wall was then polished up to create a mirror-like cross-sectional surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1092
Gabriela Achtenova, Ondrej Milacek
The closed-loop stand has its main advantage in a small power demand. The electromotor has to provide the sum of power losses in the stand, which are 20 to 40 % of the test power – depending on configuration of the test stand. This is especially important value when performing endurance long-run tests. That is the reason, why the closed-loop test stands are widely used for life-cycle tests of one speed (one or more stages) gearboxes. At CTU in Prague exists the closed loop test stand with a unique design, dedicated for testing of the complete automotive gearbox for transversal disposition of the drivetrain. The transmission is mounted in the test stand in the same manner as in the vehicle (with use of rubber silentblocks and reactional strut). Only one output from the differential is used. The differential is locked.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0589
Andrew Moskalik, Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to estimate the effects of advanced technology in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The ALPHA model requires inputs of vehicle component efficiencies and operations. Although some model inputs must be estimated, many can be determined by benchmarking vehicles and their components that are currently in production. However, a full, standalone benchmarking procedure of each driveline component separately can be costly and time-consuming. The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0802
Claudio Marcio Santana
A burning process in a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is very important to know the maximum temperature of the gas, the combustion speed and time delay ignition of fuel air mixture. The automotive industry has invested considerable amounts of resources in simulations and numerical modeling in order to obtain relevant information about the processes in the combustion chamber and then extract the maximum engine performance, control emissions and in formulating new fuels. This work aimed at general construction and instrumentation of a shock tube for measuring the fuel ignition delay time. Specific objectives determined the reaction raté and delay time of ignition Diesel S25, ethanol with 5 % additive enhancer cetane number, B100 biodiesel and Diesel reference. The results were correlatéd with the number of cetane fuels and compared with the times of known delays ignition of Diesel and biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1672
Clemens Biet, Roland Baar
Acoustic measurements, especially interesting for new bearing concepts such as ball bearings, are an important part of the evaluation of turbochargers. Typically, acoustic benchmarking is done at standard conditions, neglecting possible negative effects of very low temperatures, as they might be encountered in real-world applications. For realistic turbocharger measurements at cold environment conditions down to -10°C, special adjustments to the turbocharger test bench have been made. This article introduces a soundproofed climate chamber built in the turbocharger test bench which is able to achieve low component and oil supply temperatures while still providing adequate conditions for acoustic measurements. In addition to that, with the shown concept all of the regular turbocharger test bench measurement points stay untouched as well.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1697
Daniel Freudenhammer, Brian Peterson, Carl-Philipp Ding, Benjamin Boehm, Sven Grundmann
Within automotive research and design, efforts are often focused on the engine geometry design for optimization of performance and efficiency. Within spark-ignition (SI) engines, the intake and cylinder geometry play an important role in defining the in-cylinder flow, which is regarded as a key parameter influencing charge-filling, mixture preparation, and combustion [1]. An efficient optimization of the intake- and in-cylinder geometry requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow in the entire volumetric domain. Previous measurements however, have been limited to point-wise or planar velocimetry measurements. Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is an advanced diagnostic tool to investigate average 3D flow topology within the entire measurement domain in a fast and cost-efficient way. Since optical access is not needed for data acquisition, the use of MRV is convenient in highly complex geometries for which traditional velocimetry techniques are often limited.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0647
Rafael Fietzek, Stephan Rinderknecht
During the last years mechatronic systems developed into one of the biggest drivers of innovation in the automotive industry. The start of production of systems like dual clutch transmission, lane departure warning systems and active suspensions proves this statement. These systems have an influence on the longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics of the vehicle. That is why the interaction on vehicle level is crucial for an optimal result in the fields of efficiency, comfort, safety and dynamics. To optimize the interaction of mechatronic systems, in this paper a new test rig concept for a complete vehicle is presented. The so-called Car-in-the-Loop-concept is capable to realistically reproduce the loads, which act on the powertrain, the steering and the suspension during a test drive.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0613
Donghong Ning, James Coyte, Hai Huang, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Heavy duty vehicles suffer from detrimental vibrations which have significant influence to the operator’s comfort, health and safety. Especially, long term exposures to vibration with a frequency range between 0.5 and 10Hz will severely damage the driver’s backbone. Tires, chassis suspension and seat suspension are three traditional methods to isolate vehicles vibration, but it is generally difficult to modify the parameters of tires and chassis suspension, even many approaches are proposed for the performance of chassis suspension. On the other hand, the seat suspension system is easy to modify and optimize. Therefore, seat suspension has been employed as a simple and effective method to isolate vehicle vibration transmitted to the driver’s body. Studying the vibration characteristics of seat suspension is one important step for seat suspension design.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0680
Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
Abstract In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
2015-02-13
WIP Standard
J2517
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for establishing the sensitivity of the chest displacement potentiometer assembly used in the Hybrid III family of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, or crash dummies). This potentiometer assembly is used in the Hybrid III family to measure the linear displacement of the sternum relative to the spine (referred to as chest compression). An inherent nonlinearity exists in this measurement because a rotary potentiometer is being used to measure a generally linear displacement. As the chest cavity is compressed the potentiometer rotates, however the relationship between the compression and the potentiometer rotation (and voltage output) is nonlinear. Crash testing facilities have in the past used a variety of techniques to calibrate the chest potentiometer, that is to establish a sensitivity value (mm/ (volt/volt) or mm/ (mvolt/volt)).
2015-02-03
Standard
J1727_201502
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a series of standard calculations and numerical methods for processing safety test instrumentation data that has been acquired during impact tests with instruments installed in ATD’s (crash test dummies), vehicle structures, and laboratory fixtures. The output data from performing these calculations may have applications that include energy analysis, biomechanical analysis, regulation compliance, or other purposes. However, application of the output data from these calculations is outside the scope of this document. It is the intent of this document to present a basic set of calculations that are applicable to test labs that follow the practices set forth by SAE J211-1, SAE J211-2, SAE J2570, and SAE J1733. For the calculations that are described in other sources, the relevant documents are referenced.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0064
Asmita Manwatkar, Prasad S Phale, Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Abstract Used oil analysis plays an important role in the field of engine development, considering that it can give brief idea about performance of lubricant/ oil being used, its compatibility with the system under considerations. At present, regular testing is done like elemental analysis using Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) which can give idea about wear elements and additive elements. But it does not give information on morphological characterization of particles. In present work, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy technique with EDAX detector is used for characterizing the used oil. Oil is filtered on suitable paper and the particles collected on paper are analyzed. This gives the information on morphology and size of particles, their elemental analysis and mapping so that the sources can be judged. Size of wear metal particle is very important factor as even few bigger size particles are more detrimental than large number of smaller particles.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0224
Ramsai Ramachandran, Nilesh Kumar Dehariya, Gaurav Kumar, Himanshu Agarwal, Sukhchain Singh
Abstract BIW (Body-in White) is a type of vehicle structure formed by spot welding of different sheet metal components. The BIW structure should be designed to support the maximum load potential under various performance conditions. Thus the structure should have good strength as well as stiffness. Torsion Stiffness of BIW is the amount of torque required to cause a unit degree of twist. It is often considered as a benchmark of its structural competence due to its effect on various parameters like ride, handling, lateral load distribution and NVH performance of vehicle. The paper aims to design and develop a test methodology and test fixtures for measuring the BIW torsion stiffness with repeatability of test results and also have an (R2>0.99) for the measured values in the test.
2014-10-30
Standard
AIR5026B
This document discusses, in broad general terms, typical present instrumentation practice for post-overhaul gas turbine engine testing. Production engine testing and engine development work are outside the scope of this document as they will typically use many more channels of instrumentation, and in most cases will have requirements for measurements that are never made in post-overhaul testing, such as fan airflow measurements, or strain measurements on compressor blades. The specifications for each parameter to be measured, in terms of measurement range and measurement accuracy, are established by the engine manufacturers. Each test cell instrument system should meet or exceed those requirements. Furthermore, each instrument system should be recalibrated regularly, to ensure that it is still performing correctly.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1579_201410
These requirements define minimum recommended levels of side stand retraction performance of a new side stand/motorcycle combination when tested according to the procedures of SAE J1578. These requirements apply to any new two-wheeled motorcycle without a sidecar, equipped with a side stand, and intended for highway use. (See SAE J213). This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering use of this document.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1578_201410
This test procedure provides a standard method for evaluating the side stand retraction performance of a side stand/motorcycle combination. This test procedure applies to any two-wheeled motorcycle without a sidecar, equipped with a side stand, and intended for highway use. (See SAE J213.) This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering the use of this document.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1846_201410
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use only in characterizing test surfaces used in motorcycle side stand retraction testing (SAE J1578). The equipment and procedure described in this document yields repeatable results in characterizing test surfaces in a way found to be related to retraction performance. The test results obtained with this procedure do not necessarily correlate with measurements obtained with other friction measurement procedures which have been developed for other purposes.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2582
José Galindo, José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Javier Gómez
Abstract Calibration of internal combustion engines at different altitudes, above or below sea level, is important to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions in these conditions. In this work, a flow test rig that reproduces altitude pressure variation is presented. The system stands out by its altitude range, compactness, portability and easy control. It is based on the use of turbomachinery to provide the target pressure to the engine intake and exhaust lines. The core of the system is composed of a variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a waste-gate (WG) and a mechanical compressor. Given a set of turbomachinery systems, the operation pressure and the air mass flow are controlled by the speed of the mechanical compressor and the VGT and WG position. A simple modification in the installation setup makes possible to change the operating mode from vacuum to overpressure.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2637
Katsufumi Kondo, Junya Takahashi, Tetsuya Aizawa
Abstract Wall-deposition of soot particles occurs due to the interaction between spray flame and cylinder liner wall/piston surface, which can potentially affect soot morphology after the in-flame formation/oxidation processes and before the exit from engine cylinder. In order to investigate these effects, flame wall impingement was simulated in a constant volume combustion vessel and thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted for Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis. A TEM grid for the sampling was exposed to a single-shot diesel spray flame multiple times and the variation of soot morphology (concentration, primary particle diameter and aggregate gyration radius) among the multiple exposures was compared. Furthermore, a newly designed impingement-type sampler vertically exposed the grid to the spray flame and sampled soot particles under different boundary condition from that of conventionally used skim-type sampler.
2014-09-28
Journal Article
2014-01-2523
Nils Perzborn, Carlos Agudelo, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Abstract Inertia dynamometers are commonly used to determine the friction coefficient of brake assemblies. Dynamometers are a well-established platform, allow testing under controlled conditions, exhibit a good correlation to many situations encountered in real driving, and are comparatively economical and less time-consuming than full vehicle test. On the other side of the spectrum is the use of scaled tribometer. These test systems make possible a test without the entire brake corner. This separation allows the investigation of the frictional-contact only (frictional boundary layer) speedily and independently of a given brake system or vehicle configuration. As the two test systems (inertia dynamometers and tribometers) may have different users with possibly different tasks, the question remains regarding how comparable the two systems are. These issues provide incentives to better define the fields of investigations, correlation, and applicability for the two systems.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2182
Evan Racine, Zachary Lammers, Street Barnett, John Murphy, Quinn Leland
Abstract The purpose of this study is to set up a laboratory test apparatus to analyze aircraft flight control EMAS' electrical and thermal energy flow under transient and dynamic flight profiles. A hydraulic load frame was used to exert load to the EMA. The actuator was placed within an environmental chamber which simulates ambient temperature as function of altitude. The simulated movement or stroke was carried out by the EMA. The under test EMA's dynamic load, stroke, and ambient temperature were synchronized through a real time Labview DAQ system. Motor drive voltage, current, regenerative current, and motor drive and motor winding temperature were recorded for energy analysis. The EMA under test was subjected to both transient and holding load laid out in a test matrix.
2014-06-16
Standard
J211/2_201406
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to define criteria of performance for an optical data channel when numerical time and space data are taken from the images to analyze impact test results.
2014-05-08
WIP Standard
AMS2641C
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids. This product has been used typically as a vehicle for the suspension of magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspection procedures, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-04-25
WIP Standard
J2570
This SAE Information Report defines the minimum performance specifications for accelerometers, load cells, and angular position transducers used within Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) when performing impact tests per SAE J211, "Instrumentation for Impact Test". This report does not define methodology and equipment for performing verification tests of the transducers. It is intended that any agency proposing to conduct tests in accordance with SAE J211 should be able to demonstrate that the transducers they use would meet the performance requirements specified in this information report. The purpose of this information report is to provide guidelines for choosing accelerometers, load cells, and angular position transducers for use in impact testing. The aim is to provide uniformity in transducer measurements, and provide a basis for meaningful comparisons of test results from different sources.
2014-04-24
Standard
ARP4904A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes software capability guidelines for computer controlled test equipment, hereinafter referred to as automatic test equipment (ATE), for testing hydraulic components. A typical ATE system is shown. The items herein have been selected as potential features which may or may not be applicable to a particular application. This document does not address software development requirements, qualification procedures, or hardware design requirements, but encourages users to refer to existing documents for guidance on such issues.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0830
Shulian Zhang, Weiping Wang
Abstract This paper reports the extraordinary properties and industry applications of Nd: YAG Microchip Laser Feedback Interferometer, Nd: YAG LFI. The Michelson interferometer has been invented for more than a century and is widely used in science and industry today. The Nd: YAG LFI, which is based on laser feedback effect instead of ordinary interferometry, has the different structure from Michelson interferometer, and then extraordinary properties. Therefore the Nd: YAG LFI can be used as a traditional laser interferometer with nano-meter resolution and a few meters measurement range. At the same time Nd: YAG LFI can also measure the displacement of light, thin, black, transparent (water, alcohol, glass surface) objects, even liquid evaporation rate.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0831
Ping Zhong, Kang Zhang, Xu Chen, Yunlong Shi, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0827
Songgang Li, Guobiao Yand, Weiming Zeng
Abstract The port structure consisting of spur pile, vertical pile and beam is subjected to impact loads, so its internal stress state of each point will rapidly change over time. Dynamic photoelastic method is used to study the dynamic stress and stress wave propagation. With epoxy resin and other materials, a photoelastic model of beam to column connection structure is processed and product. The dynamic response of the model under the impact load by the free fall is researched by the dynamic photoelastic method, and recorded by the new digital dynamic photoelastic system with a laser source and high-speed photography system. The internal dynamic stress propagation and distribution, the maximum shear stress and the dynamic stress concentration problems can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic response.
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