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2016-06-17
Standard
J3095_201606
This recommended practice provides a procedure for measuring quantitatively the physical characteristics of linear impactors that are believed to effect impact test accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility. Suggested values and tolerance are also provided for specific applications of linear impactor testing (i.e. Ejection Mitigation tests, Head form Impact tests, Body Block tests). Two functional groups of linear impactors are considered, those whose function is related primarily to displacement and those related to measuring acceleration or force.
2016-06-16
Standard
EIAIS648
This standard establishes general techniques for use in the measurement and determination of the electromagnetic emission and susceptibility characteristics of electronic, electrical, and electromechanical equipment and subsystems.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1805
Florian Zenger, Clemens Junger, Manfred Kaltenbacher, Stefan Becker
Abstract A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
2016-06-09
Standard
ARP598D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the materials, apparatus and procedure for sizing and counting of particulate contamination, 5 μm or greater, in hydraulic fluid samples by membrane filtration iwth microscopic counting. It is capable of counting particulate matter in samples withdrawn from fluid power systems as identified by the 12 classes of SAE AS 4059 or NAS 1638 and projected beyond these for the five standard ranges specified and can thus serve as the primary document to determine acceptability. It is also capable of revealing but not measuring evidence of abnormal amount of water, other fluids, fine particulate and other materials, especially fibers and metals. It is applicable to all military, civil, space vehicles and test equipment.
2016-06-06
Standard
AS681K
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides the method for presentation of gas turbine engine steady state and transient performance calculated using computer programs. It also provides for the presentation of parametric gas turbine data including performance, weight, and dimensions computed by computer programs. This standard is intended to facilitate calculations by the program user without unduly restricting the method of calculation used by the program supplier. This standard is applicable to, but not limited to the following program types: data reduction, steady-state, transient, preliminary design, study, specification, status, and parametric programs.
2016-06-02
Magazine
A 24-hour battle of speed and efficiency At Le Mans this month, amped-up hybrid prototype racecars from Audi and Toyota face a revamped Porsche 919 hybrid, while Ford hopes to recapture glory with its new GT-R. Pushing the ICE forward, gradually Emergent technologies from BorgWarner, Eaton and Mahle aim for greater efficiency in gasoline and diesel engines. Smile, you're on Magna camera! Magna Electronics is rapidly expanding production of its made-in-U.S.A. onboard cameras to keep pace with booming OEM demand for safety and vehicle-autonomy vision-systems technology. Multi-material body solutions: Possibilities and manufacturing challenges The body-in-white is a prime target for lightweighting and many automakers are pursuing unique and effective multi-material approaches, but improved design tools and processes might yield greater gains.
2016-05-26
WIP Standard
AIR1794B
This metric SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) details a ball-on-cylinder (BOC) test device and specifies a method of rating the relative lubricity of aviation turbine fuel samples. The BOC produces a wear scar on a stationary steel ball by forcing it with a fixed load against a fuel wetted steel test ring in a controlled atmosphere. The test ring is rotated at a fixed speed so its surface is wetted by a momentary exposure to the fluid under test. The size of the wear scar is a measure of the test fluid lubricity and provides a basis for predicting friction or wear problems.
2016-05-13
Standard
AIR1794A
This metric SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) details a ball-on-cylinder (BOC) test device and specifies a method of rating the relative lubricity of aviation turbine fuel samples. The BOC produces a wear scar on a stationary steel ball by forcing it with a fixed load against a fuel wetted steel test ring in a controlled atmosphere. The test ring is rotated at a fixed speed so its surface is wetted by a momentary exposure to the fluid under test. The size of the wear scar is a measure of the test fluid lubricity and provides a basis for predicting friction or wear problems.
2016-05-12
Standard
J2923_201605
This Recommended Practice applies to on-road vehicles with a GVWR below 4540 kg equipped with disc brakes.
2016-05-08
WIP Standard
J2052
This methodology can be used for all calculations of HIC, with all test devices having an upper neck triaxial load cell mounted rigidly to the head, and head triaxial accelerometers.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
Abstract A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.25M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Center for Collision Safety and Analysis (CCSA) team at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which has been made publicly available. The updated model presented is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1355
Jeffrey R. Hodgkins, Walter Brophy, Thomas Gaydosh, Norimasa Kobayashi, Hiroo Yamaoka
Abstract Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1374
Julian Wiederer, Lukas Leitner, Christian Endisch, Hans Reiss
Abstract During series production of modern combustion engines a major challenge is to ensure the correct operation of every engine part. A common method is to test engines in end-of-line (EOL) cold test stations, where the engines are not fired but tugged by an electric motor. In this work we present a physically based 0D model for dynamic simulation of combustion engines under EOL test conditions. Our goals are the analysis of manufacturing faults regarding their detectability and the enhancement of test procedures under varying environmental conditions. Physical experiments are prohibitive in production environments, and the simulative approach reduces them to a minimum. This model is the first known to the authors exploring advanced engine test methods under production conditions. The model supports a wide range of manufacturing faults (with adjustable magnitude) as well as error-free production spread in engine components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
Abstract At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and Multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in laboratory. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0055
Mark Steffka, Cyrous Rostamzadeh
Abstract Automotive systems can generate un-intentional radio frequency energy. The levels of these emissions must be below maximum values set by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for customer satisfaction and/or in order to meet governmental requirements. Due to the complexity of electromagnetic coupling mechanisms that can occur on a vehicle, many times it is difficult to measure and identify the noise source(s) without the use of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) receiver or spectrum analyzer (SA). An efficient and effective diagnostic solution can be to use a low-cost portable, battery powered RF detector with wide dynamic range as an alternative for automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and design engineers to identify, locate, and resolve radio frequency (RF) noise problems. A practical circuit described here can be implemented easily with little RF design knowledge, or experience.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
Abstract HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0479
Kuniaki Goto, Takashi Kondo, Masakiyo Takahira, Eiji Umemura, Masashi Komada, Yasuhiko Nishimura
Abstract Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0045
Takanori Uno, Akahori Ichiro, Yoichiro Hara
Abstract In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of the BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of a BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with a winding ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in each wire. This model can also be applied when the leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that the S-parameters for dozens of wires clamped in the BCI probe can be generated using the S-parameter measurement results from when one wire is in the BCI probe.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
Abstract In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1600
Pruthviraj Mohanrao Palaskar, Vivek Kumar, Rohit Vaidya
Abstract Important vehicle performance parameters such as, fuel economy and high speed stability are directly influenced by its aerodynamic drag and lift. Wind tunnel testing to asses these parameters requires heavy investment especially when test wind tunnel is not available in the country where vehicle development center is present. Hence to save cost and to compress development time, it is essential to asses and optimize parameters of a vehicle in very early stages of development. Using numerical flow simulations optimization runs can be carried out digitally. Industry demands prediction of aerodynamic drag and lift coefficients (CD,CL) within an accuracy of a few counts, consuming minimal HPC resources and in a short turnaround time. Different OEMs deploy different testing methods and different softwares for numerical simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1007
Benjamin Ellies, Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) model, a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation tool. One of the most efficient engines today, a 2.0L Mazda SkyActiv engine, is of particular interest due to its high geometric compression ratio and use of an Atkinson cycle. EPA benchmarked the 2.0L SkyActiv at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions laboratory. EPA then incorporated ALPHA into an engine dynamometer control system so that vehicle chassis testing could be simulated with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
Abstract The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1577
Tateru Fukagawa, Shinnosuke Shimokawa, Eiji Itakura, Hiroyuki Nakatani, Kenichi Kitahama
Abstract The aerodynamic stability of energy-saving, lightweight, and low-drag vehicles is reduced by crosswind disturbances. In particular, crosswinds cause unsteady motion in vehicles with low-drag body shapes due to aerodynamic yaw moment. To verify fluctuations in the unsteady aerodynamic forces of a vehicle, a direct measurement method of these forces in a crosswind test was established using inertial force and tire load data. The former uses an inertia sensor comprised of a gyro, acceleration sensor, and GPS sensor, and the latter uses a wheel force sensor. Noise in the measurement data caused by the natural frequency of the tires was reduced using a spectral subtraction method. It was confirmed that aerodynamic data measured in the crosswind test corresponded to wind tunnel test data. Numerical expressions were defined to model the unsteady aerodynamic forces in a crosswind.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1598
Frank Meinert, Kristian Johannessen, Fernando Saito, Bongha Song, Jewel Barlow, David Burton, Taehwan Cho, Luis Fernando Gouveia de Moraes
Abstract Wind tunnel testing of reduced-scale models is a valuable tool for aerodynamic development during the early stages of a new vehicle program, when basic design themes are being evaluated. Both full-and reduced-scale testing have been conducted for many years at the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL), but with increased emphasis on aerodynamic drag reduction, it was necessary to identify additional facilities to provide increased test capacity. With vehicle development distributed among engineering teams around the world, it was also necessary to identify facilities local to those teams, to support their work. This paper describes a cooperative effort to determine the correlation among five wind tunnels: GMAL, the Glenn L.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1611
Masaki Nakagawa, Stephan Kallweit, Frank Michaux, Teppei Hojo
Abstract This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0984
Venkatraman Mahadevan, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
Abstract This paper proposes a method to recover species concentrations at the tail pipe exit of heavy-duty vehicles during chassis dynamometer tests, and investigates its effect in the calculation of emissions from their raw exhaust streams. It was found that the method shown in this paper recovered the sharp peaks of the gas species. The effect on calculations was significant, as time-variant raw exhaust flow rate and emissions concentrations data are acquired continuously during a test (at 10 Hz), and their product is integrated during calculations. The response of the analyzer is delayed due to the time taken for transport of the sample gases from the probe tip to the analyzer, and deformed due to mixing and diffusion during this transport. This ‘convolution’ of the concentration data stream introduces an error in the final result, calculated in g/mile.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
J1962

This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001.

This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector.

This document specifies:

a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits,

b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector.

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