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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0064
Asmita Manwatkar, Prasad S Phale, Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Used oil analysis plays an important role in the field of engine development, considering that it can give brief idea about performance of lubricant/ oil being used, its compatibility with the system under considerations. Presently, regular testing are done like elemental analysis using ICP which can give idea about wear elements and additive elements. But it does not give information on morphological characterization of particles. In present work, Scanning Electron Microscopy technique with EDAX detector is used for characterizing the used oil. Oil is filtered on suitable paper and the particles collected on paper are analyzed. This gives the information on morphology and size of particles, their elemental analysis and mapping so that the sources can be judged. Size of wear metal particle is very important factor as even few bigger size particles are more detrimental than large number of smaller particles.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2637
Katsufumi Kondo, Junya Takahashi, Tetsuya Aizawa
Abstract Wall-deposition of soot particles occurs due to the interaction between spray flame and cylinder liner wall/piston surface, which can potentially affect soot morphology after the in-flame formation/oxidation processes and before the exit from engine cylinder. In order to investigate these effects, flame wall impingement was simulated in a constant volume combustion vessel and thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted for Transmission Electron Microscopic analysis. A TEM grid for the sampling was exposed to a single-shot diesel spray flame multiple times and the variation of soot morphology (concentration, primary particle diameter and aggregate gyration radius) among the multiple exposures was compared. Furthermore, a newly designed impingement-type sampler vertically exposed the grid to the spray flame and sampled soot particles under different boundary condition from that of conventionally used skim-type sampler.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2582
José Galindo, José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Javier Gómez
Abstract Calibration of internal combustion engines at different altitudes, above or below sea level, is important to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions in these conditions. In this work, a flow test rig that reproduces altitude pressure variation is presented. The system stands out by its altitude range, compactness, portability and easy control. It is based on the use of turbomachinery to provide the target pressure to the engine intake and exhaust lines. The core of the system is composed of a variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a waste-gate (WG) and a mechanical compressor. Given a set of turbomachinery systems, the operation pressure and the air mass flow are controlled by the speed of the mechanical compressor and the VGT and WG position. A simple modification in the installation setup makes possible to change the operating mode from vacuum to overpressure.
2014-09-28
Journal Article
2014-01-2523
Nils Perzborn, Carlos Agudelo, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Abstract Inertia dynamometers are commonly used to determine the friction coefficient of brake assemblies. Dynamometers are a well-established platform, allow testing under controlled conditions, exhibit a good correlation to many situations encountered in real driving, and are comparatively economical and less time-consuming than full vehicle test. On the other side of the spectrum is the use of scaled tribometer. These test systems make possible a test without the entire brake corner. This separation allows the investigation of the frictional-contact only (frictional boundary layer) speedily and independently of a given brake system or vehicle configuration. As the two test systems (inertia dynamometers and tribometers) may have different users with possibly different tasks, the question remains regarding how comparable the two systems are. These issues provide incentives to better define the fields of investigations, correlation, and applicability for the two systems.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2182
Evan Racine, Zachary Lammers, Street Barnett, John Murphy, Quinn Leland
Abstract The purpose of this study is to set up a laboratory test apparatus to analyze aircraft flight control EMAS' electrical and thermal energy flow under transient and dynamic flight profiles. A hydraulic load frame was used to exert load to the EMA. The actuator was placed within an environmental chamber which simulates ambient temperature as function of altitude. The simulated movement or stroke was carried out by the EMA. The under test EMA's dynamic load, stroke, and ambient temperature were synchronized through a real time Labview DAQ system. Motor drive voltage, current, regenerative current, and motor drive and motor winding temperature were recorded for energy analysis. The EMA under test was subjected to both transient and holding load laid out in a test matrix.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0177
Ying Wang, Fei Han, Yue Kong, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (Vi-ADAS) has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. This paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework for model quality evaluation of 3D scene under simulation platform. An imaging model is first built. The problem of solving the imaging model is then transformed into the problem of intrinsic image decomposition. Based on Retinex theory and Non-local texture analyses, a superior intrinsic image decomposition method is adopted to evaluate the fidelity of the 3D scene model through the degree of deviation to the Reflectance and Shading intrinsic maps respectively.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0540
Shai Cohen, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Fadi Tahan
Abstract Many dynamic test systems currently exist to assess rollover. This paper introduces a new test device that combines features from a multitude of different tests. It also covers the concept development, a scaled prototype design and test results from both physical and virtual tests. The Guided Rollover Test (GRT) device subjects vehicles to repeatable initial conditions by having a cart follow a guided maneuver similar to a forward J-turn with an increasing curvature sufficient to roll most vehicles. A test vehicle is carried on the cart at constant longitudinal velocity until it rolls. The cart is fitted with a tripping edge to eliminate slipping and remove the influence of tire properties and road-surface friction. Vehicles are subjected to a rollover based on their own performance characteristics which define the dynamics and consequently the roof to ground contact.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0547
Sheryl Janca, Kurt Shanks, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Ravi Tangirala, Massoud Tavakoli
Abstract A near-side, rear seat side impact component test, was conducted and validated utilizing a SIDIIs anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The test fixture consisted of the rear seat structure, side door, interior trim, and side airbag curtain module. Test parameters were determined from full scale tests including impact speed, angle of impact, and depth of door intrusion. A comparative assessment was conducted between the full scale test and the deceleration sled test including ATD contact with the vehicle interior, contact duration, sequential timing of ATD contact, and dummy injury measures. Validation was achieved so that the deceleration sled test procedure could be utilized for further evaluations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0829
Guobiao Yang, Jingyu Wang, Qirong Zhu, Ruhua Fang, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0831
Ping Zhong, Kang Zhang, Xu Chen, Yunlong Shi, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0827
Songgang Li, Guobiao Yand, Weiming Zeng
Abstract The port structure consisting of spur pile, vertical pile and beam is subjected to impact loads, so its internal stress state of each point will rapidly change over time. Dynamic photoelastic method is used to study the dynamic stress and stress wave propagation. With epoxy resin and other materials, a photoelastic model of beam to column connection structure is processed and product. The dynamic response of the model under the impact load by the free fall is researched by the dynamic photoelastic method, and recorded by the new digital dynamic photoelastic system with a laser source and high-speed photography system. The internal dynamic stress propagation and distribution, the maximum shear stress and the dynamic stress concentration problems can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic response.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0826
Hang Yin, Weiming Zeng, Guobiao Yang, Songgang Li
Abstract When an object was subjected an impact loading, stress wave was produced in the object. Studying the regularity of stress-wave propagation was significant to the study of objects subjected to impact loading. When stress wave travelled in the object, principal stress on free boundary was useful to theoretical analysis and calculation. In this article, a new kind of dynamic photoelastic apparatus was used. Isochromatic and isoclinic of the object subjected to impact loading could be obtained combining dynamic photoelastic experiment and related test equipment. By analyzing the isoclinic, there would be a conclusion that the angle between the isoclinic and the free boundary was not 0°or 90°. So the values of the two principal stress on the boundary were all not 0. The result obtained from the electrometric method came to the same conclusion. Analysis showed the result of dynamic photoelastic method was compatible with the result of electrometric method.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0832
Li Yanhua, Jianping Lin
Abstract Similar laser welded blanks with same material and same gauge have been extensive applied in automobile body for improving the material utilization and extending maximum coil size. It is known that, for TWBs with dissimilar material and thicknesses, the difference of material properties and/or thickness of the welded blanks, change of the material properties in the weld seam and heat-affected zones (HAZ) as well as location and orientation of the weld seam are reasons for reduced formability. However, the plastic deformation capacity of TWBs is reduced even when the material and thickness are the same. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the deformation behaviors of similar laser welded joints. Uniaxial tensile of five laser welded joints, with 90°,60°,45°,30°and 0°weld orientations, were tested by using optical measurement-DIC (Digital Image Correlation). Strain /strain ratio distribution and evolution of each joint was analyzed and compared with base material.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0830
Shulian Zhang, Weiping Wang
Abstract This paper reports the extraordinary properties and industry applications of Nd: YAG Microchip Laser Feedback Interferometer, Nd: YAG LFI. The Michelson interferometer has been invented for more than a century and is widely used in science and industry today. The Nd: YAG LFI, which is based on laser feedback effect instead of ordinary interferometry, has the different structure from Michelson interferometer, and then extraordinary properties. Therefore the Nd: YAG LFI can be used as a traditional laser interferometer with nano-meter resolution and a few meters measurement range. At the same time Nd: YAG LFI can also measure the displacement of light, thin, black, transparent (water, alcohol, glass surface) objects, even liquid evaporation rate.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0243
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays, conventional steering system cannot meet consumers' requirements as their environmental awareness increasing. Electrically controlled steering system can solve this problem well [1] [2]. Electrically controlled steering system has been not only applied widely in automobile steering technique but also becomes an important section of automobile integrated chassis control technology. It is necessary for vehicles to test their every component repeatedly before every component assembled. So a test bench becomes an essential part for vehicle products' design and improvement. The electrically controlled steering system consists of Electric Power Steering system (EPS), Active Front Steering (AFS) and Steer by Wire (SBW). The similarity among them is containing pinion-and-rack mechanical structure, so it is viable to design a test bench suitable for these three systems. This paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the design's availability.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0096
Joshua L. Every, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Anmol S. Sidhu, Dale A. Andreatta, Ronald A. Bixel
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
2013-12-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9043
Björn Lundberg, Jonas Sjoblom, Åsa Johansson, Björn Westerberg, Derek Creaser
When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9036
Joseph K. Ausserer, Paul J. Litke, Jon-Russell Groenewegen, Alexander Rowton, Marc Polanka, Keith Grinstead
Small internal combustion engines (ICEs), (<7.5 kW), possess low thermal efficiencies due to high thermal losses. As the surface area to volume ratio increases beyond 1.5 cm2/cc, the increase in thermal losses leads to a drop off of engine efficiency and power. This effort describes the development and validation of a test stand to characterize thermal losses of small ICEs, optimize combustion phasing, and eventually enable heavy fuel operation. The test stand measures torque, rotational speed, brake power, intake air mass flow, up to 48 temperatures (including ambient, intake, cylinder head, fuel, and exhaust), 8 pressures (including ambient, intake, and exhaust), throttle position, and fuel and air mass flows. Intake air temperature and cylinder head temperature are controlled and adjustable. Three geometrically similar engines with surface area to volume ratios near 1.5 cm2/cc were selected from 3W Modellmotoren.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9128
Jurgen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Alexander Trattner, Roland Kirchberger, Hans van den Hoevel
Meeting future legislative targets for SI engines by means of low cost technologies is a big challenge for engineers. Despite the use of simple and cost efficient components these engines have to fulfill customer requirements in terms of power and fuel economy, representing the most important selling arguments. Without the possibility of integrating modern technologies like fuel injection systems for mixture preparation instead of simple carburetors, it is very complex to find viable solutions that enable the achievement of these targets. A main key to improve emission behavior, fuel economy and performance on carbureted engines is to get an insight in the mixture preparation process, especially under transient conditions.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0313
Fernando Z. Sánchez, Carlos V. M. Braga, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Flávio G. Dias, Franck Y. Turkovics, Renata N. C. De Souza
Nowadays, many researches are being carried out to replace the diesel by alternative fuels. Biodiesel and ethanol are strong candidates for this purpose. However, the experimental study of the combustion of biofuels in engines is not an easy task. Due to the large differences between the properties of the new fuels and the conventional diesel, radical changes may be needed in current engines, developed specifically for the fossil fuel. So, the experimental study of ethanol compression ignition (CI) combustion is not simple to be obtained in conventional engines. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM), are useful to conduct this kind of study. This paper describes the RCM adaptations made in order to run CI combustion tests using Ethanol-Powered (ED95) and Diesel (S50) for different compression ratios and injection timing.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0384
Giana A. Pereira, Humberto R. Cazangi, Marcelo Vandresen, Richard Chaplin
This paper aims to improve a device, installed in the Laboratory of Engines at the Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), used by students and professors for classes and researches of ADeMCI (Performance Evaluation of Internal Combustion Engines) research group registered on CNPq. This paper presents the development of an automated flowbench for test cylinder heads using electronic features as MAP (manifold absolute pressure) and MAF (manifold air flow) sensors, commonly used in automotive systems to control the fuel injection in engines. Automated flowbenchs already exist in the international market, but their costs are expensive for the acquisition. This kind of device allows a cylinder test to be executed in a short time, with greater accuracy readings without the direct influence of the operator's ability. The automation of a flowbench like this will increase the capacity of testing of the laboratory, allowing to train more students and to develop more researches.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2110
Preeti Bhagat, Bhupesh Jingar
Software tools are used throughout the life cycle of airborne software. This paper elaborates impact of DO-178C and supplement DO-330 “Software Tool Qualification Considerations” on tool qualification processes as defined in DO-178B. As per DO-178B guidance, software tools are categorized as development tools or verification tools. Software tool qualification process is varied based on this classification. The tool qualification process defined in DO-330 is domain independent. This supplement provides additional guidance, which may be used in qualifying software tools for airborne software, ground-based software, complex electronics hardware, or for other domains. This paper includes discussion on activities and data items associated with tool qualification criteria and corresponding Tool Qualification Levels (TQLs) defined in DO-330. Qualification of Commercial Of-The-Shelf (COTS) tools and in-house developed tools is explained.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2272
Pedro Del Valle, Carlos Fernandez Garc, Mark Donovan
The optimisation of energy is of the upmost importance within any vehicle and is a key driver in the design of all aeronautical projects. Modern aviation is trending towards the “More Electric Aircraft” (MEA), a model of increased electric power demand whereby traditional hydraulic, mechanical and pneumatic systems are replaced by electrical ones. This paper is based on the development project entitled “Advanced Thermal Management in Aeronautics” (ATMIA). The main target of which was to examine the potential for Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) to be used in an aeronautical platform as assessed in previous the paper ref. 1. Until now the use of LHPs has been primarily on aerospace platforms. Project ATMIA addressed some specific requirements for an aeronautical platform such as the effects of vibrations, gravity and the possibility of disassembling for maintenance and transportation.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0035
Patric Daniel Neis, Ney Francisco Ferreira
The current paper presents some friction characterization obtained by using a multifunctional tribometer. The effect of two parameters (temperature and caliper drag) on friction were investigated by means of two different type of tests: i) high temperature tests, where braking tests are executed at different levels of temperature and ii) caliper drag tests, where the sample was intentionally kept in contact with the disc surface during the cooling period that occurs after each braking. The multifunctional tribometer proved to be a suitable tool for friction characterization at different temperature levels. Results show that is possible to evaluate fade effect by using the mentioned technology. Results from caliper drag tests showed that a low-metallic friction material is more prone to this effect than an organic friction material.
2013-05-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9018
AbdelRaouf Mayyas, Robert Prucka, Pierluigi Pisu, Imtiaz Haque
This manuscript provides a review of different types and categorization of the chassis dynamometer systems. The review classifies the chassis dynamometers based on the configuration, type of rollers and the application type. Additionally the manuscript discusses several application examples of the chassis dynamometer including: performance and endurance mileage accumulation tests, fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions, noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH). Different types of the vehicle attachment system in the dynamometer cell and its influences on the driving force characteristics and the vehicle acoustic signature is also discussed. The text also highlights the impact of the use of the chassis dynamometer as a development platform and its impact on the development process. Examples of using chassis dynamometer as a development platform using Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop (VHiL) approach including drivability assessment and transmission calibrations are presented.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1971
Giovanni Rinaldi, Gabriella Cerrato
The role of NVH test development has changed from addressing a system-level NV concern late in the design cycle (firefighting) to having well established NV optimized test procedures in place. One way this is achieved is by leveraging the information gained during troubleshooting of current product to improve the future product development process for noise and vibration. Today, most NV groups/laboratories use optimized test procedures for creating accurate, consistent, and efficient test results. This still requires expertise to post-process data, compute targets and interpret results to guide product development. This step is often overlooked and, in recent years, due to the lack of NV expertise of “younger” labs (typically in non-automotive industries) or of more established labs affected by the economic downturn (early retirements, lay-offs, especially in the automotive industry) there has been a growing need for automated post-processing “intelligent” procedures.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1973
Karl Janssens, Dirk De Weer, Fabio Bianciardi, Thomas Sondergaard
A key issue in noise emission studies of noise producing machinery concerns the identification and analysis of the noise sources and their interaction and radiation into the far field. This paper presents a new acoustic measurement technique for noise source identification in stationary applications. The core of the technology is a handheld measurement instrument combining a position and orientation tracking device with a 3D sound intensity probe. The technique allows an on-line 3D visualization of the sound field while moving the probe freely around the test object. By focusing on the areas of interest, troublesome areas can be identified that require further in-depth analysis. The measurement technique is flexible, interactive and widely applicable in industrial applications. This paper explains the working principle and characteristics of this new technology and positions it to existing methods like traditional sound intensity testing and array techniques.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1966
Sandro Guidati
With the exact knowledge of the current positions of the microphones in an array and the potential noise sources, it is possible to compensate a relative motion between them. In the past, techniques exploiting this knowledge have been used successfully, e.g., for the measurement of wind turbines and airplane flyover measurement. In this paper, these ideas are applied and modified for the development of a traffic flow observation system. The main purpose of a vehicle pass by measurement is to extract the continuous noise levels of the dominant sources. With the use of advanced video processing or additional sensor information (radar, light barrier) it is possible to create a continuous tracking model of the vehicle. The scan grid in the beam forming algorithm is then recalculated to compensate the movement. In the resulting acoustic video, the vehicle is fixed and the evolution of the sound sources can be observed and auralized for psychoacoustic evaluations.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0304
D.- N. Pagonis, G. Theotokatos, G. Livanos
The presented work concerns the development of a novel measurement system for determining the instantaneous rotational speed of an engine with high accuracy. The developed system is mainly based on a commercially available optical sensor and appropriate data acquisition / post-processing procedure. The accuracy of the system is high; speed recording with a resolution of one degree of crank angle has been succeeded when measuring the speed of a one cylinder four stroke S.I. motored engine. The deduced experimental results were compared with the corresponding theoretical ones obtained by appropriate simulations, validating the proper functionality of the developed system. Furthermore, the system was also integrated into a typical four cylinder low power industrial engine successfully. Key-features of the proposed measurement configuration are accuracy, simplicity and low-cost suggesting numerous potential applications.
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