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Viewing 1 to 30 of 222
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
Abstract This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Abstract Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Abstract Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas Mikulionis
Abstract Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive companies to improve by understanding what consumers want, like and dislike. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on measuring consumer’s ability, opinions and satisfaction. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic, etc.) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales. This ratings scale research focused on scales and their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research, discuss the use of rating scales specific to vehicle ergonomics, and analyze the results of an automotive interface study that correlates the seven-point adjective rating scale to the system usability score (SUS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
Abstract A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Abstract Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress
The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets of vehicles is quickly becoming commonplace. The GPS system can be used to track fleet vehicles resulting in more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS-based fleet telematics data is also valuable for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can also be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite its advantages for fleet management, there are performance limitations that affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of accidents. The U.S. Air Force, responsible for maintaining and operating the GPS space and control segments, publishes information about these limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
Abstract The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct crashes for years. Recently, a third-party system has been introduced that allows crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain information and event data from cellular telephones and other devices connected to the vehicle, vehicle events and navigation data in the form of tracklogs. These tracklogs provide a time history of a vehicle’s geolocation that may be useful in investigating an incident involving an automobile or reconstructing a crash. This paper presents an introduction to the type of data that may be retained and the methods for performing data acquisitions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
Abstract The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
Abstract This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Abstract Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the “ultimate mobile device”, connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a new proposed architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0233
Sindhu Ls, Vishwas Vaidya
Abstract The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
Abstract The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall on an FPGA device. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the hardware design procedures of the CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0357
Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Ricardo Moreira Vaz, Kleber Nogueira Hodel, Paschoal Federico Neto, Armando Laganá, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka
Abstract The several problems and bottlenecks faced users public transport users in big cities are a common knowledge. Among them agencies responsible for public transport recognize the lack of centralized control, the under and over supply, the lack of information to users and the non-compliance of scheduled trips. In order to work identified problems improving cities like Recife and São Paulo are testing systems named as embedded technology that integrate the use of GPS, cameras, centralized monitoring among others, retarding a deeper coverage compared to systems previously used. The main objectives are the comfort and safety increase of users and the freight logistics improvement. This paper presents the technologies being tested in Brazil through successful models applied in countries as Spain and Colombia, as well as the scope of bids and proposals for improvement of public transport.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1953
Shuhui Yow, Steve Nattrass, Wayne R. Jones
Enhanced octane is one route to fuels differentiation where associated vehicle performance benefits are generally measured under controlled wide-open throttle tests on a chassis dynamometer. The combined availabilities of relevant ECU data via OBD and telematic loggers present new opportunities to assess such fuel benefits on the road in normal real-world driving environments. A novel methodology is described in this paper which utilised the remote logging of key engine EOBD data from a fleet trial and the results successfully demonstrated significant octane-derived benefits in many vehicles throughout normal mixed-roads driving. The availability and the reliability of telematic loggers mean that the method could be implemented in a scalable way as a complementary approach in addition to conventional laboratory vehicle testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
Abstract This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Abstract Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. To identify and assess key indicators of young driver performance (including situation awareness), we previously developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to a set of common and potentially serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver's gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
Abstract We have developed a bench test method to assess driver distraction caused by the load of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that this method can be used to assess the task loads of both visual-manual tasks and auditory-vocal tasks. The task loads are assessed using the performances of both pedal tracking task (PT) and detection response task (DRT) while performing secondary tasks. We can perform this method using simple equipment such as game pedals and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted in three test environments in which test regions, experimenters and participants differed from each other in the US, and the test procedures were almost the same. We set two types of visual-manual tasks and two types of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two difficulties for each task type to vary the level of task load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of driving performance. Standardized procedures for providing individualized feedback on driving performance are not readily available. The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for developing standardized procedures that provide individualized feedback (“LiveMetrics”) from a simulated driving assessment used to measure driving performance. A preliminary evaluation is presented to test the performance of the LiveMetrics methodology. Three key performance indicators are used to evaluate the performance and utility of the method in the context of the preliminary evaluation. The results from the preliminary evaluation suggest abilities to customize reporting features for feedback and integrate these into existing driver training and education programs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
Abstract As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0224
Patrick Shelly
Abstract With the dramatic mismatch between handheld consumer devices and automobiles, both in terms of product lifespan and the speed at which new features (or versions) are released, vehicle OEMs are faced with a perplexing dilemma. If the connected car is to succeed there has to be a secure and accessible method to update the software in a vehicle's infotainment system - as well as a real or perceived way to graft in new software content. The challenge has become even more evident as the industry transitions from simple analog audio systems which have traditionally served up broadcast content to a new world in which configurable and interactive Internet-based content rules the day. This paper explores the options available for updating and extending the software capability of a vehicle's infotainment system while addressing the lifecycle mismatch between automobiles and consumer mobile devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0370
Modar Horani, Osamah Rawashdeh
Abstract Traditional Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) control systems are reactive by design and largely dependent on the on-board sensory data available on a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. The increasingly common Internet connectivity offered in today's vehicles, through infotainment and telematic systems, makes data available that may be used to improve current HVAC systems. This includes real-time outside relative humidity, ambient temperature, precipitation (i.e., rain, snow, etc.), and weather forecasts. This data, combined with position and route information of the vehicle, may be used to provide a more comfortable experience to vehicle occupants in addition to improving driver visibility through more intelligent humidity, and defrost control. While the possibility of improving HVAC control utilizing internet connectivity seems obvious, it is still currently unclear as to what extent.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Abstract In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1389
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Ifushi Shimonomoto
Abstract Objective tools that can assess the demands associated with in-vehicle human machine interfaces (HMIs) could assist automotive engineers designing safer interaction. This paper presents empirical evidence supporting one objective assessment approach, which compares the demand associated with in-vehicle tasks to the demand associated with “benchmarking” or “comparison tasks”. In the presented study, there were two types of benchmarking tasks-a modified surrogate reference task (SuRT) and a delayed digit recall task (n-back task) - representing different levels of visual demand and cognitive demand respectively. Twenty-four participants performed these two types of benchmarking tasks as well as two radio tasks while driving a vehicle on a closed-loop test track. Response measures included physiological (heart rate), glance metrics, driving performance (steering entropy) and subjective workload ratings.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2389
Quon Kwan, Leverson Boodlal
In this particular field study, the authors have demonstrated that telematics can be used to monitor and improve safe and fuel-efficient driving behavior. Telematics was used to monitor various driver performance parameters: unsafe events (sudden accelerations and hard braking expressed as Yellow and Red events, depending on severity), speeding, engine revolutions per minute (RPM), and fuel economy (miles per gallon). The drivers consisted of two groups: drivers of day cabs and drivers of sleeper cabs. The drivers of both groups were monitored during a baseline period during which no feedback, coaching, or rewards were provided. Then, the drivers of both groups were monitored during an intervention period, during which drivers were provided with feedback, coaching, and rewards.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0251
Aswin Sreekumar, Anuradha Meena, Shiraz Shahabudeen
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the telematics domain, with specific focus on the Indian Market. Telematics service areas broadly includes V2X (vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure) and safety communications, fleet management and monitoring, vehicle security, diagnostics, emergency and roadside assistance, automatic crash notification, service appointment scheduling, toll collection, vehicle insurance. Navigation, infotainment and in-car communications are also closely related areas. An emerging trend is that V2X telematics may be delivered using smartphones and networks such as 4G. The primary reason is cost advantage in utilizing smartphones as the platform to bring services to vehicles. Smartphone based applications and web portals can be used to enable remote access features.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 222

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