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Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
Technical Paper
Quon Kwan, Leverson Boodlal
In this particular field study, the authors have demonstrated that telematics can be used to monitor and improve safe and fuel-efficient driving behavior. Telematics was used to monitor various driver performance parameters: unsafe events (sudden accelerations and hard braking expressed as Yellow and Red events, depending on severity), speeding, engine revolutions per minute (RPM), and fuel economy (miles per gallon). The drivers consisted of two groups: drivers of day cabs and drivers of sleeper cabs. The drivers of both groups were monitored during a baseline period during which no feedback, coaching, or rewards were provided. Then, the drivers of both groups were monitored during an intervention period, during which drivers were provided with feedback, coaching, and rewards. As the result of monitoring unsafe events and of driver intervention, drivers of sleeper cabs showed a 55 percent reduction from the baseline in less severe (Yellow) unsafe events and a 60 percent reduction from the baseline in more severe (Red) unsafe events.
Technical Paper
Kyung-Jung Lee, Jae-Min Kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Hyun-Sik Ahn
Abstract This paper proposes a design approach for the network configuration of brake-by-wire (BBW) systems using the FlexRay communication protocol. Owing to the absence of mechanical or hydraulic back-ups, the BBW system needs to be highly reliable and fault-tolerant. The FlexRay network is shown to be very effective for such requirements of BBW systems by using hardware in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which allows developing and testing various algorithms and faithfully reproduces the actual system. The FlexRay protocols are designed using the FIBEX configuration tool appropriately for the control of BBW systems, and they are analyzed using the FlexRay communication monitoring tool. The results of HILS illustrate that the braking performance of a controller area network (CAN)-based network and that of a FlexRay-based network for BBW systems are very similar, however, the FlexRay-based network system is more reliable and ensures better fault diagnosis by monitoring more variables.
This document, the JAUS Compliance and Interoperability Policy (ARP6012), recommends an approach to documenting the complete interface of an unmanned system or component in regard to the application of the standard set. While non-SAE AS-4 JAUS documents are referenced in this ARP they are not within the scope of this document and should be viewed as examples only.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses characteristics of data communications for the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS). This document provides guidance on the aspects of transport media, unmanned systems and the characteristics of JAUS itself that are relevant to the definition of a JAUS transport specification.
This document is not a standard, it is a candidate for a standard being submitted to SAE for their consideration as a comment to SAE J2735. The term SAE J2735 SE candidate is used within this document to refer to this submission. This document specifies dialogs, messages, and the data frames and data elements that make up the messages specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC"), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, these dialogs, messages, data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to be of use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
Growth in telematics capabilities brings more benefits to more users Broader coverage, more features highlight the potential for increased connectivity and communication from the field
3-D manufacturing of titanium components takes off MRO providers are discovering ways to innovate their procedures while remaining viable and profitable through the current downturn in government spending. Commercial programs are flying high With economic regeneration underway this year, the rate of ordering new aircraft has been at an all-time high, with the result that backlogs for undelivered new production stretch well into the next decade for some popular models.
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services represent the platform-specific capabilities commonly found in UGVs, and augment the Mobilty Service Set [AS6009] which is platform-agnostic. At present ten (10) services are defined in this document.
WIP Standard
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (See Figure 1 below). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
Off-highway engines advance beyond Tier 4 With Tier 4 Final/Stage IV needs met, engine OEMs direct their focus and competitive energies toward optimizing competitive solutions. At the same time, they need to keep a weather eye out for future regulations, which many expect. Autonomous vehicle challenges span many fields Many of the challenges faced by military and commercial design teams are similar. Racket busters With a quiet cab at the top of many tractor buyers' wish lists, agricultural equipment manufacturers are pursuing every opportunity possible to shed decibels.
WIP Standard
The federal government and industry have moved to concurrent acquisition and development processes using integrated process teams (IPTs). These processes are supported by timely, accurate, cross functional access to data within an integrated data environment (IDE) enabled by advances in information technology (IT). Since the advent of acquisition reform in 1994, Data Management (DM) practices have evolved from being directed by a prescriptive set of standards and procedures to use of the guidance in a principles-based standard -- ANSI/EIA 859.

GEIA Handbook 859 provides implementation guidance for ANSI/EIA 859, with discussions of applications of the standard's principles, tools, examples, and case studies. Handbook 859 is organized according to the lifecycle of data management and covers activities from the pre-RFP stage through records disposition. It also provides annexes on topics which apply at multiple stages in the lifecycle, such as protection of data, continuous improvement and knowledge management.

This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Manipulator Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Manipulator Services represent platform-independent capabilities commonly found across domains and types of unmanned systems. At present, twenty-five (25) services are defined in this document.
Technical Paper
Nikolina Samardzic
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for ‘average speech’ was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the calculated SII scores with the measured speech intelligibility scores.
WIP Standard
Generate an accompanying document to AS-6129 to define the verification method and criteria for all the requirements contained in AS-6129.
WIP Standard
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of platform/subsystem Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for platform to subsystem interface documents to facilitate subsystem integration. This aerospace standard specifies the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
WIP Standard
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
Technical Paper
Edgardo X. Menendez, George White, Michael Ulrich
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications is receiving a lot of attention in the automotive industry due to the many advantages it presents to the general public including, but not limited to, increased traffic efficiency and increased safety on the roads. The multilayer organic technology allows manufacturers to build several different types of passive components with high performance characteristics at RF/Microwave frequencies, including capacitors, inductors and diplexers. The performance of each component family will be discussed along with a comparison to traditional ceramic based fired components. Frequency response, mechanical performance, and specifications will be compared. MLO™ diplexer performance will be discussed relative to their use in V2V systems and their potential impact on system performance.
Technical Paper
Satoru Komatsu, Yukihiro Serizawa, Akira Nagao, Ken Asami, Yoshio Karasawa
Abstract Traditionally, the suitability of wireless terminals for automotive use has been evaluated by conducting repeated driving tests in actual environments. However, this method of evaluation has long presented issues, and the implementation of the method itself is today becoming increasingly challenging. A method of evaluating the suitability of terminals for onboard use by generating virtual radio wave environments on a PC has therefore been developed by applying a two-stage method to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-over-the-air(OTA) evaluation. The radio wave propagation characteristics necessary for the generation of these virtual radio wave environments are set using the multiple signal classification method incorporating an RF recorder. The research discussed in this paper used these methods to analyze the effect of the multipath distortion rate on sound quality in the reception of FM broadcasts.
Technical Paper
Marco Steger, Michael Karner, Werner Rom, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract Within this work we demonstrate the implementation and evaluation of a vehicle-to-vehicle based intersection assistance system, relying only on communication between the vehicles and not requiring any communication with infrastructural components as it is the case with typical complex intersection assistance systems. It also requires no additional information like right-of-way or maps and works out-of-the-box for nearly all types of intersections. The intersection assistance system utilizes GPS, yaw rate, vehicle acceleration, speed and heading as indicators for a 3D path prediction. While the x-y layer aids in the detection of possible collisions, the z axis is used for detecting bridges and overpasses. By applying several sophisticated filter levels and algorithms, the amount of false positives can massively be reduced while the true positives can be maintained. Finally, the developed simple intersection assistance system is compared to a sophisticated intersection assistance system.
Technical Paper
Radovan Miucic, Zeljko Popovic, Sue Bai
Abstract Precise vehicle positioning is dependent on the availability of a clear line of sight path between a vehicle and four or more satellites. For improved estimation of vehicle positioning in the absence of a complete set of visible satellites, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) may offer a temporary position estimate. This paper investigates the feasibility of acquiring position based solely on DSRC signals. First the precision of DSRC signal strength (SI)-based position estimates is analyzed; this is followed by an analysis of position estimates based on time of flight (TOF). SI and TOF methods are compared using an extensive set of outdoor data collected from 30 vehicles on a test track. This research suggests that TOF is a better measure than SI for estimating position information.
Technical Paper
Aswin Sreekumar, Anuradha Meena, Shiraz Shahabudeen
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the telematics domain, with specific focus on the Indian Market. Telematics service areas broadly includes V2X (vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure) and safety communications, fleet management and monitoring, vehicle security, diagnostics, emergency and roadside assistance, automatic crash notification, service appointment scheduling, toll collection, vehicle insurance. Navigation, infotainment and in-car communications are also closely related areas. An emerging trend is that V2X telematics may be delivered using smartphones and networks such as 4G. The primary reason is cost advantage in utilizing smartphones as the platform to bring services to vehicles. Smartphone based applications and web portals can be used to enable remote access features. In fact, if Federal Communications Commission (FCC) decides to eventually share the 5.9 GHz DSRC band, telematics may in fact rely much more on standard telecommunications infrastructure.
Technical Paper
Carl Bergenhem, Erik Coelingh, Rolf Johansson, Ali Tehrani
This paper presents measurements on Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication between participants in a platooning application. Platooning, according to the SARTRE concept, implies several vehicles travelling together in tight formation, with a manually driven heavy lead vehicle. The platoon being studied consists of five vehicles; two trucks in the lead and three passenger cars. The V2V-communication node in each vehicle contains an 802.11p radio at 5,9 GHz. It is used to send messages between vehicles to coordinate movements and maintain safety in the platoon. Another cooperative application that relies on V2V-communication is multiple UAVs flying in formation; as investigated in KARYON. This project also investigates cooperative autonomous vehicles. In both applications, V2V-communication is an enabling technology. Two metrics are studied to quantify the V2V-communication quality: system packet error rate and consecutive packet loss. These two metrics characterize the communication quality in the different tests (speed, antenna position and two tracks).
Technical Paper
Karsten Schmidt, Peter Tröger, Hans-Martin Kroll, Thomas Bünger, Florian Krueger, Christian Neuhaus
Future automotive systems will be connected with other vehicles and information systems for improved road safety, mobility and comfort. This new connectivity establishes data and command channels between the internal automotive system and arbitrary external entities. One significant issue of this paradigm shift is that formerly closed automotive systems now become open systems that can be maliciously influenced through their communication interfaces. This introduces a new class of security challenges for automotive design. It also indirectly impacts the safety mechanisms that rely on a closed-world assumption for the vehicle. We present a new security analysis approach that helps to identify and prioritize security issues in automotive architectures. The methodology incorporates a new threat classification for data flows in connected vehicle systems.
WIP Standard
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
AS5653 may be applied to Air Vehicles and Stores implementing MIL-STD-1760 Interface Standard for Aircraft/Store Electrical Interconnection System.
George Rzevski, Petr Skobelev
Managing Complexity is the first book that clearly defines the concept of Complexity, explains how Complexity can be measured and tuned, and describes the seven key features of Complex Systems: 1. Connectivity 2. Autonomy 3. Emergency 4. Non-equilibrium 5. Non-linearity 6. Self-organisation 7. Co-evolution The thesis of the book is that complexity of the environment in which we work and live offers new opportunities and that the best strategy for surviving and prospering under conditions of complexity is to develop adaptability to perpetually changing conditions. An effective method for designing adaptability into business processes using multi-agent technology is presented and illustrated by several extensive examples, including adaptive, real-time scheduling of taxis, see-going tankers, road transport, supply chains, railway trains, production processes and swarms of small space satellites. Additional case studies include adaptive servicing of the International Space Station; adaptive processing of design changes of large structures such as wings of the largest airliner in the world; dynamic data mining, knowledge discovery and distributed semantic processing.
New technologies for 2014 OEM and supplier engineers are all about technical innovation. In this special feature, Automotive Engineering International highlights (in no special order) some notable ones debuting on 2014 models.
Managing positioning integrity Thales has established a new reference system to comply with the most demanding RNP-AR navigation procedures. Business jets wait for the uplift A look at how the global executive jet market is fighting back after a hard few years.
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