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2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2051
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
Abstract The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
Abstract This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment.
CURRENT
2016-09-16
Standard
AIR6114
This document was prepared by the SAE AS-1B1 IMM Task Group to explain and document background information and design decisions made during the development of AS5726. This handbook is published separately to preserve information that is not required or provided in the AS5726 but may be important to system designers to ensure interoperability between the Micro Munition Host and Micro Munition. As a handbook, it cannot be invoked as a requirement in a contract. The structure and numbering of this document mirrors that of AS5726 for the convenience of readers. Headings such as “Requirements” in this handbook should not be interpreted as invoking requirements.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AIR4886A
The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for Real-Time Communication Protocols (RTCP). Systems for real-time applications are characterized by the presence of hard deadlines where failure to meet a deadline must be considered a system fault. These requirements have been drive predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace type military platforms and commercial aircraft, but are generally applicable to any distributed, real-time, control systems. These requirements are primarily targeted for the Transport and Network Layers of peer to peer protocols, as referenced in the Open System Interconnect Reference Model (2.2.1 and 2.2.2), developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). These requirements are intended to complement SAE AS4074 (2.1.1) and AS4075 (2.1.2), and future SAE communications standards.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS4074B
This standard specifies the characteristics of the SAE Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) Interface Unit. The LTPB provides a high reliability, high bandwidth, low latency serial interconnection network suitable for utilization in real time military and commercial applications. Multiple redundant data paths can be implemented to enhance reliability and survivability in those applications which require these attributes. The token passing and data exchange protocols are optimized to provide low latency and fast failure detection and correction. Physical configurations with bus lengths up to 1000 m can be accommodated.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS4074/2B
This slash sheet specifies the operational parameters and characteristics of a particular implementation of the SAE Linear, Token Passing Bus (LTPB) Interface Unit. This slash sheet defines the following: a. the physical media interface: this slash sheet specifies the characteristics of the optical interface to the physical bus media; b. the minimum and maximum timing requirements for operation of this implementation of the LTPB; c. the data coding used to encode and decode the data for transmission; and d. the default values to be loaded into the timers of the LTPB interface at power-up prior to intervention by the host processor.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AIR5683A
MIL-STD-1553 establishes requirements for digital command/response time division multiplexing (TDM) techniques on military vehicles, especially aircraft. The existing MIL-STD-1553 network operates at a baud rate of 1 Mbps and is limited by the protocol to a maximum data payload capacity of approximately 700 kilobits per second. The limited capacity of MIL-STD-1553 buses coupled with emering data rich applications for avionics platforms plus the expense involved with changing or adding wires to thousands of aircraft in the fleet has driven the need for expanding the data carrying capacity of the existing MIL-STD-1553 infrastructure.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS4074/3B
This slash sheet specifies the operational parameters and characteristics of a particular implementation of the SAE Linear, Token Passing Bus (LTPB) Interface Unit. This slash sheet defines the following: a. the physical media interface: this slash sheet specifies the characteristics of the optical interface to the physical bus media; b. the minimum and maximum timing requirements for operation of this implementation of the LTPB; c. the data coding used to encode and decode the data for transmission; and d. the default values to be loaded into the timers of the LTPB interface at power-up prior to intervention by the host processor.
2016-09-14
WIP Standard
AS4074/1B
This slash sheet specifies the operational parameters and characteristics of a particular implementation of the SAE Linear, Token Passing Bus (LTPB) Interface Unit. This slash sheet defines the following: a. the physical media interface: this slash sheet specifies the characteristics of the optical interface to the physical bus media; b. the minimum and maximum timing requirements for operation of this implementation of the LTPB; c. the data coding used to encode and decode the data for transmission; and d. the default values to be loaded into the timers of the LTPB interface at power-up prior to intervention by the host processor.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2819
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol TP2.0. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECU(s), in which a TP2.0 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2818
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol Keyword Protocol 1281 (KWP1281). This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECUs, in which a KWP1281 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the KWP1281 protocol in enough detail to support the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface device.
2016-08-25
WIP Standard
ARP6856
This recommended practice provides users with the technical requirements and methods for accessing, viewing, and processing raw GNSS receiver measurements for improved unmanned vehicle navigation solutions.
2016-08-25
WIP Standard
ARP6857
This recommended practice defines the technical requirements for a terrestrial based PNT system to improve unmanned vehicle navigation solutions and ensure critical infrastructure security.
2016-08-01
Magazine
Seeing the Light Achieving Full-Color, Day or Night Readability for Flat-Panel Displays Multiple Node Networking Using PCIe Interconnects PCI Express (PCIe) interconnects, and how they can be used to support multiple node low latency data transfers over copper or optical cables, is gaining momentum in embedded computing solutions. Zero-Emissions Electric Aircraft Theory vs Reality Analyzing Radar Signals With Demodulation Combining Software and Hardware for Highly Specialized Multichannel Spectrum Monitoring Advanced Thermal Management Solutions Thermoelectric Cooling Thermal Ground Planes Thermal Management of Laser Diodes The Effect of Substrate Emissivity on the Spectral Emission of a Hot-Gas Overlayer Process Approach to Determining Quality Inspection Deployment Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment Non-Contact Circuit for Real-Time Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements
2016-07-27
WIP Standard
J2945/12
This recommended practice will provide guidance on Traffic Probe Use data to manufacturers that are either Transportation System Management (TSM) core or aligned entities. The recommended practice originates from prior work of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Technical Committee, as well as existing practices implemented by industry, academia and government. The recommended practice informs manufacturers and practitioners of message use and operation within an automated collection system involved in the orchestration of safe, efficient, and reliable movement of people and goods. The recommended practice for Traffic Probe Use and Operation will support practitioners through the definition of message structure, on-board processing and storage requirements, the operational preservation of vehicle anonymity, and message event management criteria.
2016-07-14
Book
Eric Walter, Richard Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
CURRENT
2016-06-28
Standard
EIA511
The Manufacturing Message Specification is an application layer standard designed to support messaging communications to and from programmable devices in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. This environment is referred to in this standard as the manufacturing environment. This standard does not specify a complete set of services for remote programming of devices, although provision or such a set of services may be subject of future standardization efforts.
2016-06-02
WIP Standard
J2836/5
This SAE Information Report J2836/5™ establishes the use cases for communications between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and their customers. The use case scenarios define the information to be communicated related to customer convenience features for charge on/off control, charge power curtailment, customer preference settings, charging status, EVSE availability/access, and electricity usage. Also addresses customer information resulting from conflicts to customer charging preferences. This document only provides the use cases that define the communications requirements to enable customers to interact with the PEV and to optimize their experience with driving a Plug-In Electric Vehicle. Specifications such as protocols and physical transfer methods for communicating information are not within the scope of this document.
2016-05-05
WIP Standard
AS6523
This data dictionary provides a mathematically coherent set of definitions for quantity types used in data models for unmanned systems. In this data dictionary, a quantity is defined as a property of a phenomenon, substance, or body whose value has magnitude.
2016-05-03
WIP Standard
J1939/71
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates.
2016-04-26
WIP Standard
AS6386
This document, the JAUS Automated Behaviors and Diagnostics Service Set, defines a message-passing interface for services commonly found in mobile unmanned systems. These services represent the platform-independent capabilities common across all domains. Additional capabilities are specified in the JAUS Core Service Set (AS5710) and are frequently referenced herein.
2016-04-12
WIP Standard
AS5506C
(1) This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems; the language is known as the SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL). An AADL model describes a system as a hierarchy of components with their interfaces and their interconnections. Properties are associated to these constructions. AADL components fall into two major categories: those that represent the physical hardware and those representing the application software. The former is typified by processors, buses, memory, and devices, the latter by application software functions, data, threads, and processes. The model describes how these components interact and are integrated to form complete systems. It describes both functional interfaces and aspects critical for performance of individual components and assemblies of components.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/11
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the J2735 Signal Request and Signal Status messages in the standard relating to signalized systems status. It primary content will deal with explaining and demonstrating by small working examples how these messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. Particular attention will be paid to the interaction between the SAE work and the relevant NTCIP standards used in the signal control system. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a brief summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/10
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the current MAP and SPAT message content found in the recently published J2735. It’s primary content will deal with better explaining and demonstrating by small working examples of how suitable messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a briefs summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
Abstract The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
Abstract This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
Abstract While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging riders’ use of technologies (i.e., phones, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older riders (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study surveyed a convenience sample of typical motorcycle riders in the United States in order to provide an overview of the types of technologies that riders of different age groups use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, as well as rider demographics and riding habits. The sample included 97 riders (84 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (M= 50.9, SD= 10.6) who were divided into three age groups (under 40 years, between 40 and 50 years, 50 years and older).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
Abstract The number one priority in vehicle security is to harden the root-of-trust; from which everything else - the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security - is derived. If the root-of-trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root-of-trust will effectively be an encryption key - a digital signature for each vehicle - that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, formal analysis technique can be applied to ensure that this secure storage cannot (A) be read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real-world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology to secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
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