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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1386
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Tetsuya Hara, Doua Vang
In recent decades, innovations in both direct interface (e.g. touchscreen based systems) and indirect interface (e.g. remote controller based systems) have successfully entered consumer markets. These solutions became major channels of infotainment function interaction. However, the popularity of new Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMIs) also comes with growing concerns for driver distraction. It is not a trivial quest to design a system that can make functions accessible to drivers as well as maintain drivers’ ability to cope with the complex driving task. To understand driver distraction, eye behavior has been studied extensively with a focus on off-road glances. Several standards and guidelines are based on off-road glance-related measures. An alternative approach is to consider both on-road and off-road glances. This can be done using an algorithm such as Kircher and Ahlstrom’s (2009) AttenD algorithm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores. A customer clinic was conducted on a steering wheel/instrument cluster and a center display screen, to see the difference in SUS scores of participants with “Free Exploration”, “Guided Exploration” , “No exploration” and “Repeated task Exploration” in a between subject design study. All four test methods were analyzed for their impact on SUS score, task success rates and adjective rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Accurate and consistent measurement of consumer preferences is critical to world-class automotive product development. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on translating customer emotions into firm, repeatable metrics. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales discussing their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research and discuss the use of rating scale specific to vehicle ergonomics. It will also analyze the correlation of the seven-point adjective rating scale to other usability metrics of in – vehicle interfaces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford's powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and transmission of a rich, real-time data set from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database is of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hard-coded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0093
Balachander Dhanavanthan
Radio Frequency (RF) propagation in vehicular environments exhibit major transformations from indoor, outdoor and farmland multipath environments. The innovative advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has made it necessary to recognise and predict the RF propagation losses for WSNs in vehicular environments. Very few models exist for network planning and deployment in vehicular environments. All of these models need an extensive statistical estimations and an in-depth knowledge of the vehicular environment. In this paper a different approach has been pursued and as a first step is to evaluate the factors which affect RF propagation in vehicular environments and how these factors affect each other while predicting propagation losses in vehicular environments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized space of regulatory rules, vehicles and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring and active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have a digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, prudhvi raj rongali, Shan zehra
The advancement of technology in automotive industry has increased the number of Electronic Control Units (ECU) in the vehicles which are connected to each other and other sensors and actuators in the in-vehicle networks. These numbers of ECUs necessitate the use of communication buses instead of traditional point-to-point protocol to reduce the amount of cabling and increase network scalability. There are different types of in-vehicle network protocol and bus system namely Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. In the study conducted, CAN bus and FlexRay communication protocol have been compared and implemented on the HCS12 Board. It was concluded that CAN-Bus communication protocol is the best for hard real-time systems and FlexRay is appropriate for deterministic data transmission when a particular message does not have any priority over the other ones.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1241
Wei Zhang, Rajesh Malhan
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has started to be applied in charging electrical vehicles (EV). EV models with built-in wireless charging capability is expected to be available from several major automakers in the next few years. Meanwhile, problems associated with the massive adoption of automobiles require new format of vehicles, especially the form with compact size and electric power. An inductively charged autonomous bicycle (iCab) is proposed, which has both the automotive driving and wireless charging features. It is designed to be compatible with an EV wireless charger. The wireless charging interoperability issue of the single transmitting coil capable to charge both the EV and iCab is studied in this paper. The receiving coil of a wireless charger is usually designed to match with single transmitting coil and to have a fixed power level output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development life cycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 sub-samples of different sample sizes. The percentage of sub-samples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a sub-sample size of thirty five, 95% of the sub-samples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1650
Jian Yang, Christian Poellabauer, Pramita Mitra
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an energy-efficient radio communication technology that is rapidly gaining popularity for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While BLE was not designed specifically with vehicular communications in mind, its simple and quick connection establishment mechanisms make it a potential inter-vehicle communication technology, either replacing or complementing other V2V technologies (such as the yet to be deployed DSRC). Recently, there have been several efforts analyzing BLE performance in inter-vehicular communications, but these studies are still far from being comprehensive or conclusive. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate framework for BLE-based V2V communication. In particular, the wide range of parameter settings indicate great potential for BLE-based V2V communications. In this paper we propose a framework for V2V communication using BLE and evaluate its performance under various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Increasing numbers of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and they are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. We examine the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their on-road driving behaviors. This study collected vehicle telematics data from a small fleet of Ford Fiesta vehicles over 6 months in London, UK. The collected variables included vehicle speed, acceleration pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering angle position, gear position, and engine RPM. A list of driving metrics were developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and turning speed. The Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm is used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics. The RF model is also used to rank the importance of each driving metric on driver identification. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the possibility of identifying drivers from their on-road driving behaviors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1373
Takuya Mori, Akihiko Yagyu
At SAE level 3 driving automation, the driver does not need to monitor the system and the driving environment at all times. Thus, the driver will be out of the loop and can engage in non-driving tasks. When the limitations to the automated system are reached, it requests the driver to take-over the driving tasks. However, the driver cannot take-over the driving task from the automated system immediately because they have been out of the loop with no situation awareness, and cannot decide the required driving maneuvers quickly enough. As the automated system cannot check directly whether the driver has regained situation awareness, it cannot determine whether it is safe to hand over the driving task to the driver. It is therefore important for the automated system to detect maneuvers that show dynamic decision-making on the part of the driver. We used a driving simulator to investigate the driver’s performance when taking-over the driving task from the automated system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the aged population, automakers paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of application for IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring system is possible. For example, smart car, smart home, smart bed, etc., Both luxury automakers and key global original equipment manufacturers integrating healthcare services into their next-generation products.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas mikulionis
Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide (IMS Research, 2012). As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0290
Veera Aditya yerra, Srikanth Pilla
The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart polylemma of production technologies. The stringent CAFE standards set forth by the Obama administration has pushed the automotive industry to radically revolutionize and design lightweight systems using advanced materials such as composites. Despite several outstanding benefits, advanced materials often come with additional costs. Minimizing physical infrastructure and improving efficiency will make the use of these materials affordable. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1212
Hong Jia HONG, Jesus Ruiz Sevillano, Clemens Kain, Guenter Hofer, Karl Felber, Wai Keung Chan
The automotive industry is moving from fossil carburant to electric drive trains due to the stringent CO2 reduction policies. In this context, the electric energy storage becomes one of the key parameters of successful rolling out electrified vehicles. Typical battery management systems comprises of battery cells measurement and monitoring, balancing function, temperature monitoring, together with the State of Charge and State of Health estimations based on the given measurements. Together with the functions above, a robust internal IC communication protocol is one of the key parameters to guarantee battery performance as well as safety. This paper focuses on the automotive battery communication system. On one side, the importance of the communication system and its impact in the EDT (electric drive train) are discussed including safety aspects. Later on, the different communication methods up to date are analysed to further understand their limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1377
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Speech technologies hold the promise of providing improved driver performance for many visual-manual secondary tasks, by enabling eyes-free and hands-free interactions. In-vehicle speech interfaces enjoyed only incremental growth since the early 2000s, partly due at least in one automotive company to lack of acceptance by a senior executive. Over the last five years, in-vehicle mixed-mode interfaces (speech combined with visual-manual) have become increasingly common among automotive companies. This paper also reviews driver interface modality testing on a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option, as well as an analytical evaluation of the Apple CarPlay interface in the 2016 Cadillac ATS, and a discussion of Android Auto. We compared pure speech interfaces, speech mixed with visual-manual operations, and visual-manual operations alone.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1694
Kevin Huntsman, Renato Veiga, Victor Silva
Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonmic location.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1638
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park
TPMS sensor measures air pressure and temperature in the tire and transmits tire information as wireless messages to TPMS central unit which consists of RF receiver. TPMS central unit needs to determine the exact sensor locations (e.g. Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left or Rear Right) in order to correctly identify the location of the tire with low pressure. The identified tire with low pressure is displayed on dash board in the car. Thus, determination of the location of a particular tire made automatically by the TPMS system itself or tire auto localization is required. Tire auto localization is implemented in several methods. A new method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses at least two RF transceivers as repeaters. Each transceiver receives wireless messages (eg. Pressure, temperature, sensor ID) from the nearest TPMS sensor and transmits them with RF transceiver identity to TPMS central unit.
CURRENT
2017-01-18
Standard
AS5506C
This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems; the language is known as the SAE AADL. An AADL model describes a system as a hierarchy of components with their interfaces and their interconnections. Properties are associated to these constructions. AADL components fall into two major categories: those that represent the physical hardware and those representing the application software. The former is typified by processors, buses, memory, and devices, the latter by application software functions, data, threads, and processes. The model describes how these components interact and are integrated to form complete systems. It describes both functional interfaces and aspects critical for performance of individual components and assemblies of components. The changes to the runtime architecture are modeled as operational modes and mode transitions.
CURRENT
2017-01-12
Standard
AS5609A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for aircraft/store interface documents to foster increased interoperability. It is designed with the versatility to serve differing “ICD” philosophies and organizations. This aerospace standard defines the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
2016-12-31
Book
Terry Lee Davis
In the next decade, commercial aviation will see Next Generation ATM (NextGEN), Single European Skies ATM Research (SESAR), and others utilizing Internet- based air-to-ground communication links for advanced “air traffic control” (ATC) communications. Commercial Aviation Cyber Security: Current State and Essential Reading highlights some of the major issues the industry must confront if the vision of a new, advanced air traffic management is to come to fruition. This will require standardization work to identify key components with built-in cyber security that will guide prototype testing, functionality, and prioritizing implementation efforts to solve the roadblocks to global interoperability. The ten technical papers selected for Commercial Aviation Cyber Security: Current State and Essential Reading span the last decade’s work in commercial aviation cyber security, and aircraft cyber technologies.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1366

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