Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 1371
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Increasing numbers of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and they are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. We examine the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their on-road driving behaviors. This study collected vehicle telematics data from a small fleet of Ford Fiesta vehicles over 6 months in London, UK. The collected variables included vehicle speed, acceleration pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering angle position, gear position, and engine RPM. A list of driving metrics were developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and turning speed. The Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm is used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics. The RF model is also used to rank the importance of each driving metric on driver identification. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the possibility of identifying drivers from their on-road driving behaviors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the aged population, automakers paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of application for IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring system is possible. For example, smart car, smart home, smart bed, etc., Both luxury automakers and key global original equipment manufacturers integrating healthcare services into their next-generation products.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1694
Victor Silva, Renato Veiga
Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonmic location.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct accidents for years. Recently, a system has been introduced that will allow crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain navigation data in the form of tracklogs that provide a time history of vehicle geolocation that may be useful in reconstructing a crash. This paper presents testing in which the GPS navigation data imaged from the vehicle is compared to independent GPS instrumentation to analyze the accuracy of the retrieved navigation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1638
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park
TPMS sensor measures air pressure and temperature in the tire and transmits tire information as wireless messages to TPMS central unit which consists of RF receiver. TPMS central unit needs to determine the exact sensor locations (e.g. Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left or Rear Right) in order to correctly identify the location of the tire with low pressure. The identified tire with low pressure is displayed on dash board in the car. Thus, determination of the location of a particular tire made automatically by the TPMS system itself or tire auto localization is required. Tire auto localization is implemented in several methods. A new method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses at least two RF transceivers as repeaters. Each transceiver receives wireless messages (eg. Pressure, temperature, sensor ID) from the nearest TPMS sensor and transmits them with RF transceiver identity to TPMS central unit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0092
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Svitlana Chumachenko, Arthur Ziarmand, Irina Englesi, Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Anastasiia Khakhanova
The new cyber-technological culture of the transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of car is the future of Humanity. A cyber-physical system Smart Cloud Traffic Control, which realizes the mentioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of the digitized space of regulatory rules, vehicles and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring and active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor of each vehicle. The main components of the cyber-physical system are the following: infrastructure, road users and rules, which have a digital representation in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud mobile control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1212
Hong Jia HONG, Jesus Ruiz Sevillano, Clemens Kain, Guenter Hofer, Karl Felber, Wai Keung Chan
The automotive industry is moving from fossil carburant to electric drive trains due to the stringent CO2 reduction policies. In this context, the electric energy storage becomes one of the key parameters of successful rolling out electrified vehicles. Typical battery management systems comprises of battery cells measurement and monitoring, balancing function, temperature monitoring, together with the State of Charge and State of Health estimations based on the given measurements. Together with the functions above, a robust internal IC communication protocol is one of the key parameters to guarantee battery performance as well as safety. This paper focuses on the automotive battery communication system. On one side, the importance of the communication system and its impact in the EDT (electric drive train) are discussed including safety aspects. Later on, the different communication methods up to date are analysed to further understand their limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas Mikulionis
Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide (IMS Research, 2012). As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1241
Wei Zhang, Rajesh Malhan
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has started to be applied in charging electrical vehicles (EV). EV models with built-in wireless charging capability is expected to be available from several major automakers in the next few years. Meanwhile, problems associated with the massive adoption of automobiles require new format of vehicles, especially the form with compact size and electric power. An inductively charged autonomous bicycle (iCab) is proposed, which has both the automotive driving and wireless charging features. It is designed to be compatible with an EV wireless charger. The wireless charging interoperability issue of the single transmitting coil capable to charge both the EV and iCab is studied in this paper. The receiving coil of a wireless charger is usually designed to match with single transmitting coil and to have a fixed power level output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0093
Balachander Dhanavanthan
Radio Frequency (RF) propagation in vehicular environments exhibit major transformations from indoor, outdoor and farmland multipath environments. The innovative advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has made it necessary to recognise and predict the RF propagation losses for WSNs in vehicular environments. Very few models exist for network planning and deployment in vehicular environments. All of these models need an extensive statistical estimations and an in-depth knowledge of the vehicular environment. In this paper a different approach has been pursued and as a first step is to evaluate the factors which affect RF propagation in vehicular environments and how these factors affect each other while predicting propagation losses in vehicular environments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores. A customer clinic was conducted on a steering wheel/instrument cluster and a center display screen, to see the difference in SUS scores of participants with “Free Exploration”, “Guided Exploration” , “No exploration” and “Repeated task Exploration” in a between subject design study. All four test methods were analyzed for their impact on SUS score, task success rates and adjective rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Accurate and consistent measurement of consumer preferences is critical to world-class automotive product development. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on translating customer emotions into firm, repeatable metrics. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales discussing their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research and discuss the use of rating scale specific to vehicle ergonomics. It will also analyze the correlation of the seven-point adjective rating scale to other usability metrics of in – vehicle interfaces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Today, automated and autonomous vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, Ford is currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X based applications like Electronic Emergency Brake Light (EEBL), Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW) and Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC) in the 5.9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, the novel application Intersection Priority Management (IPM) is part of the research project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress
The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets of vehicles is quickly becoming commonplace. The GPS system can be used to track fleet vehicles resulting in more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS-based fleet telematics data is also valuable for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can also be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite its advantages for fleet management, there are performance limitations that affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of accidents. The U.S. Air Force, responsible for maintaining and operating the GPS space and control segments, publishes information about these limitations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0290
Veera Aditya Yerra, Srikanth Pilla
The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart polylemma of production technologies. The stringent CAFE standards set forth by the Obama administration has pushed the automotive industry to radically revolutionize and design lightweight systems using advanced materials such as composites. Despite several outstanding benefits, advanced materials often come with additional costs. Minimizing physical infrastructure and improving efficiency will make the use of these materials affordable. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0077
Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc, Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
This paper provides an evaluation of how communication performance between vehicles of Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies among different driving scenarios. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. DSRC communication involves vehicles moving on the same roadway, both same-direction traffic and opposite-direction traffic. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1650
Jian Yang, Christian Poellabauer, Pramita Mitra
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an energy-efficient radio communication technology that is rapidly gaining popularity for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While BLE was not designed specifically with vehicular communications in mind, its simple and quick connection establishment mechanisms make it a potential inter-vehicle communication technology, either replacing or complementing other V2V technologies (such as the yet to be deployed DSRC). Recently, there have been several efforts analyzing BLE performance in inter-vehicular communications, but these studies are still far from being comprehensive or conclusive. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate framework for BLE-based V2V communication. In particular, the wide range of parameter settings indicate great potential for BLE-based V2V communications. In this paper we propose a framework for V2V communication using BLE and evaluate its performance under various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
Abstract This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, Prudhvi Raj Rongali, Shan Zehra
The advancement of technology in automotive industry has increased the number of Electronic Control Units (ECU) in the vehicles which are connected to each other and other sensors and actuators in the in-vehicle networks. These numbers of ECUs necessitate the use of communication buses instead of traditional point-to-point protocol to reduce the amount of cabling and increase network scalability. There are different types of in-vehicle network protocol and bus system namely Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. In the study conducted, CAN bus and FlexRay communication protocol have been compared and implemented on the HCS12 Board. It was concluded that CAN-Bus communication protocol is the best for hard real-time systems and FlexRay is appropriate for deterministic data transmission when a particular message does not have any priority over the other ones.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1702
Piyush Aggarwal, Bo Chen, Jason Harper
The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources have raised concerns about their impact on current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate various devices and systems in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employ OpenADR standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1660
Huaxin Li, Di Ma, Brahim Medjahed, Qianyi Wang, Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
2017-02-20
WIP Standard
AS5506/3
(1) The Behavior Annex document provides a standard sublanguage extension to allow behavior specifications to be attached to AADL components. The aim of the Behavior Annex is to refine the implicit behavior specifications that are specified by the core of the language. The Behavior Annex targets the following goals: • Describe the internal behavior of component implementations as a state transition system with guards and actions. However, the aim is not to replace software programming languages or to express complex subprogram computations. • Extend the default run-time execution semantics that is specified by the core of the standard, such as thread dispatch protocols. • Provide more precise subprogram calls synchronization protocols for client-server architectures.
CURRENT
2017-02-09
Standard
J1939DA_201702
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
2017-02-02
Magazine
The next phase Meeting Phase 2 fuel efficiency and GHG emissions for heavy trucks will require multiple technology pathways—some of which are still on the horizon. Active vibration damping for construction machines An innovative concept for an active system to reduce machine oscillations based on frequency identification. Consumer electronics come on board Smartphones and tablets are likely to play a large role in HMIs for heavy vehicles—if productivity and safety are not compromised. Patton’s new campaign As new SAE International President for 2017, Doug Patton will advocate STEM, “cultivation” of prospective young engineers. PACCAR’s Sproull primed for SAE Commercial Vehicle post As SAE International’s new 2017-2020 Commercial Vehicle Sector VP, Landon Sproull intends to bolster the society’s involvement in evolving industry regulations and to better cultivate cross-sector alliances.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1371

Filter