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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging motorcyclists’ use of technologies (i.e., texting, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older motorcyclists (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study sought to provide an overview of the types of technologies that motorcyclists use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, and motorcyclist demographics by surveying a convenience sample of typical motorcyclists in the United States. The sample included 91 riders (78 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (mean= 50.5, SD= 10.8). Surveyed motorcyclists answered questions about riding experience and training, technologies they use while riding, ease and frequency of use of those technologies, issues with the technologies, as well as riding behaviors and habits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani
This paper presents a multi-agent estimation approach to identify unknown parameters of autonomous vehicle environment in presence of communication fault in vehicular network. For some application, e.g. look-ahead road condition estimation, it is required for an agent to have access to other agents’ measurements, particularly frontal vehicles to predict the upcoming situations. By taking the advantage of the hybrid nature of the cooperative estimation problem, short time scale for V2V communication and longer time scale for single agent estimation convergence, the authors provide a multi agent consensus estimation, with an observer to access other agents’ measurements even for out of range agents in faulty network. Furthermore, the described estimation strategy is implemented in an adaptive model predictive collision avoidance policy for unknown road condition driving situation to demonstrate the application of proposed cooperative estimation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tohru Wakabayashi, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Hideki Matsushima, Masato Tanabe, Jun Anzai
Controller Area Network (CAN) is a technology widely adopted among vehicles but its vulnerability has been pointed out recently. Many countermeasures have been proposed, but none of them can be deemed as a generic solution. One reason is that those proposed countermeasures all require a heavy level of modification to the existing in-vehicle system.In order to accomplish this problem, we propose new methods to protect CAN network without affecting the existing system. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method as well as the architecture of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that implements it, report the result of our experiments, and show the effects against spoofing attacks as well as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0078
Eric DiBiaso, Bert Bergner, Jens Wuelfing, Robert Wuerker, Carlos Almeida
Ethernet technology utilizing a single unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is considered to have a promising future in the automotive industry. While 100Mbps transmission speeds can be achieved with standard connector platforms, 1Gbps requires specific design rules in order to ensure error free transmissions. This paper will explain the specific challenges for high speed UTP solutions in automotive environments. Connector limits relating to signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are also discussed in detail. Through simulations and testing, connector design criteria are established to fulfill all electrical and mechanical requirements. These design rules are followed by the introduction of a modular and scalable Ethernet connection system utilizing an optimum cable termination technology. Lastly, the electrical performance of this connection hardware will be demonstrated through both component and link level test results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0061
Anders Kallerdahl, Mohammad Salah
Increasingly, Ethernet is being used in areas such as vehicle network backbones, Audio Video Bridging (AVB) systems, and Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) diagnostics - areas in which high-bandwidth and reliable performance are essential. Designers are accustomed to network communication systems CAN, LIN, and FlexRay, but how will the timing performance be verified in an Ethernet network? This talk looks at network-wide timing analysis challenges where a mixture of CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernet-based network busses co-exist. The AUTOSAR standard supports timing definition for all elements in a mixed-topology network, but accounting for many different timing paths is a non-trivial process. A real-life example based on a Freescale electronic control unit (ECU) evaluation board will be used to illustrate this talk, along with a COTS network analysis tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI). Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
The #1 priority in vehicle security is to harden the “root of trust”; from which everything else – the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security – is derived. If the root of trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root of trust will effectively be an encryption key – a digital signature for each vehicle — that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, “formal” analysis techniques can be applied to ensure that this secure storage can’t be (A) read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs; or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Changes in physiological and operational behavior following lane departure warnings are explored in current production automotive systems. Different implementations employing auditory and haptic lane departure warning alerts were recorded in highway driving conditions from the factory installed lane departure warning systems. The lane departure warning events took place during single task driving periods as well as dual task driving. Dual task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s production interface to perform a secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks. Driver physiology and behavior were recorded and analyzed for pre-event and post-event conditions. To normalize between vehicles, percentage changes between pre-event and post-event measures were calculated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1421
Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh, Richard Young
This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0- and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit-Ethernet as the main in- vehicle network infrastructure is the foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2-footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influence also the used microcontrollers due the fact, that the big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc. The usage of Ethernet as the in vehicle network enable the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access. Such accesses can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices. This may result in new vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious attackers. Any external access to the system must be authorized and firewalled, so that only trustworthy users and services can make use of the functionality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-to-end framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large on-road dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0062
Anders Kallerdahl, Sherif Ali
Communication between electronic control units (ECUs) and Vehicle Gateways can span LIN, CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernet. Designing a in-vehicle network supporting multiple car platform variants, with respect to selecting the appropriate technology to connect ECUs and Gateway networks, and making timing based analysis and synthesis is extremely challenging. This paper discusses how to handle a variety of communication protocols on an individual network level and how multiple networks relate to the overall communication design of a vehicle platform ensuring consistent variants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0057
Eiji Taki, Yoshiro Hirata, Yoshifumi Ohmori, Naoji Kaneko, Hiroya Andou
Today, LIN (body systems), CAN (control systems), MOST (multimedia camera systems) is used as in-vehicle network protocol according to an application domain. And, standardization of the next-generation communication technology progresses on each domain. We can expect that CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) is a communication to satisfy the requirements of the body systems (high response, system expansion easiness, high reliability, low cost). The CXPI has major three features to satisfy the requirements of the body systems communication. 1. [High response, System scalability] With the CSMA/CR (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Resolution) bus accessing method same as CAN, each ECU can transmit its message at its own needed timing. CXPI can transmit periodic data and event data. A high priority data is transmitted by Arbitration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to ensure safe and secure operations. Of the various techniques that could be used to update software or firmware on mobile platforms, cellular communications has a massive coverage footprint that ranges from urban to rural locations worldwide. Long Term Evolution (LTE) communications is becoming and will be the standard for global cellular communications for the foreseeable future. Personal cellular base stations such as femtocells, which play a key role in planned LTE coverage, have been shown to be vulnerable to compromise. Updates accomplished through a compromised base station could lead to an update that is compromised.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0150
Felix Pistorius, Andreas Lauber, Johannes Pfau, Alexander Klimm, Juergen Becker
In order to further improve road safety and efficiency V2X based applications have been proposed and developed, such as emergency brake or crash warning. Hard real-time constraints have to be satisfied in order to build these safety applications. Existing V2X systems adhering to the IEEE 1609 (WAVE) and SAE J2735 (DSRC) standards implement most message processing in software. This means the latency of these systems strongly depends on the CPU load as well as the number of incoming messages per time. According to safety constraints all messages of nearby vehicles have to be processed, whereby no prediction of the message importance can be given without analyzing the message content first. This paper proposes a novel architecture that optimizes latency to satisfy the hard real-time constraints for V2X messages. At the same time it allows to reduce the load of the V2X application CPU (V2X-APU).
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1740
Jakarin Na bangchang, Jakapong Pongthanaisawan, Sorawit Narupiti, Raksit Thitipatanapong
The traffic in Thailand is expanding rapidly, resulting in a considerable amount of oil consumption and the emission of greenhouse gas from increased traffic. The important factors that cause amount of fuel consumption are not only the volume of traffic (cars running on the road) but also the driving characteristics of the drivers in traffic stream. Typically, the present method used in determining the rate of fuel consumption and emissions from traffic use the volume of traffic and the overall trip pattern, characterized by average speed. Such the approach may not reflect the actual movement in traffic flow. Therefore, the goal of this research is to find the factors that can identify driving characteristics on the road and can be used for calculating emissions and fuel consumption of cars with higher accuracy. This research uses data collection from the OBD (On Board Diagnostic) for analyzing the driving characteristics.
2016-02-04
WIP Standard
AIR6523
This data dictionary provides a mathematically coherent set of definitions for quantity types used in data models for unmanned systems. In this data dictionary, a quantity is defined as a property of a phenomenon, substance, or body whose value has magnitude.
2016-02-03
Magazine
Baking in protection With vehicles joining the Internet of Things, connectivity is making cybersecurity a must-have obligation for automotive engineers, from initial designs through end-of-life. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive new gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Citizen of the world Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about auto-mobility and aero-mobility 2050. CES rollouts extend connectivity, app integration Ford looks to spread Corning's new lightweight Gorilla Glass beyond the 2017 GT New 40%-scale wind tunnel increases GM's aero-development capacity Surface Generation speeds composites throughput with one-shot stamp-forming process 2017 Cadillac XT5 debuts GM's new lightweight crossover architecture Porsche and Bentley plan electric future
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0233
Sindhu Ls, Vishwas Vaidya
Abstract The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
2016-02-01
Magazine
Stanford goes solar down under Team takes sixth place in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge to cap a rigorous two-year design and development program. Taking the lead Being in charge of an SAE Student Chapter entails everything from organizing meetings to issuing 'nastygrams.' A winning video from a winning Collegiate Design Series team The defending champion of the Formula SAE Michigan competition, Oregon State University, has found another way to win. SAE U.K. Section co-hosts lecture series 'starring' NASA engineer/expert Dr. Ravi Margasahayam of NASA is the engineer responsible for ensuring payload safety for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.
2016-02-01
Magazine
Clamoring for more entertainment Connected consumers drive demand for bandwidth, though seatback entertainment remains popular. Fighting for life in military markets Airbus Defense & Space is looking to revitalize and ramp up production rates of its military aircraft portfolio.
2016-01-19
Standard
J2735_201601
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements, specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”) communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements, have been designed, to the extent possible, to be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies as well. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
AIR6521
This document provides an example Interface Control Document (ICD) based on the Object Management Group’s (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specifications. The platform-specific mapping is derived from the UCS Model and a series of non-normative platform implementation choices. The machine readable ICD and results of the implementation-specific mapping are provide in Interface Description Language (IDL) format.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
AS6512
This Architecture Description (AD) applies to the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture. It identifies all the elements of the UCS Architecture. It describes the UCS system-of-interest and environment, its stakeholders and their system concerns. It provides the rationale for significant architectural decisions. It describes the contributing views and models of the UCS Architecture, together with its governing architecture framework.
2016-01-02
Standard
AS6030A
This Common Interface Control Plan (CICP) establishes the methodology for developing, controlling, and managing the technical interfaces between and within systems. An interface defines the interaction at a defined point between entities to achieve a combined system capability. A common interface defines the shared interaction between multiple systems on either side of the interface. The document is not intended to directly control any other aspects of program management, such as matters of contractual, financial, or those of an intellectual property rights nature. Members in the interface control process include: procurement authorities, design authorities, and other related agencies as defined in the specific System Interface Control Plan (SICP). For the purposes of this plan, only the terms Procuring Organization and Producing Organization will be used. This plan is predicated upon formal agreements between participating organizations that provide: 1.
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