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2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2051
Andreas Himmler, Lars Stockmann, Dominik Holler
Abstract The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace industry, as also in other industries. One main reason is flexibility. Future laboratory tests means (LTMs) need to be easier to exchange and reuse than they are today. They may originate from different suppliers and parts of them may need to fulfill special requirements and thus be based on dedicated technologies. The desired exchangeability needs to be achieved although suppliers employ different technologies with regard to specific needs. To achieve interoperability, a standardized transport mechanism between test systems is required. Designing such a mechanism poses a challenge as there are several different types of data that have to be exchanged. Simulation data is a prominent example. It has to be handled differently than control data, for example. No one technique or technology fits perfectly for all types of data.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
Abstract This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment.
2016-08-25
WIP Standard
ARP6857
This recommended practice defines the technical requirements for a terrestrial based PNT system to improve unmanned vehicle navigation solutions and ensure critical infrastructure security.
2016-08-25
WIP Standard
ARP6856
This recommended practice provides users with the technical requirements and methods for accessing, viewing, and processing raw GNSS receiver measurements for improved unmanned vehicle navigation solutions.
2016-08-01
Magazine
Seeing the Light Achieving Full-Color, Day or Night Readability for Flat-Panel Displays Multiple Node Networking Using PCIe Interconnects PCI Express (PCIe) interconnects, and how they can be used to support multiple node low latency data transfers over copper or optical cables, is gaining momentum in embedded computing solutions. Zero-Emissions Electric Aircraft Theory vs Reality Analyzing Radar Signals With Demodulation Combining Software and Hardware for Highly Specialized Multichannel Spectrum Monitoring Advanced Thermal Management Solutions Thermoelectric Cooling Thermal Ground Planes Thermal Management of Laser Diodes The Effect of Substrate Emissivity on the Spectral Emission of a Hot-Gas Overlayer Process Approach to Determining Quality Inspection Deployment Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment Non-Contact Circuit for Real-Time Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements
2016-07-27
WIP Standard
J2945/12
This recommended practice will provide guidance on Traffic Probe Use data to manufacturers that are either Transportation System Management (TSM) core or aligned entities. The recommended practice originates from prior work of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Technical Committee, as well as existing practices implemented by industry, academia and government. The recommended practice informs manufacturers and practitioners of message use and operation within an automated collection system involved in the orchestration of safe, efficient, and reliable movement of people and goods. The recommended practice for Traffic Probe Use and Operation will support practitioners through the definition of message structure, on-board processing and storage requirements, the operational preservation of vehicle anonymity, and message event management criteria.
2016-07-01
Book
Eric Walter, Richard Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
2016-06-28
Standard
EIA511
The Manufacturing Message Specification is an application layer standard designed to support messaging communications to and from programmable devices in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. This environment is referred to in this standard as the manufacturing environment. This standard does not specify a complete set of services for remote programming of devices, although provision or such a set of services may be subject of future standardization efforts.
2016-06-02
WIP Standard
J2836/5
This SAE Information Report J2836/5™ establishes the use cases for communications between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and their customers. The use case scenarios define the information to be communicated related to customer convenience features for charge on/off control, charge power curtailment, customer preference settings, charging status, EVSE availability/access, and electricity usage. Also addresses customer information resulting from conflicts to customer charging preferences. This document only provides the use cases that define the communications requirements to enable customers to interact with the PEV and to optimize their experience with driving a Plug-In Electric Vehicle. Specifications such as protocols and physical transfer methods for communicating information are not within the scope of this document.
2016-05-05
WIP Standard
AS6523
This data dictionary provides a mathematically coherent set of definitions for quantity types used in data models for unmanned systems. In this data dictionary, a quantity is defined as a property of a phenomenon, substance, or body whose value has magnitude.
2016-05-03
WIP Standard
J1939/71
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates.
2016-04-26
WIP Standard
AS6386
This document, the JAUS Automated Behaviors and Diagnostics Service Set, defines a message-passing interface for services commonly found in mobile unmanned systems. These services represent the platform-independent capabilities common across all domains. Additional capabilities are specified in the JAUS Core Service Set (AS5710) and are frequently referenced herein.
2016-04-12
WIP Standard
AS5506C
(1) This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems; the language is known as the SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL). An AADL model describes a system as a hierarchy of components with their interfaces and their interconnections. Properties are associated to these constructions. AADL components fall into two major categories: those that represent the physical hardware and those representing the application software. The former is typified by processors, buses, memory, and devices, the latter by application software functions, data, threads, and processes. The model describes how these components interact and are integrated to form complete systems. It describes both functional interfaces and aspects critical for performance of individual components and assemblies of components.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/11
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the J2735 Signal Request and Signal Status messages in the standard relating to signalized systems status. It primary content will deal with explaining and demonstrating by small working examples how these messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. Particular attention will be paid to the interaction between the SAE work and the relevant NTCIP standards used in the signal control system. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a brief summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J2945/10
This effort will be a recommend best practices document outlining how to use the current MAP and SPAT message content found in the recently published J2735. It’s primary content will deal with better explaining and demonstrating by small working examples of how suitable messages are constructed and used to meet operational needs of user. [The SAE J2735 document, being a data dictionary and not a guide, allowed only a briefs summary of this sort of material.] The intended audience for this effort are those developing new deployment using these messages in connection with intersection safety applications. This will be a recommend practice, not a standard.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1461
William T. Neale, David Danaher, Sean McDonough, Tomas Owens
Abstract There are numerous publically available smart phone applications designed to track the speed and position of the user. By accessing the phones built in GPS receivers, these applications record the position over time of the phone and report the record on the phone itself, and typically on the application’s website. These applications range in cost from free to a few dollars, with some, that advertise greater functionality, costing significantly higher. This paper examines the reliability of the data reported through these applications, and the potential for these applications to be useful in certain conditions where monitoring and recording vehicle or pedestrian movement is needed. To analyze the reliability of the applications, three of the more popular and widely used tracking programs were downloaded to three different smart phones to represent a good spectrum of operating platforms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
Abstract The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
Abstract This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
Abstract While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging riders’ use of technologies (i.e., phones, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older riders (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study surveyed a convenience sample of typical motorcycle riders in the United States in order to provide an overview of the types of technologies that riders of different age groups use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, as well as rider demographics and riding habits. The sample included 97 riders (84 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (M= 50.9, SD= 10.6) who were divided into three age groups (under 40 years, between 40 and 50 years, 50 years and older).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
Abstract The number one priority in vehicle security is to harden the root-of-trust; from which everything else - the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security - is derived. If the root-of-trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root-of-trust will effectively be an encryption key - a digital signature for each vehicle - that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, formal analysis technique can be applied to ensure that this secure storage cannot (A) be read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real-world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology to secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0062
Anders Kallerdahl, Sherif Ali
Abstract Communication between electronic control units (ECUs) and vehicle gateways can span LIN, CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernet. Designing an in-vehicle network supporting multiple car platform variants, with respect to selecting the appropriate technology to connect ECUs and gateway networks, and making timing based analysis and synthesis is extremely challenging. This paper discusses how to handle a variety of communication protocols on an individual network level and how multiple networks relate to the overall communication design of a vehicle platform ensuring consistent variants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
Abstract/Short Version Introduction The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet [2] as the main invehicle network infrastructure is the technical foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2- footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influences also the used microcontrollers due the fact that a big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc.Figure 1 Motivation - Vehicles will become connected to uncontrolled networks The usage of Ethernet as the in-vehicle-network enables the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access (see Figure 1). This can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Abstract In this work, we analyze the use of the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus (and some of its potential variants) as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) from an ISO-26262 perspective and provide the reader with an analysis methodology to compare between a range of different LIN protocol configurations and benchmark them against Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) targets as defined in ISO-26262. A methodology for a quantitative residual failure probability analysis is shown before applying it to the standard LIN protocol. The residual failure rate in time (RF) of LIN (compliant with ISO26262) has been investigated with a range of reasonable application assumptions. This paper shows that a high bit error probability assumption of 3e-5 yields an RF of 3e-4/h which is too high to satisfy the assumed ASIL-B target (1e-7/h) or higher functional safety requirements in noisy application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0150
Felix Pistorius, Andreas Lauber, Johannes Pfau, Alexander Klimm, Juergen Becker
Abstract Various algorithms such as emergency brake or crash warning using V2X communication have been published recently. For such systems hard real-time constraints have to be satisfied. Therefore latency needs to be minimized to keep the message processing delay below a certain threshold. Existing V2X systems based on the IEEE 1609 and SAE J2735 standards implement most message processing in software. This means the latency of these systems strongly depends on the CPU load as well as the number of incoming messages per time. According to safety constraints all messages of nearby vehicles have to be processed, whereby no prediction of the message importance can be given without analyzing the message content. Regarding the aforementioned requirements we propose a novel architecture that optimizes latency to satisfy the hard real-time constraints for V2X messages.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0140
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Nicolai Thomsen, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract The use of smart portable devices in vehicles creates the possibility to record useful data and helps develop a better understanding of driving behavior. In the past few years the UTDrive mobile App (a.k.a MobileUTDrive) has been developed with the goal of improving driver/passenger safety, while simultaneously maintaining the ability to establish monitoring techniques that can be used on mobile devices on various vehicles. In this study, we extend the ability of MobileUTDrive to understand the impact on driver performance on public roads in the presence of distraction from speech/voice based tasks versus tactile/hands-on tasks. Drivers are asked to interact with the device in both voice-based and hands-on modalities and their reaction time and comfort level are logged. To evaluate the driving patterns while handling the device by speech/hand, the signals from device inertial sensors are retrieved and used to construct Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0500
Akira Kato, Masayuki Takano, Kohei Hase, Satoko Inuzuka, Toshiyuki Dobashi, Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, Nobuaki Takazawa
Abstract In this report, adhesion mechanism between epoxy resin and primer and between primer and Ni platting in Hybrid vehicle (HV) was investigated. Adhesion forces are thought to be a combination of mechanical bond forces (such as anchor effect), chemical bond forces and physical bond forces (such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals force). Currently there is insufficient understanding of the adhesion mechanism. In particular, the extent to which the three bond forces contribute to adhesion strength. So the adhesion mechanism of polyimide primers was analyzed using a number of different methods, including transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation, to determine the contributions of the three bonding forces. Molecular simulation was also used to investigate the relationship between adhesion strength and the molecular structure of the primer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0061
Anders Kallerdahl, Mohammad Salah
Abstract Increasingly, Ethernet is being used in automotive as a vehicle network backbone. It is ideal for service-oriented communications; streamed communications, such as Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) [1]; and Diagnostics over Internet Protocol (DoIP) [2] communications - areas in which high-bandwidth and reliable performance are essential. Designers are accustomed to network communication systems CAN, LIN, and FlexRay, but how will the timing performance be verified in an Ethernet network? This paper looks at network-wide timing analysis challenges where a mixture of CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernetbased busses co-exist. It is also worth noting that the AUTOSAR standard [3] supports timing definition for all elements in a mixed topology network, but again, accounting for the many different timing paths is a non-trivial process. Figure 1 The Ethernet backbone serving different domains.
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