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Viewing 1 to 30 of 97
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ping Zhong, Kang Zhang, Xu Chen, Yunlong Shi, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer. During the inspection procedure, a rotation invariance detection scheme based on circular projection matching algorithm has been used for fast recognizing and locating detected object with the help of these feature areas.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
George Shelly Lukose, S Paramasivam, M Vijayakumar
The switched reluctance motor (SRM) driver is receiving increasing attention from various researchers as well as industry as a viable for adjustable speed and servo applications. Combining the unique features of an SRM with simple and efficient power converter that in use, a superior motor drive system emerges which may be preferable for many applications compared to other AC or DC motor driver systems. Although a number of converters have emerged over the years for SRM drives, but every single driver has its own advantages and drawbacks and there has always been a trade-off between gaining something of the advantages and losing some when a new driver is offered. This paper presents a review of various research about SRM driver converters, for power quality and torque improvement, in last 20 years, in the area of modeling, simulation, static, dynamic analysis, different control schemes like power factor correction, quasi resonant switching, various demagnetization techniques for field current etc.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rupam Shrivastava, Thomas A. Keim
In some automotive electrical systems, it is advantageous to use power supplies and loads at two or more voltages. Often it is desirable to retain the single wire power architecture, with the car body providing the return circuit. A major difficulty in achieving this end is the matter of dealing with the possibility of a short circuit between feed wires at different voltages. It can be shown that source-side fuses cannot be relied upon to return the system to a safe state in all cases. Substantial effort was applied to this problem in the early years of the 21st century, but the results were less than completely satisfactory. Using entirely separate cable harnesses for each voltage, with physically separated routing, minimizes the risk of such a short occurring in the harness. However, the use of more than one harness imposes a substantial cost penalty, and this solution does not provide an answer for the case where the short occurs at or within a load being serviced by more than one voltage.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
Naushad Hussain, Jaikumar V, Mathew Abraham
DC/DC converters are switching regulator specially used for voltage level conversion application, and one of crucial entity for fuel cell. In absence of which fuel cell real world application is difficult to conceive. Numerous works have been contributed using PID controller to regulate the output voltage and improve DC/DC converter dynamic performance. Due to switching operation, nonlinearity causes complexity in DC/DC converter control. In present article, PID controller optimization for a DC/DC buck converter is devised specifically for fuel cell application. Linearization and averaging technique is employed to generate State Space Average Model (SSAM) of DC/DC buck converter. PID controller weight factor's reference value i.e. Kp, Ki and Kd are selected based on values obtained by traditional Ziegler-Nichols method. Fine-tuning of PID weight factors are accomplished using Genetic Algorithm. Based on system step response suitable performance-measuring function has been selected, for Genetic Algorithm.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Donald J. Kessler
This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility of utilizing commercial off the shelf (COTS) components to implement an optically linked embedded electromechanical actuator (EMA) for aircraft flight control. A joint 1990s USAF, USN, NASA Electrically Powered Actuator Design (EPAD) program sought to replace hydraulically powered aircraft actuators with those powered electrically, either Electrohydrostatic (EHA) or Electromechanical (EMA). A follow-on NASA research effort in 1992 sought to then replace the electrical control links associated with the EHA/EMA with fiber-optic technology [1][2]. Attempts at implementing an optically-linked EMA while successful, experienced technical challenges and exposed fundamental limitations and shortfalls in some of the COTS technologies available at that time. Owing to limited availability of suitable COTS components, development of optically controlled EMAs has necessitated development and application of custom technologies necessary primarily to satisfy the rigors of the EMA environment.
Technical Paper
2009-06-09
Natsuki Miyata, Masaaki Mochimaru
This paper proposes a method using a limited number of measured postures to estimate the hand posture necessary to push a button on an automobile steering wheel by the thumb tip. The estimation is divided into two processes. First, the approximate posture to push a button is calculated by interpolation using measured reference postures. Then, the posture estimate is optimized so that the thumb tip reaches a given goal as nearly as possible. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by comparing the estimated postures with measured ones that are not used as reference postures.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
Fred Potter, Michael Ballas, Tom Supples
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
P. S. Venkataramu, T. Ananthapadmanabha, Prabhakar Karthikeyan, Jacob Raglend
Abstract Distribution System Automation (DSA) is being carried out very seriously world over to enhance the reliability of the system and to minimize the huge losses that are occurring in the Distribution System. Feeder Reconfiguration (FR) is an important sub-problem of the over all distribution system automation process. Basic concept of feeder reconfiguration is to arrive at the best set of sectionalizing switches to be opened for a given set of tie switch such that the system performance is enhanced. In this paper a novel criterion is developed based on the slope of the curve between the feeder losses verses receiving end voltage. Application of this criterion results in the most minimal loss configuration for any given loading condition. A general MATLAB program is developed to obtain the best switching option. The results have been validated by comparison with the civinlar's loss reduction method.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
S. Lloyd, N. Morcov
In this paper a method of predicting the power dissipation in a hybrid Silicon Carbide IGBT power module using primarily the information available from the datasheet is shown. Mathematical modeling of the switching device is accomplished using MathCAD for the purpose of power dissipation calculation. The power dissipated is calculated on a pulse-by-pulse basis to allow for any arbitrary waveform to be studied. The mathematical model is validated by way of comparing the results with the power dissipation results calculated by manufacturer's proprietary software.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
Victor Veliadis, Harold Hearne, Ty McNutt, Megan Snook, Paul Potyraj, Aivars Lelis, Charles Scozzie
Vertical-Junction-Field-Effect-Transistors (VJFETs) are currently the most mature SiC devices for high power/temperature switching. High-voltage VJFETs are typically designed normally-on to ensure voltage control operation at high current-gain. However, to exploit the high voltage/temperature capabilities of VJFETs in a normally-off high-current voltage-controlled switch, high-voltage normally-on and low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were connected in the cascode configuration. In this paper, we review the high temperature DC characteristics of VJFETs and 1200 V normally-off cascode switches. The measured parameter shifts in the 25°C to 300°C temperature range are in excellent agreement with theory, confirming fabrication of robust SiC VJFETs and cascode switches.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Inseok Park, Doowon Choe, Hyounghoon Lee, Kangyoon Lee, Myoungho Sunwoo, Yunkee Lee, Kyoungmin Lee, Hyunmin Cho, Yeongik Yoo
Electromechanical relays that are coupled with fuses have been used for controlling electrical loads in vehicles. In the past decade, semiconductor power switches have been developed for overcoming the physical limits of relays and fuses. Semiconductor power switches can not only replace relays and fuses but can also improve a system's reliability and efficiency. In this study, we introduce the Smart Automotive Switch (SAS), which is a smart high side power switch of Fairchild Korea semiconductor. Functional capabilities, such as power switching, protection and self-diagnosis of SASs are presented in case studies involving, for example, headlights, glow plugs, and fuel pump control systems. Through these experimental studies, the suitability of SASs is validated for designing improved automotive electronic control systems.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Takatoshi Takikawa, Mathew E. Hargett
Power relays for mounting on printed circuit boards with just half of the case volume compared to low-profile ISO microrelays were tested in repetitious switching load operations. Operation voltage was 14 V and relay temperature was 120 °C. The tests for normally open type relays used lamps (11A) and horns (8A), and those for transfer (changeover) type relays used wiper motors (8.5A, intermittent operation). First failure cycles in each of the 10 relay tests were found to be of sufficiently high value, 2.2 million for lamps, 3.3 million for horns, and 2.4 million for wiper motors. Cycles at cumulative failure rates determined that the durability margins of the relays were acceptable for use.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Hiroaki Kosaka, Kyosuke Uematsu, Akira Kurosaki, Hirokazu Nishitani, Masaki Tada, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Kouichi Santo, Fumiyasu Konno
In this paper, we discuss the operational convenience and safe driving when operating a human-machine interface (HMI) while driving on a virtual expressway. We previously conducted an experiment to evaluate a center-cluster panel switch and two prototypes of new HMI with a head-up display (HUD) and steering wheel switch (SWS) in which the participant followed a lead vehicle on an expressway by using a driving simulator (DS). We also conducted another experiment to evaluate these new HMIs when a driver operating an HMI encountered a sudden danger while driving. However, in these previous experiments, the number of switch pushes was not the same for each HMI. In this study, we compared the participants' switch operation performance, eye movement, and reaction to sudden danger in the new experimental condition, where the number of switch pushes is the same for each HMI, with those of the previous work.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Alfons Graf
In addition to basic switching functionality, smart power switches mainly provide diagnostic and protection functions, e.g. for short circuits to the load, which makes it all the more surprising that short circuit protected smart switches have been used for years in automotive applications without there being a precise definition of a short circuit. This article describes what Infineon has done to fill this gap. It was first necessary to define the kind of short circuits likely to occur in automotive applications and to specify the use and operating points of the smart switches. The next logical step was the standardization of the test circuit and application conditions in the AEC (Automotive Electronics Council) to allow an industry-wide comparison of the test results. On this basis, extensive characterization testing was carried out on existing and new smart power switches, and supplementary specifications were written for repetitive short circuits, specifically in terms of the number of cycles and operating life.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Dumitru M. Beloiu
Fast and accurate characterization of stability regions and operational range with respect to pull-in voltage and displacement is critical in the design and development of MEMS resonators and switches. This paper presents a mathematical and computational procedure for modeling and analysis of static and dynamic instabilities of capacitive microdevices employing resonant microbeams. The mathematical model consists of a nonlinear microbeam under distributed electrostatic actuation and squeeze film damping. The coupled system is described by the nonlinear beam equation and a modified compressible Reynolds equation to account for the rarefied gas in the narrow gap between the microbeam and substrate. The Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is used to discretize partial differential equations of motion and solve for static deflection, natural frequencies, static pull-in voltage, and quality factors for various encapsulation air pressures and applied DC voltages. A reduced order model is employed to study the dynamics of the microbeam under combined DC and AC voltages.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Raed S. Shatara
This paper presents a cost-effective receiver system utilizing dual tuner antenna diversity. There are two modes of operation. In mode 1, the system is in phase diversity where two tuners operate harmoniously to minimize severe multipath distortion using beam pointing. In mode 2, the two tuners operate independently while still achieving reception improvement through intelligent antenna switching. This mode uses one tuner with two antenna switched diversity while the second tuner performs background processing. An advantage of this dual tuner architecture is the ability to provide concurrent multipath distortion reduction and background processing. An example of a digital FM receiver which embodies these functions is described.
Technical Paper
2006-11-07
Bruce R. Geil, Stephen B. Bayne, Heather O'Brien
For fast rise time, high peak current pulse power applications, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is ideal due to its ability to tolerate high localized temperatures generated during switching. Several 4 mm × 4 mm SiC Gate Turn-Off thyristors (GTOs) manufactured by CREE were evaluated. Testing for individual and paired devices was performed under both single and repetitive pulsing using variable pulse duration, ring-down capacitor discharge circuit. At 150 °C, maximum single shot currents as high as 3.2 kA have been shown for single devices at a 50% pulse width of 2 μsec while parallel devices have shown a maximum of 4.4 kA at 150 °C.
Technical Paper
2006-07-17
Roger R. Riehl
The development of LHPs for space applications have shown the possibility of using them in several ground applications, such as water heating systems, electronics cooling, etc. Some issues related to the use of LHPs rely on their design and development depending on the required use. In this case, the most indicated configuration for their reliable operation will depend on the correct selection of working fluid, materials and configuration regarding the maximum heat management requirement. This paper presents what has been developed in this institute regarding the LHP technology, which includes devices for electronics cooling operating at its classical design (one evaporator and condenser), reversible, ramified and miniature LHPs. The results obtained have shown the great potential in using LHPs as passive thermal control devices. Continuous development have shown that the LHPs can promote a reliable control of the heat source temperature within the required designed limits, even when considering the issue of miniaturizing these devices.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Hongxing Hu, Jie Chen, Junichi Yukawa, Leah Luo, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Masashi Tada, Kiyotaka Sasanouchi, Kouichi Santo, Katsu Saito, Yasushi Ishiai, Ted Cates
A new human machine interface (HMI) switch control concept was proposed and evaluated with a driver simulator-based simulation analysis as described in the study of Kiyotaka Sasanouchi [1]. This new concept provides an integrated interface for the vehicle driver to operate on-board devices such as audio, multimedia, HVAC, and navigation systems. To further study and evaluate the benefits of the new concept and more importantly the detailed design factors, a prototype system has been developed and then installed in a production vehicle. The experience learned through this development project is presented in this paper. Some key design issues are addressed, including the multi-functional switch design, menu tree optimization, visual feedback display presentation, and vehicle system interface. Results from an internal customer test ride and survey are also presented to demonstrate the performance and benefits of the new HMI concept design. To further improve functionality of the HMI switch control, a touch pad switch with finger writing input and character recognition capability has also been developed.
Technical Paper
2005-11-01
Martin Pölöskey
Harmonization of systems and components leads to platform strategies within the truck industry as already known from the automotive industry. With respect to the Electrical- and Electronic Distribution System (EEDS) the investigations are focusing on common electrical systems and components, i.e. ECUs, sensors, actors, switches and connectors, to be used as carry-over parts in order to increase the volume and the quality and to reduce the cost. This investigation shows the different aspects and requirements on electronics and the Electrical Distribution System (EDS) within a communized electrical power supply. Finally a recommendation for best practices based on a currently available technology is given.
Technical Paper
2005-10-23
Ealgoo Kim, Taeyeon Lee, Hakbong Kim, Shiva Krishna, William Peng, Kison Lee, Seomun Jin, Jaehong Park, Koojung Lee, Sunsuk Ok, Jangdon Choi
Currently Intelligent Power Switch (IPS) is substituting the fuse and relay in automotive electronic systems due to its simplicity in design, assembly, and maintenance as well as its advantages of cost reduction. As the percentage of IPS in automotive power system gets higher, the stability and credibility of the automotive power system depends more by IPS evaluation. Since IPS is semiconductor device, the performance is more influenced by its ambient temperature than replacing fuses and relays. As reliability is one of the most important characteristics in automotive system, wire protection, over-current protection, and short-circuit protection should be considered. The evaluation algorithm of IPS must include these characteristics. This paper describes the algorithm development of effective IPS (Intelligent Power Switch) evaluation software for automotive applications. The algorithm is fast and straightforward by adopting I-t characteristic of IPS, loads, and wires rather than time-domain simulation.
Technical Paper
2005-07-11
E. A. Kurmazenko, N. M. Samsonov, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov, Ju. E. Belavencev, N. V. Pavlova, V. Ju. Proshkin, S. Ju. Romanov, A. G. Geleznyakov, A. M. Ryabkin, G. A. Lyubimov, O. V. Kirushin
The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed. The serviceability restoration technique for the Electron-VM's key unit (the liquid unit) has been developed and tested under manned flight conditions.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Kiyotaka Sasanouchi, Yasushi Ishiai, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Junichi Yukawa, Austin Hu
Recently, more and more advanced and sophisticated systems have been equipped on a vehicle for greater driving comfort and convenience. When operating these systems during the driving, however, the driver tends to be induced by the distractive behavior and also his/her workload will be increased. Various methods have been investigated and implemented as solution to this problem, but analysis showed that the driver distraction is still an issue of concern and thus the operation safety remains as a critical problem. To address such kind of problems, a new HMI system concept is proposed and evaluated in this study. This new HMI concept essentially is a remote switch control unit, located on steering wheel, incorporating with a head up display (HUD) for interactive communication. A PC based prototype model was developed for the concept demonstration. Results from driver simulator study show that it can be a human machine interface solution with the features of multi-functional integration and safer for operating.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Naoki Kamiya, Shuichi Takeuchi, Takashi Shinzato, Takashi Suzuki
In this paper we propose a new multi-functional steering wheel switch for HVAC and audio systems. This new switch has five buttons on the front side of the spoke area and one button with vibration on the backside of it. Drivers can operate either HVAC or audio functions with the front switches, and HVAC or audio mode can be alternatively selected by pressing the back switch. Since different vibration modes are assigned for the HVAC and audio mode, drivers can also easily recognize which function can be operated. By changing the assignment of the mode in this way, the switch can operate more than 10 functions with 6 buttons allocated on the spoke area. Several kinds of evaluations were performed in order to develop this multi-functional switch. At first, to optimize the positions of the buttons, the behaviors of thumbs and fingers were measured. Also the physical workload of the thumb motion and middle fingers' postures was evaluated when subjects operated the switches. Secondly, tactile sensibility of humans was investigated, and sensory evaluations concerned with vibration sensitivity were performed to decide the specification of the vibration.
Technical Paper
2004-11-02
R. L. Boeckman, G. A. Schaffter
Normal power interruptions on aircraft electrical systems cause myriad problems in modern cockpits, ranging from excessive workload on the crew to equipment anomalies and even malfunctions that affect mission readiness. Power interruptions can cause sensitive electronic equipment, from mission equipment computers to navigational avionics, to drop off-line, requiring rebooting and resetting. This paper describes a qualified, production-released power switch that ensures a dedicated electrical bus for sensitive electronics.
Technical Paper
2004-11-02
Juri Jatskevich, Eric A. Walters, Charles E. Lucas, Peter T. Lamm
In this paper, a parametric average-value modeling approach is applied to a high-frequency six-phase aircraft generation subsystem. This approach utilizes a detailed switch-level model of the system to numerically establish the averaged dynamic relationships between the ac inputs of the rectifier and the dc-link outputs. A comparison between the average-value and detailed models is presented, wherein, the average-value model is shown to accurately portray both the large-signal time-domain transients and the small-signal frequency-domain characteristics. Since the discontinuous switching events are not present in the average-value model, significant gains can be realized in the computational performance. For the study system, the developed average-value simulation executed more than two orders of magnitude faster than the detailed simulation.
Technical Paper
2004-10-18
Carl Hu, Kim Gauen
Current vehicle wiring harness design is foundationally affected by several key requirements. One of these, the need for a single or small number of co-located circuit protection centers, dictates the topology that most vehicles in production today use. By relaxing this requirement through the use of relatively new semiconductor devices, a fundamentally different wiring topology can be realized, one that has superior weight characteristics and a less wire intensive topology. This paper will discuss the requirements on the semiconductor devices necessary to fulfill this requirement and the market implications of the overall approach.
Technical Paper
2004-10-18
Thomas A. Keim
A few years ago, the automobile industry agreed to adopt standards for a new voltage for the production and use of electrical power. The perception was near universal that 14 Volts was at the limits of its capability, and that 42 Volts would be adopted in a rush. The universal perception was wrong. Since then, much of the auto industry has encountered hard financial times. In a totally separate development, parts suppliers introduced innovations at 14 Volts, some of which a few years ago were thought to require 42 Volts. Today, there are 42-Volt cars and trucks for sale, but only at numbers far lower than necessary to begin to achieve economies of scale. But the factor which caused the industry to develop the 42 Volt standard, the growth of electricity use on motor vehicles, continues with no sign of letup. Further, the true technical obstacles to adoption of 42 Volts have been discovered and at least provisionally solved. The way forward to cost-effective solutions for advanced automobiles is clearer today than it was in the past.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Christophe Ramstein, Henry da Costa, Danny Grant
Haptics refers to the sense of touch. The challenge of designing and integrating high-quality programmable haptic interfaces requires technical knowledge, usability experience and software tools. This paper provides design guidelines for software tools intended to facilitate the design and integration of programmable haptic controls and describes a suite of fundamental tools to which the design guidelines have been applied. Immersion Studio® for Automotive (ISA) is a user-friendly software application for interactively designing and programming haptic sensations. ISA supports a large variety of devices including 1D and 2D force feedback devices. Together with the Immersion API for Automotive and firmware, ISA constitutes the basis for creating high-quality programmable haptic systems.
Technical Paper
2002-07-15
Michael Pauken, Eric Sunada, Keith Novak, Charles Phillips, Gajanana Birur, Kurt Lankford
A paraffin-actuated heat switch has been developed for thermal control of the batteries used on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers. The heat switch is used to reject heat from the rover battery to a radiator. This paper describes the development test program designed, in part, to measure the thermal conductance of the heat switch in an 8 Torr CO2 environment over the expected operating temperature range of the battery. The switch has a closed conductance of about 0.6 W/°C and an open conductance of 0.019 W/°C. The test program also included measuring the battery temperature profile over a hot case and a cold case Mars diurnal cycle. The test results confirm that the battery will remain well within the upper and lower allowable flight temperatures in both cases.
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