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Viewing 1 to 30 of 105
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1641
Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb, Leonard Gysen
The mandatory usage of fuses within the electrical distribution system (EDS) has a strong impact on the cross section of the connected wires and thus on the weight and required amount of material, especially of copper. Currently, circuit breakers and, in most cases, thermal fuses are used due to their low cost and robust design. However, for future EDS architectures, the implementation of fuses using solid state switches is being considered for several reasons, e.g. resetability, diagnosis, smaller tolerances, and reduced dependancies on ambient temperature, arcing, or pulse sequences. In addition, there can be advantages on the system level, especially for higher voltages or in combination with other switch-based functionalities such as pulse width modulation, power multiplexing, or substitution of relays. Until now, smart solid state switches only emulate the behavior of thermal fuses and are therefore based on a fixed time-current data set.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1227
Ali Najmabadi, Michael Kress, Brett Dryer, Ahmad Arshan Khan
This paper studies different switching schemes for loss reduction in a traction motor drive. The system under examination is composed of a battery, a 2 level Voltage Source Inverter, and an Interior Permanent Magnet motor. Discontinuous PWM (DPWM) control strategy is widely used in this type of motor drive for the reduction of losses. In some publications, the effect of the DPWM modulation scheme is compared to the reduction of the switching frequency which can also cause a reduction in switching losses of the inverter. Extensive studies have examined the effect of variation of the switching frequency on the motor and inverter losses. However, the effect of applying both switching schemes simultaneously has not been explored. This paper will use a system that is operated at a fixed switching frequency as the baseline. Afterwards, three different switching schemes will be studied and compared to the baseline.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1247
Mohammed Khorshed Alam, Lihua Chen, Yan Zhou, Fan Xu, Shuitao Yang
Direct bypass to DC-DC boost converter in traction inverter increases converter’s capability and efficiency significantly by providing a lower loss path for power flow between the battery and DC-link terminal. A bypass using diode is an excellent solution to achieve this capability at low cost and system complexity. The bypass diode operates in the linear operating region (DC Q-point) when the battery discharges through the bypass diode to drive the electric motors. Therefore, thermal stress on the DC-link capacitor is shared between the input and DC-link capacitors through the bypass diode. Inverters introduce voltage oscillation in the DC-link terminal during battery charging through regenerative operation and results in unwanted power oscillation through the bypass diode. Both of these phenomena have been investigated in details.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1243
Yan Zhou, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang, Fan Xu, Mohammed Khorshed Alam
Abstract: The gate driver design in traction inverter application needs to consider worst case scenarios which adversely limit the semiconductor devices’ switching speed in its most frequent operation regions. Specifically, when selecting the gate resistors, the IGBT/Diode peak surge voltage induced by fast di/dt and stray inductance must be limited below the device rated voltage under any conditions. The worst cases that have to be considered include both highest dc bus voltage and peak load current. However, the traction inverter operates mainly in low current regions and at bus voltage much lower than the worst case voltage. This paper proposes a low-cost and simple gate driver circuit that can actively adjust the turn-off switching speed based on IGBT current levels. The proposed circuit utilizes the IGBT mirror current sensing pin which is widely used in current generation traction inverters. When the current is low, the switching is speeded up to minimize loss.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Massarotti, Pietro Marani, Carlo Ferraresi
Abstract Losses reduction and oil flow optimization management in construction machines and, in general, in heavy duty vehicles are two of the most challenging missions of today fluid power research. One of the most promising ideas is to implement multiple hydraulic power sources but this requires a flexible pump switch system; in fact, depending on flow request and machine mode, one or more pumps can be switched to serve each actuator. To put into practice these concepts it is necessary to in-depth design the distribution system, through which hydrostatic transmissions supply the different loads. The new component here presented realizes the pump switch management, creating a matrix framework of the hydraulic flow connections. Putting this concept it into practice the new architecture is able to connect alternatively a pump to one actuator at a time providing also for cross connections, enabling different sources flow summation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2522
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke, Perry Rucker
Abstract VPX, as a switched fabric, supports the design of advanced integrated systems using technologies such as deterministic Ethernet. Deterministic Ethernet can be used in backplane and backbone applications. In cases where functional interrelationships and Ethernet network bandwidth sharing is deterministic and all logical links among critical function have configurable quality of service with guaranteed timing, the complexity challenges in design of advanced integrated architectures can be much simpler to handle and mitigate. VPX switches in 3/6U format with ARINC664 and SAE AS6802 services enable deterministic integration of many critical functions hosted on common embedded computing and networking resources. Both ARINC664 (asynchronous real-time) and SAE AS6802 (synchronous hard real-time), as Layer 2 enhancements, do not affect existing Ethernet services.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel J. Costinett, Fred Wang
Abstract A cost-effective SiC based hybrid switch and an improved inductor design procedure for boost converter in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are presented in this paper. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. The operation of the hybrid switch is tested in double pulse test experiment and compared with the single IGBT. Additionally, the boost inductor design is discussed, which allows the optimization of weight and power loss across different core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. Both the powder material and nanocrystalline material are considered in the inductor design procedure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0831
Ping Zhong, Kang Zhang, Xu Chen, Yunlong Shi, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1881
George Shelly Lukose, S Paramasivam, M Vijayakumar
The switched reluctance motor (SRM) driver is receiving increasing attention from various researchers as well as industry as a viable for adjustable speed and servo applications. Combining the unique features of an SRM with simple and efficient power converter that in use, a superior motor drive system emerges which may be preferable for many applications compared to other AC or DC motor driver systems. Although a number of converters have emerged over the years for SRM drives, but every single driver has its own advantages and drawbacks and there has always been a trade-off between gaining something of the advantages and losing some when a new driver is offered.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0244
Rupam Shrivastava, Thomas A. Keim
In some automotive electrical systems, it is advantageous to use power supplies and loads at two or more voltages. Often it is desirable to retain the single wire power architecture, with the car body providing the return circuit. A major difficulty in achieving this end is the matter of dealing with the possibility of a short circuit between feed wires at different voltages. It can be shown that source-side fuses cannot be relied upon to return the system to a safe state in all cases. Substantial effort was applied to this problem in the early years of the 21st century, but the results were less than completely satisfactory. Using entirely separate cable harnesses for each voltage, with physically separated routing, minimizes the risk of such a short occurring in the harness.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2874
Naushad Hussain, Jaikumar V, Mathew Abraham
DC/DC converters are switching regulator specially used for voltage level conversion application, and one of crucial entity for fuel cell. In absence of which fuel cell real world application is difficult to conceive. Numerous works have been contributed using PID controller to regulate the output voltage and improve DC/DC converter dynamic performance. Due to switching operation, nonlinearity causes complexity in DC/DC converter control. In present article, PID controller optimization for a DC/DC buck converter is devised specifically for fuel cell application. Linearization and averaging technique is employed to generate State Space Average Model (SSAM) of DC/DC buck converter. PID controller weight factor's reference value i.e. Kp, Ki and Kd are selected based on values obtained by traditional Ziegler-Nichols method. Fine-tuning of PID weight factors are accomplished using Genetic Algorithm.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2238
Donald J. Kessler
This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility of utilizing commercial off the shelf (COTS) components to implement an optically linked embedded electromechanical actuator (EMA) for aircraft flight control. A joint 1990s USAF, USN, NASA Electrically Powered Actuator Design (EPAD) program sought to replace hydraulically powered aircraft actuators with those powered electrically, either Electrohydrostatic (EHA) or Electromechanical (EMA). A follow-on NASA research effort in 1992 sought to then replace the electrical control links associated with the EHA/EMA with fiber-optic technology [1][2]. Attempts at implementing an optically-linked EMA while successful, experienced technical challenges and exposed fundamental limitations and shortfalls in some of the COTS technologies available at that time.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2285
Natsuki Miyata, Masaaki Mochimaru
This paper proposes a method using a limited number of measured postures to estimate the hand posture necessary to push a button on an automobile steering wheel by the thumb tip. The estimation is divided into two processes. First, the approximate posture to push a button is calculated by interpolation using measured reference postures. Then, the posture estimate is optimized so that the thumb tip reaches a given goal as nearly as possible. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by comparing the estimated postures with measured ones that are not used as reference postures.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2913
S. Lloyd, N. Morcov
In this paper a method of predicting the power dissipation in a hybrid Silicon Carbide IGBT power module using primarily the information available from the datasheet is shown. Mathematical modeling of the switching device is accomplished using MathCAD for the purpose of power dissipation calculation. The power dissipated is calculated on a pulse-by-pulse basis to allow for any arbitrary waveform to be studied. The mathematical model is validated by way of comparing the results with the power dissipation results calculated by manufacturer's proprietary software.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2916
P. S. Venkataramu, T. Ananthapadmanabha, Prabhakar Karthikeyan, Jacob Raglend
Abstract Distribution System Automation (DSA) is being carried out very seriously world over to enhance the reliability of the system and to minimize the huge losses that are occurring in the Distribution System. Feeder Reconfiguration (FR) is an important sub-problem of the over all distribution system automation process. Basic concept of feeder reconfiguration is to arrive at the best set of sectionalizing switches to be opened for a given set of tie switch such that the system performance is enhanced. In this paper a novel criterion is developed based on the slope of the curve between the feeder losses verses receiving end voltage. Application of this criterion results in the most minimal loss configuration for any given loading condition. A general MATLAB program is developed to obtain the best switching option. The results have been validated by comparison with the civinlar's loss reduction method.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2880
Fred Potter, Michael Ballas, Tom Supples
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
2008-11-11
Journal Article
2008-01-2883
Victor Veliadis, Harold Hearne, Ty McNutt, Megan Snook, Paul Potyraj, Aivars Lelis, Charles Scozzie
Vertical-Junction-Field-Effect-Transistors (VJFETs) are currently the most mature SiC devices for high power/temperature switching. High-voltage VJFETs are typically designed normally-on to ensure voltage control operation at high current-gain. However, to exploit the high voltage/temperature capabilities of VJFETs in a normally-off high-current voltage-controlled switch, high-voltage normally-on and low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were connected in the cascode configuration. In this paper, we review the high temperature DC characteristics of VJFETs and 1200 V normally-off cascode switches. The measured parameter shifts in the 25°C to 300°C temperature range are in excellent agreement with theory, confirming fabrication of robust SiC VJFETs and cascode switches.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0711
Takatoshi Takikawa, Mathew E. Hargett
Power relays for mounting on printed circuit boards with just half of the case volume compared to low-profile ISO microrelays were tested in repetitious switching load operations. Operation voltage was 14 V and relay temperature was 120 °C. The tests for normally open type relays used lamps (11A) and horns (8A), and those for transfer (changeover) type relays used wiper motors (8.5A, intermittent operation). First failure cycles in each of the 10 relay tests were found to be of sufficiently high value, 2.2 million for lamps, 3.3 million for horns, and 2.4 million for wiper motors. Cycles at cumulative failure rates determined that the durability margins of the relays were acceptable for use.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1032
Inseok Park, Doowon Choe, Hyounghoon Lee, Kangyoon Lee, Myoungho Sunwoo, Yunkee Lee, Kyoungmin Lee, Hyunmin Cho, Yeongik Yoo
Electromechanical relays that are coupled with fuses have been used for controlling electrical loads in vehicles. In the past decade, semiconductor power switches have been developed for overcoming the physical limits of relays and fuses. Semiconductor power switches can not only replace relays and fuses but can also improve a system's reliability and efficiency. In this study, we introduce the Smart Automotive Switch (SAS), which is a smart high side power switch of Fairchild Korea semiconductor. Functional capabilities, such as power switching, protection and self-diagnosis of SASs are presented in case studies involving, for example, headlights, glow plugs, and fuel pump control systems. Through these experimental studies, the suitability of SASs is validated for designing improved automotive electronic control systems.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0559
Hiroaki Kosaka, Kyosuke Uematsu, Akira Kurosaki, Hirokazu Nishitani, Masaki Tada, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Kouichi Santo, Fumiyasu Konno
In this paper, we discuss the operational convenience and safe driving when operating a human-machine interface (HMI) while driving on a virtual expressway. We previously conducted an experiment to evaluate a center-cluster panel switch and two prototypes of new HMI with a head-up display (HUD) and steering wheel switch (SWS) in which the participant followed a lead vehicle on an expressway by using a driving simulator (DS). We also conducted another experiment to evaluate these new HMIs when a driver operating an HMI encountered a sudden danger while driving. However, in these previous experiments, the number of switch pushes was not the same for each HMI. In this study, we compared the participants' switch operation performance, eye movement, and reaction to sudden danger in the new experimental condition, where the number of switch pushes is the same for each HMI, with those of the previous work.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0719
Alfons Graf
In addition to basic switching functionality, smart power switches mainly provide diagnostic and protection functions, e.g. for short circuits to the load, which makes it all the more surprising that short circuit protected smart switches have been used for years in automotive applications without there being a precise definition of a short circuit. This article describes what Infineon has done to fill this gap. It was first necessary to define the kind of short circuits likely to occur in automotive applications and to specify the use and operating points of the smart switches. The next logical step was the standardization of the test circuit and application conditions in the AEC (Automotive Electronics Council) to allow an industry-wide comparison of the test results.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0915
Dumitru M. Beloiu
Fast and accurate characterization of stability regions and operational range with respect to pull-in voltage and displacement is critical in the design and development of MEMS resonators and switches. This paper presents a mathematical and computational procedure for modeling and analysis of static and dynamic instabilities of capacitive microdevices employing resonant microbeams. The mathematical model consists of a nonlinear microbeam under distributed electrostatic actuation and squeeze film damping. The coupled system is described by the nonlinear beam equation and a modified compressible Reynolds equation to account for the rarefied gas in the narrow gap between the microbeam and substrate. The Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is used to discretize partial differential equations of motion and solve for static deflection, natural frequencies, static pull-in voltage, and quality factors for various encapsulation air pressures and applied DC voltages.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1059
Raed S. Shatara
This paper presents a cost-effective receiver system utilizing dual tuner antenna diversity. There are two modes of operation. In mode 1, the system is in phase diversity where two tuners operate harmoniously to minimize severe multipath distortion using beam pointing. In mode 2, the two tuners operate independently while still achieving reception improvement through intelligent antenna switching. This mode uses one tuner with two antenna switched diversity while the second tuner performs background processing. An advantage of this dual tuner architecture is the ability to provide concurrent multipath distortion reduction and background processing. An example of a digital FM receiver which embodies these functions is described.
2006-11-07
Technical Paper
2006-01-3106
Bruce R. Geil, Stephen B. Bayne, Heather O'Brien
For fast rise time, high peak current pulse power applications, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is ideal due to its ability to tolerate high localized temperatures generated during switching. Several 4 mm × 4 mm SiC Gate Turn-Off thyristors (GTOs) manufactured by CREE were evaluated. Testing for individual and paired devices was performed under both single and repetitive pulsing using variable pulse duration, ring-down capacitor discharge circuit. At 150 °C, maximum single shot currents as high as 3.2 kA have been shown for single devices at a 50% pulse width of 2 μsec while parallel devices have shown a maximum of 4.4 kA at 150 °C.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2169
Roger R. Riehl
The development of LHPs for space applications have shown the possibility of using them in several ground applications, such as water heating systems, electronics cooling, etc. Some issues related to the use of LHPs rely on their design and development depending on the required use. In this case, the most indicated configuration for their reliable operation will depend on the correct selection of working fluid, materials and configuration regarding the maximum heat management requirement. This paper presents what has been developed in this institute regarding the LHP technology, which includes devices for electronics cooling operating at its classical design (one evaporator and condenser), reversible, ramified and miniature LHPs. The results obtained have shown the great potential in using LHPs as passive thermal control devices.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0815
Hongxing Hu, Jie Chen, Junichi Yukawa, Leah Luo, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Masashi Tada, Kiyotaka Sasanouchi, Kouichi Santo, Katsu Saito, Yasushi Ishiai, Ted Cates
A new human machine interface (HMI) switch control concept was proposed and evaluated with a driver simulator-based simulation analysis as described in the study of Kiyotaka Sasanouchi [1]. This new concept provides an integrated interface for the vehicle driver to operate on-board devices such as audio, multimedia, HVAC, and navigation systems. To further study and evaluate the benefits of the new concept and more importantly the detailed design factors, a prototype system has been developed and then installed in a production vehicle. The experience learned through this development project is presented in this paper. Some key design issues are addressed, including the multi-functional switch design, menu tree optimization, visual feedback display presentation, and vehicle system interface. Results from an internal customer test ride and survey are also presented to demonstrate the performance and benefits of the new HMI concept design.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3585
Martin Pölöskey
Harmonization of systems and components leads to platform strategies within the truck industry as already known from the automotive industry. With respect to the Electrical- and Electronic Distribution System (EEDS) the investigations are focusing on common electrical systems and components, i.e. ECUs, sensors, actors, switches and connectors, to be used as carry-over parts in order to increase the volume and the quality and to reduce the cost. This investigation shows the different aspects and requirements on electronics and the Electrical Distribution System (EDS) within a communized electrical power supply. Finally a recommendation for best practices based on a currently available technology is given.
2005-10-23
Technical Paper
2005-26-303
Ealgoo Kim, Taeyeon Lee, Hakbong Kim, Shiva Krishna, William Peng, Kison Lee, Seomun Jin, Jaehong Park, Koojung Lee, Sunsuk Ok, Jangdon Choi
Currently Intelligent Power Switch (IPS) is substituting the fuse and relay in automotive electronic systems due to its simplicity in design, assembly, and maintenance as well as its advantages of cost reduction. As the percentage of IPS in automotive power system gets higher, the stability and credibility of the automotive power system depends more by IPS evaluation. Since IPS is semiconductor device, the performance is more influenced by its ambient temperature than replacing fuses and relays. As reliability is one of the most important characteristics in automotive system, wire protection, over-current protection, and short-circuit protection should be considered. The evaluation algorithm of IPS must include these characteristics. This paper describes the algorithm development of effective IPS (Intelligent Power Switch) evaluation software for automotive applications.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2803
E. A. Kurmazenko, N. M. Samsonov, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov, Ju. E. Belavencev, N. V. Pavlova, V. Ju. Proshkin, S. Ju. Romanov, A. G. Geleznyakov, A. M. Ryabkin, G. A. Lyubimov, O. V. Kirushin
The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed.
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